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of america 

Charlotte Tbomson Iseiliyt 



of america 

A Chronological Paper Trail 

by Charlotte Thomson Iserbyt 


Ravenna, Ohio 

Copyright 1999. Conscience Press. All rights reserved. 
First printing, September 1999 
Second printing, February 2000 

Published in 1999. 

Printed in the United States of America. 

Acid-free paper. Archival quality. 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 98-89726 
ISBN: 0-9667071-0-9 

Conscience Press • P.O. Box 449 • Ravenna, Ohio • 44266-0449 

Printed by The Athens Printing Company, Athens, Georgia 

Graphic design by Colin Leshe 

Cover design by 3-D Research Company 

Index compiled by Kari Miller 

Cartoons created by Joel Pett, Herald Leader of Lexington, Kentucky 

This book is dedicated to my late mother and father, Charlotte and 
Clifton Thomson, wonderful parents who devoted much of their 

lives to public service, and to my late great aunt, Florence Stanton 

Thomson, whose generosity enabled the writer to undertake the 

research, writing, and publishing of this book. 

It is also dedicated to my husband, Jan, and two sons, Robert and 
Samuel, whose tolerance of Mom's activism and frequent absences 

from home over a period of thirty years allowed the writer to 

pursue her search for the truth. Jan's gourmet cooking lifted our 

spirits and kept us all from starving! Without the men's patience, 

humor, and moral support, this book could not have been written. 


This book is a small tribute to the late Honorable John M. Ashbrook, 

17* Congressional District of Ohio, whose work in Congress during the 

1960s and 1970s exposed the treasonous plans which ultimately led to the 

internationalization and deliberate dumbing down of American education. 




late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries 

early twentieth century 










of the forties and fifties 



psychology and skills 














Charlotte Iserbyt is to be greatly commended for having put together the most formidable 
and practical compilation of documentation describing the "deliberate dumbing down" of 
American children by their education system. Anyone interested in the truth will be shocked 
by the way American social engineers have systematically gone about destroying the intellect 
of millions of American children for the purpose of leading the American people into a socialist 
world government controlled by behavioral and social scientists. 

Mrs. Iserbyt has also documented the gradual transformation of our once academically 
successful education system into one devoted to training children to become compliant 
human resources to be used by government and industry for their own purposes. This is how 
fascist-socialist societies train their children to become servants of their government masters. 
The successful implementation of this new philosophy of education will spell the end of the 
American dream of individual freedom and opportunity. The government will plan your life 
for you, and unless you comply with government restrictions and regulations your ability to 
pursue a career of your own choice will be severely limited. 

What is so mind boggling is that all of this is being financed by the American people 
themselves through their own taxes. In other words, the American people are underwriting 
the destruction of their own freedom and way of life by lavishly financing through federal 
grants the very social scientists who are undermining our national sovereignty and preparing 
our children to become the dumbed-down vassals of the new world order. It reminds one of 
how the Nazis charged their victims train fare to their own doom. 

One of the interesting insights revealed by these documents is how the social engineers 
use a deliberately created education "crisis" to move their agenda forward by offering radical 
reforms that are sold to the public as fixing the crisis — which they never do. The new reforms 
simply set the stage for the next crisis, which provides the pretext for the next move forward. 
This is the dialectical process at work, a process our behavioral engineers have learned to 



use very effectively. Its success depends on the ability of the "change agents" to continually 
deceive the public which tends to believe anything the experts tell them. 

And so, our children continue to be at risk in America's schools. They are at risk 
academically because of such programs as whole language, mastery learning, direct 
instruction, Skinnerian operant conditioning, all of which have created huge learning 
problems that inevitably lead to what is commonly known as Attention Deficit Disorder 
and the drugging of four million children with the powerful drug Ritalin. Mrs. Iserbyt has 
dealt extensively with the root causes of immorality in our society and the role of the public 
schools in the teaching of moral relativism [no right/no wrong ethics) . She raises a red flag 
regarding the current efforts of left-wing liberals and right-wing conservatives [radical center) 
to come up with a new kid on the block — "common ground" character education — which 
will, under the microscope, turn out to be the same warmed-over values education 
alert parent groups have resisted for over fifty years. This is a perfect example of the 
Hegelian Dialectic at work. 

The reader will find in this book a plethora of information that will leave no doubt in 
the mind of the serious researcher exactly where the American education system is headed. 
If we wish to stop this juggernaut toward a sociaUst-fascist system, then we must restore 
educational freedom to America. Americans forget that the present government education 
system started as a Prussian import in the 1840's-'50's. It was a system built on Hegel's belief 
that the state was "God" walking on earth. The only way to restore educational freedom, 
and put education back into the hands of parents where it belongs, is to get the federal 
government, with its coercive policies, out of education. The billions of dollars being spent by 
the federal government to destroy educational freedom must be halted, and that can only be 
done by getting American legislators to understand that the American people want to remain a 
free people, in charge of their own lives and the education of their children. 



Coexistence on this tightly knit earth should be viewed as an existence not only without 
wars. . . but also without [the government] telling us how to live, what to say, what to think, 
what to know, and what not to know. 

— Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, from a speech given September 11, 1973^ 

Educated men are as much superior to uneducated men as the living are to the dead. 

—Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.^ 

For over a twenty-five-year period the research used in this chronology has been collected 
from many sources: the United States Department of Education; international agencies; state 
agencies; the media; concerned educators; parents; legislators, and talented researchers with 
whom I have worked. In the process of gathering this information two beliefs that most 
Americans hold in common became clear: 

1) If a child can read, write and compute at a reasonably proficient level, he will be 
able to do just about anything he wishes, enabling him to control his destiny to the 
extent that God allows [remain free); 

2) Providing such basic educational proficiencies is not and should not be an expensive 

Since most Americans believe the second premise — that providing basic educational 
proficiencies is not and should not be an expensive proposition— it becomes obvious that it 
is only a radical agenda, the purpose of which is to change values and attitudes [brainwash), 
that is the costly agenda. In other words, brainwashing by our schools and universities is 
what is bankrupting our nation and our children's minds. 

In 1997 there were 46.4 million public school students. During 1993-1994 [the latest 
years the statistics were available) the average per pupil expenditure was $6,330.00 in 



1996 constant dollars. Multiply the number of students by the per pupil expenditure 
[using old-fashioned mathematical procedures) for a total K-12 budget per year of $293.7 
billion dollars. If one adds the cost of higher education to this figure, one arrives at a total 
budget per year of over half a trillion dollars.^ The sorry result of such an incredibly large 
expenditure — the performance of American students — is discussed in Pursuing Excellence — A 
Study of U.S. Twelfth Grade Mathematics and Science Achievement in International Context: 
Initial Findings from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study [TIMMS) , a report 
from the U.S. Department of Education [NCES 98-049). Pursuing Excellence reads: 

Achievement of Students, Key Points: U.S. twelfth graders scored below the international 
average and among the lowest of the 21 TIMSS nations in both mathematics and science 
general knowledge in the final year of secondary school, (p. 24] 

Obviously, something is terribly wrong when a $6,330 per pupil expenditure produces 
such pathetic results. This writer has visited private schools which charge $1,000 per year 
in tuition which enjoy superior academic results. Parents of home-schooled children spend a 
maximum of $1,000 per year and usually have similar excellent results. 

There are many talented and respected researchers and activists who have carefully 
documented the "weird" activities which have taken place "in the name of education." Any 
opposition to change agent activities in local schools has invariably been met with cries of 
"Prove your case, document your statements," etc. Documentation, when presented, has 
been ignored and called incomplete. The classic response by the education establishment 
has been, "You're taking that out of context!" — even when presented with an entire book 
which uses their own words to detail exactly what the "resisters" are claiming to be true. 
"Resisters" — usually parents — have been called every name in the book. Parents have been 
told for over thirty years, "You're the only parent who has ever complained." The media has 
been convinced to join in the attack upon common sense views, effectively discrediting the 
perspective of well-informed citizens. 

The desire by "resisters" to prove their case has been so strong that they have continued 
to amass — over a thirty- to fifty-year period — what must surely amount to tons of materials 
containing irrefutable proof, in the education change agents' own words, of deliberate, 
malicious intent to achieve behavioral changes in students/parents/society which have 
nothing to do with commonly understood educational objectives. Upon delivery of such proof, 
"resisters" are consistently met with the "shoot the messenger" stonewalling response by 
teachers, school boards, superintendents, state and local officials, as weh as the supposedly 
objective institutions of academia and the press. 

This resister's book, or collection of research in book form, was put together primarily 
to satisfy my own need to see the various components which led to the dumbing down of 
the United States of America assembled in chronological order — in writing. Even I, who had 
observed these weird activities taking place at all levels of government, was reluctant to accept 
a malicious intent behind each individual, chronological activity or innovation, unless I could 
connect it with other, similar activities taking place at other times. This book, which makes 
such connections, has provided for me a much-needed sense of closure. 

the deliberate dumbing down of america is also a book for my children, grandchildren, 
and great-grandchildren. I want them to know that there were thousands of Americans who 
may not have died or been shot at in overseas wars, but were shot at in small-town "wars" 



at school board meetings, at state legislative hearings on education, and, most importantly, 
in the media. I want my progeny to know that whatever intellectual and spiritual freedoms 
to which they may still lay claim were fought for — are a result of — the courageous work of 
incredible people who dared to tell the truth against all odds. 

I want them to know that there will always be hope for freedom if they follow in these 
people's footsteps; if they cherish the concept of "free will"; if they beheve that human 
beings are special, not animals, and that they have intellects, souls, and consciences. I 
want them to know that if the government schools are allowed to teach children K-12 using 
Pavlovian/Skinnerian animal training methods — which provide tangible rewards only for 
correct answers — there can be no freedom. 

Why? People "trained" — not educated — by such educational techniques will be fearful of 
taking principled, sometimes controversial, stands when called for because these people will 
have been programmed to speak up only if a positive reward or response is forthcoming. The 
price of freedom has often been paid with pain and loneliness. 

In 1971 when I returned to the United States after living abroad for 18 years, I was 
shocked to find public education had become a warm, fuzzy, soft, mushy, touchy-feely 
experience, with its purpose being socialization, not learning. From that time on, from the 
vantage point of having two young sons in the public schools, I became involved — as a 
member of a philosophy committee for a school, as an elected school board member, as 
co-founder of Guardians of Education for Maine [GEM), and finally as a senior policy 
advisor in the Office of Educational Research and Improvement [OERI) of the U.S. 
Department of Education during President Ronald Reagan's first term of office. OERI was, 
and is, the office from which all the controversial national and international educational 
restructuring has emanated. 

Those ten years [1971-1981) changed my life. As an American who had spent many 
years working abroad, I had experienced traveling in and living in socialist countries. 
When I returned to the United States I realized that America's transition from a sovereign 
constitutional republic to a socialist democracy would not come about through warfare 
[bullets and tanks) but through the implementation and installation of the "system" in 
all areas of government — federal, state and local. The brainwashing for acceptance of the 
"system's" control would take place in the school — through indoctrination and the use of 
behavior modification, which comes under so many labels: the most recent labels being 
Outcome-Based Education, Skinnerian Mastery Learning or Direct Instruction."* In the 1970s 
this writer and many others waged the war against values clarification, which was later 
renamed "critical thinking," which regardless of the label — and there are bound to be 
many more labels on the horizon — is nothing but pure, unadulterated destruction of 
absolute values of right and wrong upon which stable and free societies depend and upon 
which our nation was founded. 

In 1973 I started the long journey into becoming a "resister," placing the first 
incriminating piece of paper in my "education" files. That first piece of paper was a purple 
ditto sheet entitled "All About Me," next to which was a smiley face. It was an open-ended 

questionnaire beginning with: "My name is ." My son brought it home from public 

school in fourth grade. The questions were highly personal; so much so that they encouraged 
my son to lie, since he didn't want to "spill the beans" about his mother, father and brother. 
The purpose of such a questionnaire was to find out the student's state of mind, how he felt, 
what he liked and disliked, and what his values were. With this knowledge it would be easier 



for the government school to modify his values and behavior at will — without, of course, the 
student's knowledge or parents' consent. 

That was just the beginning. There was more to come: the new social studies textbook 
World of Mankind. Published by Follett, this book instructed the teacher how to instill 
humanistic [no right/no wrong] values in the K-3 students. At the text's suggestion the 
teacher was encouraged to take little tots for walks in town during which he would point 
out big and small houses, asking the little tots who they thought lived in the houses: Poor 
or Rich? "What do you think they eat in the big house? the little house?" When I 
complained about this non-educational activity at a school board meeting I was dismissed 
as a censor and the press did its usual hatchet job on me as a misguided parent. A friend of 
mine — a very bright gal who had also lived abroad for years — told me that she had overheard 
discussion of me at the local co-op. The word was out in town that I was a "kook." That was 
not a "positive response/reward" for my taking what I believed to be a principled position. 
Since I had not been "trained," I was just mad! 

Next stop on the road to becoming a "resister" was to become a member of the school 
philosophy committee. Our Harvard-educated, professional change agent superintendent gave 
all of the committee members a copy of "The Philosophy of Education" [1975 version] from 
the Montgomery County schools in Maryland, hoping to influence whatever recommendations 
we would make. [For those who like to eat dessert before soup, read the entry under 1946 
concerning Community-Centered Schoob: The Blueprint for Education in Montgomery County, 
Maryland. This document was in fact the "Blueprint" for the nation's schools.] When asked 
to write a paper expressing our views on the goals of education, I wrote that, amongst other 
goals, I felt the schools should strive to instill "sound morals and values in the students." 
The superintendent and a few teachers on the committee zeroed in on me, asking "What's 
the definition of 'sound' and whose values?" 

After two failed attempts to get elected to the school board, I finally succeeded in 
1976 on the third try. The votes were counted three times, even though I had won by 
a very healthy margin! 

My experience on the school board taught me that when it comes to modern education, 
"the end justifies the means." Our change agent superintendent was more at home with 
a lie than he was with the truth. Whatever good I accomplished while on the school 
board — stopping the Planning, Programming and Budgeting System [PPBS] now known as 
Total Quality Management [TQM] or Generally Accepted Accounting Procedures/Generally 
Accepted Federal Funding Reporting [GAAP/GAFFR], getting values clarification banned 
by the board, and demanding five [yes, 5!] minutes of grammar per day, etc.— was tossed 
out two weeks after I left office. 

Another milestone on my journey was an in-service training session entitled "Innovations 
in Education." A retired teacher, who understood what was happening in education, paid 
for me to attend. This training program developed by Professor Ronald Havelock of the 
University of Michigan and funded by the United States Office of Education taught teachers 
and administrators how to "sneak in" controversial methods of teaching and "innovative" 
programs. These controversial, "innovative" programs included health education, sex 
education, drug and alcohol education, death education, critical thinking education, etc. Since 
then I have always found it interesting that the controversial school programs are the only 
ones that have the word "education" attached to them! I don't recall — until recently — "math 
ed.," "reading ed.," "history ed.," or "science ed." A good rule of thumb for teachers, parents 



and school board members interested in academics and traditional values is to question any 
subject that has the word "education" attached to it. 

This in-service training literally "blew my mind." I have never recovered from it. The 
presenter [change agent) taught us how to "manipulate" the taxpayers/parents into accepting 
controversial programs. He explained how to identify the "resisters" in the community and 
how to get around their resistance. He instructed us in how to go to the highly respected 
members of the community — those with the Chamber of Commerce, Rotary, Junior League, 
Little League, YMCA, Historical Society, etc.— to manipulate them into supporting the 
controversial/non-academic programs and into bad-mouthing the resisters. Advice was also 
given as to how to get the media to support these programs. 

I left this training— with my very valuable textbook. The Change Agent's Guide to 
Innovations in Education, under my arm— feeling very sick to my stomach and in complete 
denial over that in which I had been involved. This was not the nation in which I grew 
up; something seriously disturbing had happened between 1953 when I left the United 
States and 1971 when I returned. 

Orchestrated Consensus 

In retrospect, I had just found out that the United States was engaged in war. People 
write important books about war: books documenting the battles fought, the names of 
the generals involved, the names of those who fired the first shot. This book is simply a 
history book about another kind of war: 

• one fought using psychological methods; 

• a one-hundred-year war; 

• a different, more deadly war than any in which our country has ever been involved; 

• a war about which the average American hasn't the foggiest idea. 

The reason Americans do not understand this war is because it has been fought in 
secret — in the schools of our nation, targeting our children who are captive in classrooms. The 
wagers of this war are using very sophisticated and effective tools: 

• Hegelian Dialectic [common ground, consensus and compromise) 

• Gradualism [two steps forward; one step backward) 

• Semantic deception [redefining terms to get agreement without understanding) . 

The Hegelian Dialectic^ is a process formulated by the German philosopher Georg 


Thesis Antithesis 



Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel [1770-1831) and used by Karl Marx in codifying revolutionary 
Communism as dialectical materialism. This process can be illustrated as: 

The "Thesis" represents either an established practice or point of view which is pitted 
against the "Antithesis"— usually a crisis of opposition fabricated or created by change 
agents— causing the "Thesis" to compromise itself, incorporating some part of the "Antithesis" 
to produce the "Synthesis"— sometimes called consensus. This is the primary tool in the bag 
of tricks used by change agents who are trained to direct this process all over the country; 
much hke the in-service training I received. A good example of this concept was voiced 
by T.H. Bell when he was U.S. Secretary of Education: "[We] need to create a crisis to 
get consensus in order to bring about change." [The reader might be reminded that it 
was under T.H. Bell's direction that the U.S. Department of Education implemented the 
changes "suggested" by A Nation at Risk— the alarm that was sounded in the early 1980s 
to announce the "crisis" in education.) 

Since we have been, as a nation, so relentlessly exposed to this Hegelian dialectical 
process [which is essential to the smooth operation of the "system") under the guise 
of "reaching consensus" in our involvement in parent-teacher organizations, on school 
boards, in legislatures, and even in goal setting in community service organizations and 
groups — including our churches — I want to explain clearly how it works in a practical 
application. A good example with which most of us can identify involves property taxes for 
local schools. Let us consider an example from Michigan — 

The internationalist change agents must abolish local control [the "Thesis") in order 
to restructure our schools from academics to global workforce training [the "Synthesis"). 
Funding of education with the property tax allows local control, but it also enables the change 
agents and teachers' unions to create higher and higher school budgets paid for with 
higher taxes, thus infuriating homeowners. Eventually, property owners accept the change 
agents' radical proposal [the "Anti- thesis") to reduce their property taxes by transferring 
education funding from the local property tax to the state income tax. Thus, the change 
agents accomplish their ultimate goal; the transfer of funding of education from the local 
level to the state level. When this transfer occurs it increases state/federal control and 
funding, leading to the federal/internationalist goal of implementing global workforce training 
through the schools [the "Synthesis").*^ 

Regarding the power of "gradualism," remember the story of the frog and how he didn't 
save himself because he didn't realize what was happening to him? He was thrown into 
cold water which, in turn, was gradually heated up until finally it reached the boiling 
point and he was dead. This is how "gradualism" works through a series of "created 
crises" which utilize Hegel's dialectical process, leading us to more radical change than 
we would ever otherwise accept. 

In the instance of "semantic deception" — do you remember your kindly principal telling 
you that the new decision-making program would help your child make better decisions? 
What good parent wouldn't want his or her child to learn how to make "good" decisions? 
Did you know that the decision-making program is the same controversial values clarification 
program recently rejected by your school board and against which you may have given 
repeated testimony? As I've said before, the wagers of this intellectual social war have 
employed very effective weapons to implement their changes. 

This war has, in fact, become the war to end all wars. If citizens on this planet can be 
brainwashed or robotized, using dumbed-down Pavlovian/Skinnerian education, to accept 



what those in control want, there will be no more wars. If there are no rights or wrongs, 
there will be no one wanting to "right" a "wrong." Robots have no conscience. The only 
permissible conscience will be the United Nations or a global conscience. Whether an 
action is good or bad will be decided by a "Global Government's Global Conscience," as 
recommended by Dr. Brock Chisholm, executive secretary of the World Health Organization, 
Interim Commission, in 1947 — and later in 1996 by current United States Secretary of State 
Madeline Albright. [See quotes in entry under 1947.) 

You may protest, "But, no one has died in this war." Is that the only criteria we have 
with which to measure whether war is war? Didn't Aristotle say it well when he said, 
"Educated men are as much superior to uneducated men as the living are to the dead"? To 
withhold the tools of education can kill a person's spirit just as surely as a bullet his body. 
The tragedy is that many Americans have died in other wars to protect the freedoms being 
taken away in this one. This war which produces the death of intellect and freedom is 
not waged by a foreign enemy but by the silent enemy in the ivory towers, in our own 
government, and in tax-exempt foundations — the enemy whose every move I have tried to 
document in this book, usually in his/her/its own words. 

Ronald Havelock's change agent in-service training prepared me for what I would 
find in the U.S. Department of Education when I worked there from 1981-1982. The use of 
taxpayers' hard-earned money to fund Havelock's "Change Agent Manual" was only one out 
of hundreds of expensive U.S. Department of Education grants each year going everywhere, 
even overseas, to further the cause of internationalist "dumbing down" education [behavior 
modification] so necessary for the present introduction of global workforce training. I 
was reheved of my duties after leaking an important technology grant [computer-assisted 
instruction proposal] to the press. 

Much of this book contains quotes from government documents detailing the real 
purposes of American education: 

• to use the schools to change America from a free, individual nation to a socialist, 
global "state," just one of many socialist states which will be subservient to the 
United Nations Charter, not the United States Constitution 

• to brainwash our children, starting at birth, to reject individualism in favor of 

• to reject high academic standards in favor of OBE/ISO 1400/9000^ egalitarianism 

• to reject truth and absolutes in favor of tolerance, situational ethics and consensus 

• to reject American values in favor of internationalist values [globalism] 

• to reject freedom to choose one's career in favor of the totalitarian K-12 school-to- 
work/OBE process, aptly named "limited learning for lifelong labor,"** coordinated 
through United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. 

Only when all children in public, private and home schools are robotized — and believe 
as one — will World Government be acceptable to citizens and able to be implemented without 
firing a shot. The attractive-sounding "choice" proposals will enable the globalist elite to 
achieve their goal: the robotization [brainwashing] of all Americans in order to gain their 
acceptance of lifelong education and workforce training — part of the world management 
system to achieve a new global feudalism. 



The socialist/fascist global workforce training agenda is being implemented as I write 
this book. The report to the European Commission entitled Transatlantic Co-operation in 
International Education: Projects of the Handswerkskammer Koblenz with Partners in the 
United States and in the European Union by Karl-Jurgen Wilbert and Bernard Eckgold 
[May 1997) says in part: 

In June, 1994, with the support of the Handswerkskamer Koblenz, an American-German 
vocational education conference took place... at the University of Texas at Austin. The 
vocational education researchers and economic specialists... were in agreement that an 
economic and employment policy is necessary where a systematic vocational training is as 
equally important as an academic education, as a "career pathway." ...The first practical 
steps along these lines, which are also significant from the point of view of the educational 
policy, were made with the vocational training of American apprentices in skilled craft 
companies, in the area of the Koblenz chamber. 

Under section "e) Scientific Assistance for the Projects," one reads: 

The international projects ought to be scientifically assisted and analyzed both for the 
feedback to the transatlantic dialogue on educational policy, and also for the assessment 
and qualitative improvement of the cross-border vocational education projects. As a result 
it should be made possible on the German side to set up a connection to other projects 
of German- American cooperation in vocational training; e.g., of the federal institute for 
vocational training for the project in the U.S. state of Maine. On the USA side an interlinking 
with other initiatives for vocational training — for example, through the Center for the Study 
of Human Resources at the University of Texas, Austin — would be desirable. 

This particular document discusses the history of apprenticeships— especially the 
role of medieval guilds — and attempts to make a case for nations which heretofore have 
cherished liberal economic ideas — i.e., individual economic freedom — to return to a system 
of cooperative economic solutions [the guild system used in the Middle Ages which accepted 
very young children from farms and cities and trained them in "necessary" skills). Another 
word for this is "serfdom." Had our elected officials at the federal, state, and local levels 
read this document, they could never have voted in favor of socialist/fascist legislation 
implementing workforce training to meet the needs of the global economy. Unless, of course, 
they happen to support such a totalitarian economic system. [This incredible document 
was accessed at the following internet address: 
uk.doc ) 

Just as Barbara Tuchman or another historian would do in writing the history of the 
other kinds of wars, I have identified chronologically the major battles, players, dates 
and places. I know that researchers and writers with far more talent than I will feel that I 
have neglected some key events in this war. I stand guilty on all counts, even before their 
well-researched charges are submitted. Yes, much of importance has been left out, due to 
space Umitations, but the overview of the battlefields and maneuvers will give the reader an 
opportunity to glimpse the immensity of this conflict. 

In order to win a battle one must know who the "real" enemy is. Otherwise, one is 
shooting in the dark and often hitting those not the least bit responsible for the mayhem. 
This book, hopefully, identifies the "real" enemy and provides Americans involved in this 
war — be they plain, ordinary citizens, elected officials, or traditional teachers — with the 


ammunition to fight to obtain victory. 


1 Noted Soviet dissident, slave labor camp intern, and author of The Gulag Archipelago and numerous other books. 

2 The Basic Works of Aristotle, Richard McKeon, Ed., from Familiar Quotations by John Bartlett, 14th ed. [Little, Brown 
& Co.: Boston, Toronto, 1968]. 

3 Statistics taken from The Condition of Education, 1997, published by the National Center for Educational Statistics, U.S. 
Department of Education [NCES 97-388). Internet address: http://www.ed/gov/NCES. 

4 OBE/ML/DI or outcomes-based education/mastery learning/direct instruction. 

5 Dean Gotcher, author of The Dialectic & Praxis: Diaprax and the End of the Ages and other materials dealing with dialectical 
consensus building and human relations training, has done some excellent work in this area of research. For more detailed 
information on this process, please write to Dean Gotcher of the Institution for Authority Research, 5436 S. Boston PI., 
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74105, or call 918-742-3855. 

6 See Appendix XXII for an article by Tim Clem which explains this process in much more detail. 

7 ISO stands for International Standards of Operation for manufacturing [9000] and human resources [1400], coordinated 
through the United Nations Educational, Social and Cultural Organization [UNESCO). 

8 "Privatization or Socialization" by C. Weatherly, 1994. Delivered as part of a speech to a group in Minnesota and later pub- 
lished in The Christian Conscience magazine (Vol. 1, No. 2: February 1995, pp. 29-30). 



In particular I want to thank a handful of government officials who provided me with 
important documents. They must remain anonymous for obvious reasons. 

I would also like to mention several incredibly fine Americans who are unfortunately no 
longer with us, who provided me with the priceless research and necessary resources to write 
this book. They are: Jo-Ann Abrigg, Rexford Daniels, Norman Dodd, Ruth Feld, Mary Larkin, 
Judge Robert Morris, Walter Crocker Pew and Mary Royer. 

Very special thanks go to the following education researchers and writers with whom 
I have worked and who have contributed to and made this book possible [in alphabetical 
order) : Mary Adams, Polly Anglin, Marilyn Boyer, Shirley Correll, Peggy and Dennis Cuddy, 
Janet Egan, Melanie Fields, Ann Frazier, Betty Freauf, Jeannie Georges, Peggy Grimes, 
Rosalind Haley, Karen Hayes, Tracey Hayes, Maureen Heaton, Mary Jo Heiland, Ann Herzer, 
Anita Hoge, Betsy Kraus, Jacqueline and Malcolm Lawrence, Mina Legg, Bettye and Kirk 
Lewis, Joanne Lisac, Joan Masters, Nancy Maze, Janelle Moon, Opal Moore, Barbara Morris, 
LuAnne Robson, Patricia Royall, Elisabeth Russinoff, Cris Shardelman, Debbie Stevens, Rose 
Stewart, Elisabeth Trotto, Georgiana Warner, Geri Wenta, and Jil Wilson. Thanks are also 
extended to their respective spouses who made their contributions possible. 

Obviously, the job of editing this book was monumental! Cynthia Weatherly, who is 
one of the nation's finest education researchers and talented writers and with whom I have 
worked for twenty years, took my rough manuscript and turned it into a mammoth historical 
presentation. Her incredible work on this book represents a true labor of love for this 
nation and for our children and grandchildren. I will forever be grateful to Cindi and her 
husband, Neal, who extended a gracious welcome to me each time I descended upon them, 
including a four-month stay last winter! 

In addition, my deepest thanks go to the Leslie family of Conscience Press — Sarah, 
Lynn and Colin, and Sarah's parents, Paul and Jean Huling, each of whom contributed in 



his own vital way to the publication of this book in such a professional manner. How this 
family published this book and managed at the same time to make three moves in and 
out of different houses during this one-year period is beyond belief. There are no words 
to express this writer's gratitude for this one family's contribution to the preservation 
of liberty for all Americans. 

Of course, the book would never have seen the light of day without the very professional 
job delivered by Tim and Janet Fields of The Athens Printing Company of Athens, Georgia. 
Tim's unbelievable patience with interminable delays was beyond the call of duty. 

And last, but not least, thanks to the folks at the reference desk of the University 
of Georgia Library, who cheerfully and professionally assisted the writer and editor 
with critical documentation, and to Air Tran, whose extremely reasonable airfare from 
Boston to Atlanta allowed Cindi and me to collaborate on the most important stages of 
this book's production. 

Deepest apologies to whomever I have neglected to mention. You will find a special 
place in Heaven. 



In the fall of 1972 a small group of students in an introduction to educational psychology 
class at a midwestern university saved every single soul in the lifeboat. 

The professor became agitated. "No! Go back and do the exercise again. Follow 
the instructions." 

The students, products of the radical 1960s culture, expected this to be a small group 
assignment in creativity and ingenuity. They had worked out an intricate plan whereby 
everyone in the lifeboat could survive. When the professor persisted, the students resisted — and 
ultimately refused to do the exercise. Chalk up a victory to the human spirit. 

However, it was a short-lived victory. This overloaded "lifeboat in crisis" represented 
a dramatic shift in education. The exercise — in which students were compelled to choose 
which humans were expendable and, therefore, should be cast off into the water — became 
a mainstay in classrooms across the country. Creative solutions? Not allowed. Instructions? 
Strictly adhered to. In truth, there is to be only one correct answer to the lifeboat 
drama: death. 

The narrowing [dumbing down) of intellectual freedom had begun. Lifeboat exercises 
epitomize the shift in education from academic education [1880-1960) to values education 
[1960-1980). In the deliberate dumbing down of america writer Charlotte Iserbyt chronicles 
this shift and the later shift to workforce training "education" [1980-2000). The case is made 
that the values education period was critical to the transformation of education. It succeeded 
in persuading [brainwashing? duping?) Americans into accepting the belief that values were 
transient, flexible and situational — subject to the evolution of human society. Brave new 
values were integrated into curricula and instruction. The mind of the average American 
became "trained" [conditioned) to accept the idea that education exists solely for the purpose 
of getting a good paying job in the global workforce economy. 



"Human capital," a term coined by reformers to describe our children, implies that 
humans are expendable. This explains why the lifeboat exercise has been used so rampantly, 
and why it was so critical to the education reformers' plans. Is it any wonder, then, that 
we witnessed the horror of the Littleton, Colorado shootings, and that other violence 
in schools across the country is increasing? Death education in the classroom may be 
linked to deaths in the classroom. The dumbing down of a nation inevitably leads to 
the death of a culture. 

The premise of Charlotte Iserbyt's chronological history of the "deliberate dumbing 
down" of America is borne out by the author's extensive documentation, gathered from the 
education community's own sources. Iserbyt isolates the public pohcy end of education and 
sticks with it from decade to decade, steadfastly documenting the controversial methodology 
that has been institutionalized into legislation, public documents and other important 
papers setting forth pubUc agenda. By choosing to focus on pubhc policy in the context 
of academic theory, Iserbyt fills an important void in anti-reform literature. Her most 
important contribution is demonstrating how theory influenced public policy, public 
policy influenced theory, and how this ultimately affected practice — how policy and theory 
played out in the classroom. 

Iserbyt skillfully demonstrates the interconnections between the international, national, 
regional, state and local plans for the transformation of American society via education. 
Iserbyt connects the evolution of education in the twentieth century to major significant 
geopolitical, social and economic events which have influenced education policy. This 
attention to detail adds important context to the events chronicled in the book, a dimension 
not found in other books critiquing education reform. 

For too many years the late Harvard psychologist B.F. Skinner has been virtually ignored 
by conservative leaders, who focused their criticism exclusively on pervasive cultural 
influences of the humanistic psychologists [Rogers, Maslow, et al.). Skinner was written off 
as a Utopian psychologist who represented no threat. Iserbyt's premise, proven well, is that 
B.F. Skinner is comfortably alive and well — embedded within modern education methods. 
Direct Instruction, Mastery Learning and Outcome-Based Education are irrefutably the 
current incarnation of Skinner's 1960s Programmed Instruction — a method of instruction 
which linked children to the computer and turned learning into a flow chart of managed 

Interwoven throughout the book is the important theme of operant conditioning in 
education. Surprisingly, Iserbyt never debates the effectiveness of the method. Entry after 
entry in the book substantiates Iserbyt's premise that the method is purposefully used to 
create a robotic child — one who cannot make connections, repeat an act, nor recall a 
fact unless provided with the necessary stimuli and environment [like a dog who learns 
to sit after the immediate receipt of a dog biscuit). Iserbyt reaches the inescapable 
conclusion that the method perfectly complements the reformers' agenda for a dumbed-down 
global workforce. 

Iserbyt so effectively nails down her case that the debate noticeably shifts to the ethics 
of implementing such a method on children. The late Christian apologist and theologian. 
Dr. Francis Schaeffer, when discussing the evils of B.F. Skinner in his little booklet Back to 
Freedom and Dignity [1972], warned: "Within the Skinnerian system there are no ethical 
controls; there is no boundary limit to what can be done by the elite in whose hands control 
resides." There is intriguing evidence in Iserbyt's book that the "democratic" society of the 



near future will be managed via systematized operant conditioning — a startling proposition 
with ramifications which reach far beyond the scope of simple education reform. 

Inevitably, questions and controversy will arise after publication of this book. How many 
popular computer games, programs, and curricula for children are heavily dependent upon 
this method — a method which requires immediate rewards? To what extent have home school 
and Christian school leaders, authors, and curriculum companies endorsed and utilized this 
method? How many child rearing [training) programs, workbooks and seminars are based 
upon these Skinnerian methods? After reading this book parents will no longer be duped into 
accepting behaviorist methods — in whatever guise, or by whatever name they come. 

Publication of the deliberate dumbing down of america is certain to add fuel to the fire 
in this nation's phonics wars. Ever since publication of her first work [Back to Basics Reform 
or OBE Skinnerian International Curriculum, 1985), Iserbyt has been trumpeting the fact that 
the Skinnerian method applied in the Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction [ECRI) is 
the very same method applied in Siegfried Engelmann's DISTAR [Direct Instruction System 
for Teaching and Remediation, now known as Reading Mastery) . In her latest work, Iserbyt 
provides exhaustive documentation that Direct Instruction [a.k.a. systematic, intensive 
phonics) — which is being institutionalized nationally under the guise of "traditional" phonics 
thanks to the passage of The Reading Excellence Act of 1998 — relies on the Skinnerian 
method to teach reading. 

Charlotte Iserbyt is the consummate whistle-blower. The writer describes her own 
personal experiences as a school board director and as senior policy advisor in the U.S. 
Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement — from which 
emanated most of the dumbing down programs described in this book. There are no sacred 
cows in Iserbyt's reporting of the chronological history of education reform. With little 
fanfare, the agendas and methods of key reform leaders [conservative and liberal) are allowed 
to unmask themselves in their own words and by their own actions. Of particular interest 
is Iserbyt's material on the issue of school "choice" — abundant evidence from both sides of 
the political spectrum. The reader will learn that private. Christian and home schools are all 
neatly tied into the reform web via computer technology, databanking, assessment testing 
and, ultimately, the intention to use rewards and penalties to enforce comphance to the 
"transformed" system of education in this country. 

The careful researcher will appreciate the fact that the book is heavily documented but 
user-friendly. Citations are designed for the average reader, not just the academician. The 
chronological format of the book allows one to read forward or backward in time, or one 
entry at a time, according to personal preference. The accompanying appendices provide a 
source of in-depth topical material, which frees up the chronological text from becoming 
bogged down in details. The index and glossary are such valuable research tools that they 
are worth the price of the book. 

Iserbyt does very little hand-holding throughout the book. Commentary is sparse; readers 
can make their own connections and insert their own personal experiences. Iserbyt has 
strategically laid down key pieces to a giant jigsaw puzzle. The overall picture is purposefully 
arranged to portray one point of view. However, readers will be hard-pressed to come up 
with an alternative view. Just when it seems that one piece of the puzzle is an isolated, 
insignificant event, suddenly one comes across a stunning new entry that puts the pieces 
tightly together to form a vivid picture of the overall plan. Try as one might, the reader cannot 
escape the consistent, deliberate, 100-year plan to dumb down the populace. 



Amidst all of the policy documents and historical data in the book, one can easily 
identify the heart of the writer. Iserbyt gently reminds the reader that the real issue at hand 
is the child. It is America's children who are experiencing the full brunt of the new 
methods, new curricula and new agendas in the classroom. Many readers will experience 
the "light bulb" turning on as they fully come to understand how the innovations which 
have occurred in education during the last century affected their parents, themselves, 
their children and grandchildren. 

Teachers may find the contents of this book particularly enlightening and refreshing. 
Iserbyt takes the reader behind the scenes to reveal the true nature of many popular 
classroom curricula. The truth will be comforting to those who have utilized certain programs 
or methods, and perhaps were troubled by them, but didn't know the full scope or plan 
behind them. Iserbyt does not ignore or soft-peddle the ethical issues, but encourages the 
reader to take the high moral ground. 

The other day a caller phoned into Rush Limbaugh's daily radio talk show. The caller's 
wife earns $25,000 per year as a teacher. She has 30 students. Her school district receives $9,000 
per year per student. This totals $270,000 per year. "Why isn't my wife being paid more?" he 
asked. The caller — and people like him — should be referred to the deliberate dumbing down of 
america. In this book they will find the scandalous answer. It has something to do with why 
we have a generation of — as Limbaugh describes it — "young skulls full of mush." 

Sarah Leslie 


The human brain should be used for processing, not storage. 

—Thomas A. Kelly, Ph.D. 
The Effective School Report 


late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries 

X he Sowing of the Seeds: late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries" is the short- 
est chapter of the deliberate dumbing down of america. Undoubtedly, this chapter may be one of the 
most important since the philosophies of Jean- Jacques Rousseau, Wilhelm Wundt, and John Dewey et 
al., reflect a total departure from the traditional definition of education like the one given in The New 
Century Dictionary of the English Language (Appleton, Century, Crofts: New York, 1927): 

The drawing out of a person's innate talents and abilities by imparting the knowledge of 
languages, scientific reasoning, history, literature, rhetoric, etc. — the channels through which 
those abilities would flourish and serve. ^ 

A quantum leap was taken from the above definition to the new, dehumanizing definition used by 
the experimental psychologists found in An Outline of Educational Psychology (Barnes & Noble: New 
York, 1934, rev. ed.) by Rudolph Pintner et al. That truly revolutionary definition claims that 

learning is the result of modifiability in the paths of neural conduction. Explanations of 
even such forms of learning as abstraction and generalization demand of the neurones only 
growth, excitability, conductivity, and modifiability. The mind is the connection-system of 
man; and learning is the process of connecting. The situation-response formula is adequate 
to cover learning of any sort, and the really influential factors in learning are readiness of 
the neurones, sequence in time, belongingness, and satisfying consequences.^ 

An in-depth understanding of the deplorable situation found in our nation's schools today is 
impossible without an understanding of the redefinition in the above statements. Education in the 

2 the deliberate dumbing down of ameilca 

twenty-first century will, for the majority of youth, be workforce training. Thus, the need for Pavlovian/ 
Skinnerian methodology based on operant conditioning which, in essence, is at the heart of the above 
dehumanizing definition of education. This "sowing of the seeds" through redefinition will reap the 
death of traditional, liberal arts education through the advent of mastery learning, outcome-based 
education, and direct instruction — all of which will be performance-based and behaviorist. 


Emile by Jean- Jacques Rousseau (Chez Jean Neaulme Duchesne: A. Amsterdam [Paris], 
1762) was published. Rousseau's "Social Contract" presented in Emile influenced the French 
Revolution. In this book Rousseau promoted child-centered "permissive education" in which 
a teacher "should avoid strict discipline and tiresome lessons." Both Rousseau [1712-1788] 
and Swiss educator Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi [1746-1827] believed that the "whole child" 
should be educated by "doing," and that religion should not be a guiding principle in edu- 
cation, a theme we shall see repeated over the next 238 years. 


nation throughout the Western world, was born in 1832 in Neckarau, southern Germany. The 
following excerpts concerning Wundt's contribution to modern education are taken from The 
Leipzig Connection: The Systematic Destruction of American Education by Paolo Lionni and 
Lance J. Klass^ [Heron Books: Portland, Ore., 1980]: 

To Wundt, a thing made sense and was worth pursuing if it could be measured, 
quantified, and scientifically demonstrated. Seeing no way to do this with the human soul, 
he proposed that psychology concern itself solely with experience. As Wundt put it... Karl 
Marx injected Hegel's theories with economics and sociology, developing a "philosophy of 
dialectical materialism."... (p. 8) 

From Wundt's work it was only a short step to the later redefinition of education. Origi- 
nally, education meant drawing out of a person's innate talents and abilities by imparting the 
knowledge of languages, scientific reasoning, history, literature, rhetoric, etc. — the channels 
through which those abilities would flourish and serve. To the experimental psychologist, 
however, education became the process of exposing the student to "meaningful" experiences 
so as to ensure desired reactions: 

[L] earning is tiie result of modifiability in the paths of neural conduction. Explanations of 
even such forms of learning as abstraction and generalization demand of the neurones only 
growth, excitability, conductivity, and modifiability. The mind is the connection-system of 
man; and learning is the process of connecting. The situation-response formula is adequate 
to cover learning of any sort, and the really influential factors in learning are readiness of 
the neurones, sequence in time, belongingness, and satisfying consequences.* 

If one assumes (as did Wundt] that there is nothing there to begin with but a body, a 
brain, a nervous system, then one must try to educate by inducing sensations in that ner- 

The Sowing of the Seeds : c. 1862 3 

vous system. Through these experiences, the individual will learn to respond to any given 
stimulus, with the "correct" response. The child is not, for example, thought capable of 
volitional control over his actions, or of deciding whether he will act or not act in a certain 
way; his actions are thought to be preconditioned and beyond his control, he is a stimulus- 
response mechanism. According to this thinking, he is his reactions. Wundt's thesis laid 
the philosophical basis for the principles of conditioning later developed by Pavlov (who 
studied physiology in Leipzig in 1884, five years after Wundt had inaugurated his laboratory 
there) and American behavioral psychologists such as Watson and Skinner; for laboratories 
and electroconvulsive therapy; for schools oriented more toward socialization of the child 
than toward the development of intellect; and for the emergence of a society more and more 
blatantly devoted to the gratification of sensory desire at the expense of responsibility and 
achievement, [pp. 14-15) 

[Ed. Note: The reader should purchase The Leipzig Connection: The Systematic Destruction of 
American Education, a slim paperback book which, in this writer's opinion, is the most use- 
ful and important book available regarding the method used to change children's behavior/ 
values and to "dumb down" an entire society. The authors, Lionni and Klass, have made an 
outstanding contribution to the history of American education and to the understanding of 
why and how America, which up until the 1930s had the finest education system in the world, 
ended up with one of the worst education systems in the industrialized world in a short period 
of fifty years. 

Another commentary on the importance of Wundt's theories comes from Dennis L. Cuddy, 
Ph.D., in an excellent article entitled "The Conditioning of America" [The Christian News, 
New Haven, Mo., December 11, 1989).^ An excerpt follows: 

The conditioning of modern American society began with John Dewey, a psychologist, a Fabian 
SociaUst and the "Father of Progressive Education." Dewey used the psychology developed 
in Leipzig by Wilhelm Wundt, and believed that through a stimulus-response approach (like 
Pavlov) students could be conditioned for a new social order.] 


The first experiment with "outcome-based education" (OBE) was conducted in England 
in 1862. Teacher opposition resulted in abandonment of the experiment. Don Martin of Uni- 
versity of Pittsburgh, George E. Overholt and Wayne J. Urban of Georgia State University 
wrote Accountability in American Education: A Critique (Princeton Book Company: Princeton, 
N.J., 1976) containing a section entitled "Payment for Results" which chronicles the English 
experiment. The following excerpt outUnes the experiment: 

The call for "sound and cheap" elementary instruction was answered by legislation, passed by 
Parhament during 1862, known as The Revised Code. This was the legislation that produced 
payment [for] results, the nineteenth century Enghsh accountability system.... The opposition 
to the English payment- [for] -results system which arose at the time of its introduction was 
particularly interesting. Teachers provided the bulk of the resistance, and they based their 
objections on both educational and economic grounds.... They abhorred the narrowness and 
mechanical character the system imposed on the educational process. They also objected to 
the economic burden forced upon them by basing their pay on student performance. 

4 the deliberate dumbing down of ameilca 

[Ed. Note: "Payment for Results" and Outcome-Based Education are based on teacher ac- 
countability and require teaching to the test, the results of which are to be "measured" for 
accountability purposes. Both methods of teaching result in a narrow, mechanistic system of 
education similar to Mastery Learning. Teachers in the United States in 1999, as were teach- 
ers involved in the experiment in England, will be judged and paid according to students' 
test scores; i.e., how well the teachers teach to the test. Proponents of Mastery Learning 
believe that almost all children can learn if given enough time, adequate resources geared to 
the individual learning style of the student, and a curriculum aligned to test items [teach to 
the test) . Mastery Learning uses Skinnerian methodology [operant conditioning) in order to 
obtain "predictable" results. Benjamin Bloom, the father of Mastery Learning, says that "the 
purpose of education is to change the thoughts, actions and feehngs of students. " Mastery 
Learning [ML) and its fraternal twin Direct Instruction [DI) are key components of Outcome- 
Based Education [OBE) and Effective Schools Research [ESR) . The reader is urged to study the 
definitions of all these terms, including the behaviorist term section found in the glosssary of 
this book prior to reading further. The one common thread running through this book relates 
to these terms and their importance in the implementation of workforce training and attitude 
and value change.] 


Edward Lee Thorndike was born August 31, 1874 in Williamsburg, MASSACHUsetts. Thorn- 
dike was trained in the new psychology by the first generation of Wilhelm Wundt's proteges. 
He graduated from Wesleyan University in 1895 after having studied with Wundtians Andrew 
C. Armstrong and Charles Judd. He went to graduate school at Harvard and studied under 
psychologist William James. While at Harvard, Thorndike surprised James by doing research 
with chickens, testing their behavior, and pioneering what later became known as "animal 
psychology." As briefly stated by Thorndike himself, psychology was the "science of the in- 
tellect, character, and behavior of animals, including man. ""^ To further excerpt The Leipzig 
Connection's excellent treatment of Thorndike's background: 

Thorndike applied for a fellowship at Columbia, was accepted by Cattell, and moved with his 
two most intelligent chickens to New York, where he continued his research and earned his 
Ph.D. in 1893. Thorndike's specialty was the "puzzle box," into which he would put various 
animals (chickens, rats, cats) and let them find their way out by themselves. His doctoral 
dissertation on cats has become part of the classical literature of psychology. After receiv- 
ing his doctorate, he spent a year as a teacher at Western Reserve University, and it wasn't 
long before Cattell advised Dean [James Earl] Russell to visit Thorndike's first classroom at 
Western Reserve: "Although the Dean found him 'dealing with the investigations of mice and 
monkeys,' he came away satisfied that he was worth trying out on humans." 

Russell offered Thorndike a job at Teachers College, where the experimenter remained 
for the next thirty years. Thorndike was the first psychologist to study animal behavior in 
an experimental psychology laboratory and (following Cattell's suggestion) apply the same 
techniques to children and youth; as one result, in 1903, he published the book Educational 
Psychology. In the following years he published a total of 507 books, monographs, and ar- 

Thorndike's primary assumption was the same as Wundt's: that man is an animal, 
that his actions are actually always reactions, and that he can be studied in the laboratory 

The Sowing of the Seeds : c. 1896 

in much the same way as an animal might be studied. Thorndike equated children with the 
rats, monkeys, fish, cats, and chickens upon which he experimented in his laboratory and was 
prepared to apply what he found there to learning in the classroom. He extrapolated "laws" 
from his research into animal behavior which he then applied to the training of teachers, who 
took what they had learned to every corner of the United States and ran their classrooms, 
curricula, and schools, on the basis of this new "educational" psychology. 

In The Principles of Teaching Based on Psychology (1906), Thorndike proposed making 
"the study of teaching scientific and practical." Thorndike's definition of the art of teaching 

the art of giving and withiiolding stimuli with the result of producing or preventing certain 
responses. In this definition the term stimulus is used widely for any event which influences 
a person — for a word spoken to him, a look, a sentence which he reads, the air he breathes, 
etc., etc. The term response is used for any reaction made by him — a new thought, a feel- 
ing of interest, a bodily act, any mental or bodily condition resulting from the stimulus. 
The aim of the teacher is to produce desirable and prevent undesirable changes in human 
beings by producing and preventing certain responses. The means at the disposal of the 
teacher are the stimuli which can be brought to bear upon the pupil — the teacher's words, 
gestures, and appearance, the condition and apphances of the school room, the books 
to be used and objects to be seen, and so on through a long hst of the things and events 
which the teacher can control. 


Psychology by John Dewey, the father of "Progressive Education," was published [Uni- 
versity of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1896) . This was the first American textbook on the "revised" 
subject of education. Psychology would become the most widely-read and quoted textbook 
used in schools of education in this country. Just prior to the publication of his landmark book, 
Dewey had joined the faculty of the Rockefeller-endowed University of Chicago as head of the 
combined departments of philosophy, psychology and pedagogy [teaching). In that same year, 
1895, the university allocated $1,000 to establish a laboratory in which Dewey could apply 
psychological principles and experimental techniques to the study of learning. The laboratory 
opened in January 1896 as the Dewey School, later to become known as The University of 
Chicago Laboratory School.^ Dewey thought of the school as a place 

where his theories of education could be put into practice, tested, and scientifically eval- 

. . .Dewey. . . sought to apply the doctrines of experience and experiment to everyday life 
and, hence, to education... seeking via this model institution to pave the way for the "schools 
of the future. " There he had put into actual practice three of the revolutionary beliefs he had 
culled from the new psychology: that to put the child in possession of his fullest talents, 
education should be active rather than passive; that to prepare the child for a democratic 
society, the school should be social rather than individualist; and that to enable the child to 
think creatively, experimentation rather than imitation should be encouraged.** 

Samuel Blumenfeld in his book. The Whole Language/OBE Fraud [Paradigm Co.: Boise, 
Idaho, 1996), further explains Dewey's perspective: 

the deliberate dumbing down of ameilca 

What kind of curriculum would fit the school that was a mini-cooperative society? Dewey's 
recommendation was indeed radical: build the curriculum not around academic subjects but 
around occupational activities which provided maximum opportunities for peer interaction 
and socialization. Since the beginning of Western civihzation, the school curriculum was cen- 
tered around the development of academic skills, the intellectual faculties, and high literacy. 
Dewey wanted to change all of that. Why? Because high literacy produced that abominable 
form of independent intelligence which was basically, as Dewey beUeved, anti-social. 

Thus, from Dewey's point of view, the school's primary commitment to literacy was 
indeed the key to the whole problem. In 1898, Dewey wrote an essay, "The Primary-Edu- 
cation Fetish," in which he explained exactly what he meant: 

There is... a false education god whose idolators are legion, and whose cult influences the 
entire educational system. This is language study — the study not of foreign language, but of 
English; not in higher, but in primary education. It is almost an unquestioned assumption, 
of educational theory and practice both, that the first three years of a child's school life 
shall be mainly taken up with learning to read and write his own language. If we add to 
this the learning of a certain amount of numerical combinations, we have the pivot about 
which primary education swings.... It does not follow, however, that conditions — social, 
industrial and intellectual — have undergone such a radical change, that the time has come 
for a thoroughgoing examination of the emphasis put upon linguistic work in elementary 
instruction.... The plea for the predominance of learning to read in early school life because 
of the great importance attaching to literature seems to me a perversion. 


1 Paolo Lionni and Lance J. Klass. The Leipzig Connection: The Systematic Destruction of American Education (Heron Books: 
Pordand, Ore., 1980]. 

2 Ibid. 

3 The Leipzig Connection may be obtained by sending a check for $11.45 to: Heron Books, P.O. Box 503, Sheridan, OR, or by 
calling 1-503-843-3834. 

4 Rudolph Pintner et al. An Outline of Educational Psychology, Revised (Barnes & Noble: New York, 1934), p. 79. 

5 Dr. Cuddy's important publications on the history of American education, from which this writer has frequently quoted, can be 
obtained by writing: Florida ProFamily Forum, Inc., PO. Box 1059, Highland City, FL 33846-1059; or by calling 1-914-644-6218. 
Cuddy's newly revised edition of Chronology of Education with Quotable Quotes and Secret Records Revealed: The Men, the 
Money and the Methods Behind the New World Order should be in the library of every serious education researcher. 

6 The Leipzig Connection, pp. 36-39. 

7 Ibid. 

8 These quotes taken from Ida B. DePencier's book, The History of the Laboratory Schools: The University of Chicago, 1 896-1965 
(Quadrangle Books: Chicago, 1967] and A History of Teachers College: Columbia University by Lawrence A. Cremin, David A. 
Shannon, and Mary Evelyn Townsend (Columbia University Press: New York, 1934], as cited in The Leipzig Connection. 


early twentieth century 

X^ or a nation that had been able to point with pride to extraordinary advances in all 
areas of endeavor carried out by individuals, with no assistance whatsoever from the government, 
the early years of the twentieth century surely reflected a "Turning of the Tides." An alien collectivist 
(socialist) philosophy, much of which came from Europe, crashed onto the shores of our nation, 
bringing with it radical changes in economics, politics, and education, funded — surprisingly 
enough — by several wealthy American families and their tax-exempt foundations. 

The goal of these wealthy families and their foundations — a seamless non-competitive global 
system for commerce and trade — when stripped of flowery expressions of concern for minorities, 
the less fortunate, etc., represented the initial stage of what this author now refers to as the 
deliberate dumbing down of america. 

Seventy years later, the carefully laid plans to change America from a sovereign, constitutional 
republic with a free enterprise economic base to just one of many nations in an international socialist 
(collectivist) system (New World Order) are apparent. Only a dumbed down population, with no 
memory of America's roots as a prideful nation, could be expected to willingly succumb to the 
global workforce training planned by the Carnegie Corporation and the John D. Rockefellers, I 
and II, in the early twentieth century which is being implemented by the United States Congress 
in the year 1999. 

* "The Turning of the Tides" is the title of a report submitted to Congress by Hon. Paul W. Shafer (Mich.) and John Rowland 
Snow. The original text was delivered in the House of Representatives on March 21, 1952. 

8 the deliberate d-umblng down of america 


The General Education Board (GEB) was incorporated by an act of the United States 
Congress. Approved January 12, 1902, the General Education Board was endowed by Mr. John 
D. Rockefeller, Sr., for the purpose of estabUshing an educational laboratory to experiment 
with early innovations in education. 


In 1905 THE Intercollegiate Socialist Society (ISS) was founded in New York City 

by Upton Sinclair, Jack London, Clarence Darrow and others. Its permanent headquarters 
were estabUshed at the Rand School of Social Studies in 1908 and ISS became the League 
for Industrial Democracy [LID) in 1921. John Dewey became president of the League for 
Industrial Democracy in 1939. 

The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching was founded in 1905. 

Henry S. Pritchett served as the Foundation's first president. Pritchett was the author of 
What Is Religion and Other Student Questions [Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, 1906), 
Relations of Denominations to Colleges [1908), and A Woman's Opportunities in Christian 
Industry and Business [1907). 


National Education Association (NEA) became a federally chartered association for 

teachers in 1906 under the authority of H.R. 10501. Originally founded in 1857, it was known 
as the National Teachers Association until 1870. 


In 1908 Italian educator, the late Maria Montessori (1870-1952), developed a method 
of teaching — relying on guidance and training of senses rather than more rigid control of 
children's activities — which would be very influential throughout the rest of the century. 
Montessori was a doctor who, after graduating from medical school in Rome, took a position 
at a psychiatric clinic and became interested in helping retarded children. Her pedagogical 
mentor became Edouard Seguin, a French physician who worked with retarded children 
and who promoted the idea that having the children work with concrete objects helped 
their physical and mental development. 

Montessori opened her first Casa del Bambini [Montessori school) in Rome in 1907. She 
created a classroom climate in which her belief that a child's "individual liberty" would be 

The Turning of the Tides : c. 1913 9 

violated "if two children want the same material" and are not "left to settle the problem for 
themselves" or by forcibly removing a misbehaving child from a group. Montessori, much 
like Rudolph Steiner of Germany, taught that each child is already a perfectly developed 
adult human being and that through her educational process "the incarnating child" can 
find his own place in the cosmos. It should be noted that at one time Benito Mussolini was 
president of the Montessori Society of Italy. 

The Montessori Method was published in 1912 and much of Montessori's work was 
printed by the Theosophical Publishing House. Montessori once lived with the Theosophists 
in India and earned the praise of Mahatma Gandhi with her "Cosmic Education" which was 
popular with Hindus and Theosophists worldwide. Elizabeth Clare Prophet, the cultic head 
of the Church Universal and Triumphant, founded a group called Montessori International, 
and Robert Muller, the celebrated author of the New Age World Core Curriculum, in a Costa 
Rica speech claimed that the Montessori Method was one of the educational programs which 
would greatly benefit global children for the New Age. 

In her Education for a New World Montessori wrote that "The world was not created 
for us to enjoy, but we are created to evolve the cosmos. " In an issue of the North American 
Montessori Teachers Association Journal one finds the following revealing comment: 

Maria Montessori, along with many other enlightened thinkers of our time, foresaw nothing 
less than the emergence of a new human culture. This new culture, a global, planetized 
humanity, would be based on a new consciousness of the unity and interdependence of all 
being, the interconnectedness of all forms of energy and matter. It is a culture of the present 
paradigm shift, by which we are beginning to align ourselves to educate the human potential 
for conscious cooperation with the evolution of Ufe on the planet.^ 


John D. Rockefeller, Jr's director of charity for the Rockefeller Foundation, Frederick 
T Gates, set up the Southern Education Board [SEB), which was later incorporated into the 
General Education Board [GEB) in 1913, setting in motion "the deliberate dumbing down 
of America. " The Country School of Tomorrow: Occasional Papers No. 1 [General Education 
Board: New York, 1913) written by Frederick T Gates contained a section entitled "A Vision 
of the Remedy" in which he wrote the following: 

Is there aught of remedy for this neglect of rural life? Let us, at least, yield ourselves to the 
gratifications of a beautiful dream that there is. In our dream, we have limitless resources, 
and the people yield themselves with perfect docility to our molding hand. The present 
educational conventions fade from our minds; and, unhampered by tradition, we work our 
own good will upon a grateful and responsive rural folk. We shall not try to make these 
people or any of their children into philosophers or men of learning or of science. We are 
not to raise up from among them authors, orators, poets, or men of letters. We shall not 
search for embryo great artists, painters, musicians. Nor will we cherish even the humbler 
ambition to raise up from among them lawyers, doctors, preachers, politicians, statesmen, 
of whom we now have ample supply. 




Association at its annual meeting in St. Paul, Minnesota in the year 1914. An excerpt 

We view with alarm the activity of the Carnegie and Rockefeller Foundations — agencies not 
in any way responsible to the people — in their efforts to control the poUcies of our State 
educational institutions, to fashion after their conception and to standardize our courses 
of study, and to surround the institutions with conditions which menace true academic 
freedom and defeat the primary purpose of democracy as heretofore preserved inviolate in 
our common schools, normal schools, and universities. 


The 1917 Congressional Record of the United States Senate published the roLlowing 
excerpt from a booklet containing articles by Bishop Warren A. Candler, Chancellor of 
Emory University in Atlanta: 

This board [the General Education Board] was authorized to do almost every conceivable 
thing which is anywise related to education, from opening a kitchen to establishing a 
university, and its power to connect itself with the work of every sort of educational 
plant or enterprise conceivable will be especially observed. This power to project its 
influence over other corporations is at once the greatest and most dangerous power 
it has. (p. 2831) 

The United States entered World War I in 1917. 


In the January 13, 1918 issue of New York World William Boyce Thompson, FEueral 

Reserve Bank director and founding member of the Council on Foreign Relations, stated 

Russia is pointing the way to great and sweeping world changes. It is not in Russia alone 
that the old order is passing. There is a lot of the old order in America, and that is going, 
too.... I'm glad it is so. When I sat and watched those democratic conclaves in Russia, I felt 
I would welcome a similar scene in the United States. 

[Ed. Note: M. Maxine Tremaine of Massachusetts, recognized for her careful research related 
to international affairs, made the following statements regarding Willian Boyce Thompson 
before the National Convention of Women for Constitutional Government in a July 1983 
speech entitled "Russia Is the Model Country of International Bankers and Industrialists 
Administered by the United Nations Headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland": "William Boyce 

The Turning of the Tides : c. 1919 11 

Thompson personally contributed $1 million to the Russian Revolution. He also arranged for 
the transfer of money from the United States to (the Communist revolutionaries]."] 

Carnegie and Rockefeller foundations planned the demise of traditional academic 

education in 1918. Rockefeller's focus would be national education; Carnegie would be 
in charge of international education. 


The Institute of International Education (HE) was founded in 1919 through a grant 
from the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The Institute's purpose was to operate 
a student exchange program. This process of "exchanges" grew in concept and practice with 
the HE administering visitor exchange programs for the U.S. Information Agency [USIA] in the 
1990s. The U.S. -Soviet Education Agreements were negotiated by the Carnegie Endowment's 
parent organization, the Carnegie Corporation, fostering exchanges of curriculum, pedagogy 
and materials as well as students. 

The Progressive Education Association (P.E.A.) was founded in 1919 and ORGAnized by 

John Dewey, even though he would not become a member in its early years. P.E.A.'s goals 
and aims were projected for the last half of this century at a board meeting held November 
15-17, 1943 in Chicago, Illinois. Attendees included: Harold Rugg, Marion Carswell, Arthur 
Gould, Theodore Brameld, Prudence Bosterick, and Carson Ryan. Speaking of their plans for 
the period following World War II, the board published a statement in its journal Progressive 
Education [December 1943, Vol. XX, No. 8) which included the following excerpt: 

This is a global war, and the peace now in the making will determine what our national 
life will be for the next century. It will demonstrate the degree of our national morality. We 
are writing now the credo by which our children must live. . . . 

Your Board unanimously proposes a broadening of the interests and program of 
this Association to include the communities in which our children live. To this end, 
they propose additions to the governing body to include representatives of welfare 
services, health, industry, labor and the professions. In short, a cross-section body to 
give scope to our program.... 

Yes, something happened around a table in Chicago. An organization which might 
have become mellowed with the years to futility, in three short days again drew a blueprint 
for children of the world. 

[Ed. Note: For what "our national life will be for the rest of this century" and perhaps on into 
the next, see the 1946 Mongomery County Blueprint and 1999 Gwinnett Daily entries.] 



In 1921 THE League for Industrial Democracy changed its name from the iNTERCOLlegiate 

Socialist Society [ISS) and stated its purpose as: "Education for a new social order based on 
production and not for profit" ("A Chronology of Education," Dorothy Dawson, 1978). 

Harold Rugg, writer of social studies textbook series entitled The Frontier Thinkers 
which was published by the Progressive Education Association, in 1921 became president 
of the National Association of Directors of Education Research which would later become 
known as the American Educational Research Association. 

The Council on Foreign Relations was established in 1921 through the efforts of Col. 
Edwin Mandell House, confidant extraordinaire to President Woodrow Wilson and about 
whom Wilson said, "Mr. House is my second personality... His thoughts and mine are one." 
House was the initiator of the effort to establish this American branch of the English Royal 
Institute of International Affairs. Prior to 1921, House's group, "the Inquiry," called the CFR 
the "Institute of International Affairs." In 1912 House had authored Philip Dru: Administrator 
which promoted "socialism as dreamed of by Karl Marx" about which book Wilson's Secretary 
of the Interior Franklin Lane wrote to a personal friend: "All that book has said should be, 
comes about. The President comes to Philip Dru in the end." 

Walter Lippmann, member of the Fabian Society and Intercollegiate Socialist Society, was 
a founding member of the CFR. Whitney Shepardson was a director of the CFR from 1921 until 
1966. Shepardson had been an assistant to Col. House in the 1918 peace conference following 
World War I and served as secretary of the League of Nations committee. Shepardson later 
became a director of the Carnegie Corporation British and Colonies fund. Other early CFR 
members included: Charles E. [Chip) Bohlen, first secretary to the American embassy in 
Moscow during World War II and President Franklin Roosevelt's interpreter for his meeting 
with Josef Stalin at the Teheran conference; Frank Aydelotte, a trustee of the Carnegie 
Foundation, president of Swarthmore College, American secretary to the [Cecil) Rhodes 
Trustees [of the Rhodes Scholarship Fund), and director of the Institute for Advanced Study 
at Princeton; Secretary of War Henry Stimson, who initiated George Bush into "Skull and 
Bones" and whose special consultant Bernadotte Schmitt had also been a special advisor 
to Alger Hiss when he had served as secretary-general of the United Nations Conference 
on International Organization in San Francisco in 1945; and William Paley, founder of the 
Columbia Broadcasting System [CBS) whose chief advisor was Edward Bernays, Sigmund 
Freud's nephew who wrote Propaganda, in which Bernays reveals: 

Those who manipulate the organized habits and opinions of the masses constitute an 
invisible government which is the true ruling power of the country.... It remains a fact in 
almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our 
social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by this relatively small number 
of persons.... As civilization has become more complex, and as the need for invisible 
government has been increasingly demonstrated, the technical means have been invented 
and developed by which opinion may be regimented. 

The Taming of the Tides : c. 1922 13 

The late Professor Carroll Quigley of Georgetown University described the CFR as "a 
front for J.P Morgan and Company in association with the very small American Round Table 
Group." Quigley further commented: 

The board of the CFR have carried ever since the marks of their origin.... There grew up 
in the 20th century a power structure between London and New York which penetrated 
deeply into university hfe, the press, and the practice of foreign pohcy.... The American 
branch of this "English Establishment" exerted much of its influence through five American 
newspapers [New York Times, New York Herald Tribune, Christian Science Monitor, 
Washington Post, and the late lamented Boston Evening Transcript).^ 

Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., penned a tome entitled A Thousand Days in 1965 in which he 
wrote that 

the New York financial and legal community was the heart of the American estabhshment. . . . 
Its front organizations [were] the Rockefeller, Ford and Carnegie foundations and the 
Council on Foreign Relations. 


On December 15, 1922 the Council on Foreign Relations endorsed world GOVERNment. 


The International Bureau of Education, formerly known as the Institute JEAN-Jacques 
Rousseau, was established in 1925 with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. The 
Bureau became part of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 


Dayton, Tennessee. This trial was an important educational milestone regarding the teaching 
of the theory of evolution in public schools. Scopes pitted two famous barristers of the 
day — William Jennings Bryan and Clarence Darrow — against each other. The basic argument 
of the American Civil Liberties Union [ACLU) and the evolutionists' was that evolutionary 
theory should not be censored from the public schools. After this trial, Fabian Socialist 
and first head of UNESCO Sir Juhan Huxley claimed that humanism's "keynote, the central 
concept to which all its details are related, is evolution." 

[Ed. Note: Huxley could have continued by predicting that educational and training methods 
in the future would be based on the theory of evolution — that man is an animal to be 
trained as Pavlov, Thorndike and Skinner trained animals, as with outcome-based education, 
mastery learning and direct instruction.] 



The Christian Science Monitor of August 8, 1927 quoted from an address to the World 
Federation of Education Associations [WFEA) at their Toronto, Canada conference delivered 
by Dr. Augustus Thomas, commissioner of education for the state of Maine. Excerpts from 
Dr. Thomas's revealing address follow: 

If there are those who think we are to jump immediately into a new world order, 
actuated by complete understanding and brotherly love, they are doomed to disappointment. 
If we are ever to approach that time, it will be after patient and persistent effort of long 
duration. The present international situation of mistrust and fear can only be corrected by 
a formula of equal status, continuously applied, to every phase of international contacts, 
until the cobwebs of the old order are brushed out of the minds of the people of all lands. 
This means that the world must await a long process of education and a building up 
of pubhc conscience and an international morality, or, in other words, until there is a 
world-wide sentiment which will back up the modern conception of a world community. 
This brings us to the international mind, which is nothing more or less than the habit of 
thinking of foreign relations and business affecting the several countries of the civihzed 
world as free co-operating equals. 



O.A. Nelson, John Dewey, Edward Thorndike [who conducted early behavioral psychology 
experiments with chickens), and other Council on Foreign Relations members attended a 
Progressive Education Association meeting in 1928 at which O.A. Nelson was informed that 
the purpose of "new math" was to dumb down students. Nelson revealed in a later interview 
with Young Parents Alert that the Progressive Education Association was a communist front. 
According to the National Educator [July, 1979): 

Mr. O.A. Nelson, retired educator, has supplied the vitally important documentation 
needed to support the link-up between the textbooks and the Council on Foreign Relations. 
His letter was first printed in "Young Parents Alert" [Lake Elmo, Minnesota). His story 
is self-explanatory. 

I know from personal experience what I am talking about. In December 1928, 
I was asked to talk to the American Association for the Advancement of Science. On 
December 27th, naive and inexperienced, I agreed. I had done some special work in 
teaching functional physics in high school. That was to be my topic. The next day, the 
28th, a Dr. Ziegler asked me if I would attend a special educational meeting in his room 
after the AAAS meeting. We met from 10 o'clock [p.m.] until after 2:30 a.m. 

We were 13 at the meeting. Two things caused Dr. Ziegler, who was Chairman of 
the Educational Committee of the Council on Foreign Relations, to ask me to attend... 
my talk on the teaching of functional physics in high school, and the fact that I was a 
member of a group known as the Progressive Educators of America, which was nothing 
but a Communist front. I thought the word "progressive" meant progress for better 
schools. Eleven of those attending the meeting were leaders in education. Drs. John 
Dewey and Edward Thorndike, from Columbia University, were there, and the others 

The Taming of the Tides : c. 1928 15 

were of equal rank. I checked later and found that ALL were paid members of the 
Communist Party of Russia. I was classified as a member of the Party, but I did not 
know it at the time. 

The sole work of the group was to destroy our schools! We spent one hour and 
forty-five minutes discussing the so-called "Modern Math." At one point I objected 
because there was too much memory work, and math is reasoning; not memory. Dr. 
Ziegler turned to me and said, "Nelson, wake up! That is what we want... a math that 
the pupils cannot apply to life situations when they get out of school!" That math was 
not introduced until much later, as those present thought it was too radical a change. 
A milder course by Dr. Breckner was substituted but it was also worthless, as far as 
understanding math was concerned. The radical change was introduced in 1952. It was 
the one we are using now. So, if pupils come out of high school now, not knowing any 
math, don't blame them. The results are supposed to be worthless. 

[Ed. Note: Mr. Nelson was formerly assistant principal at Wilson High School, Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, as well as Johnson High School in St. Paul. This writer was fortunate enough 
to verify the above story by calling a teacher colleague of the late Mr. Nelson. Also, 
members of the "Young Parents Alert" in Lake Elmo, Minnesota provided the writer with 
an audiocasette of the speech he gave at a Young Parents Alert education conference 
on April 28, 1979.] 


1 The referenced North American Association for Montessori Teachers Association Journal is published by the North American 
Association for Montessori Teachers Association (Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 1988, 4th quarter). 

2 Much of the information in the entry concerning the formation of the Council on Foreign Relations, including Prof. Quigley's 
quote, is taken from the recently updated edition of Dr. Dennis Laurence Cuddy's Secret Records Revealed: The Men, the Money, 
and the Methods Behind the New World Order [Hearthstone Publishing, Ltd.: Oklahoma City, 1999]. 




il.nd the builder of this new world must be education.... Plainly, the first step 
in the case of each country is to train an elite to think, feel, and act internationally." The preceding 
words of Paul Mantoux of Paris, France are taken from the foreword to International Understanding 
by John Eugene Harley, published by the Stanford University Press in 1931. 

A flock of individuals of collectivist persuasion jumped on Monsieur Mantoux's bandwagon 
in "The Troubling Thirties." Aldous Huxley brought along his Brave New World; Professor George 
Counts contributed his Dare the School Build a New Social Order?; William Z. Foster (national 
chairman of the Communist Party of the United States of America) wrote his Toward a Soviet 
America; John Dewey co-authored The Humanist Manifesto I; the Carnegie Corporation added its 
Conclusions and Recommendations for the Social Studies and its Eight- Year Study (which was in 
the 1990s referred to by the Education Commission of the States as the model for Outcome-Based 
Education); and surprisingly, Herbert Hoover proposed a Research Committee on Recent Social 
Trends to Implement the Planned Society. 

The thirties were indeed troubling. Unfortunately, the average American was unaware of the 
important steps being taken to collectivize (socialize) this nation, particularly that of utilizing the 
schools as the vehicle through which Mantoux's "new world" could be brought into being. 


International Understanding by John Eugene Harley (Stanford University Press: 



Stanford, Calif., 1931) was published. Excerpts from the foreword by Paul Mantoux of 
Paris, France follows: 

And the builder of this new world must be education. Education alone can lay the 
foundation on which the building is to rest. On this point a kind of consensus has been 
reached by those who trust the future of international cooperation and those who refuse 
to beheve in it. When the latter go about repeating that to succeed in such a task one 
would have to change human nature, they do but exaggerate the acknowledged need for 
a gradual and patient reshaping of the public mind.... How can a well-prepared elite be 
raised throughout the world to spread its influence over the masses, who can then support 
them in their turn?... Here we encounter the real problem, and it is essentially a problem 
of education.... During the last decade of the nineteenth century, in England, a group of 
men devoted to the study of economic problems endeavored to prepare the public mind 
for broad changes which, in their view, must be effected if social peace is to be preserved. 
To this end they founded the London School of Economics and Political Science, which 
today ranks among the most famous institutions of education. In our day, the problem 
has become more far-reaching still. Brutal events have supplied evidence of a truth that 
had been slowly gaining ground, namely, the interdependence of nations and the need for 
estabhshing in the world an order and harmony hitherto lacking. 

Some [undertakings] have specialized in one branch of knowledge, like the Institute 
of Pacific Relations; others cover the whole field of political science, like the Ecole des 
Sciences Politiques, the London School of Economics, and the Deutsche Hochschule fur 
Politik. Some are debating or research centers, widely differing in character from one 
another according as their tendency is scientific rather than political; such are the Royal 
Institute of International Affairs, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Social Science 
Research Council, and the American Academy of Political and Social Science.... the World 
Education Association and the International Bureau of Education are endeavoring to 
compare education in civilized countries and to bridge differences by a process of mutual 
borrowing of methods.... Plainly, the first step in the case of each country is to train an elite 
to think, feel, and act internationally. 


Brave New World (Doubleday, Dotan: Garden City, N.Y., 1932) by Aldous Huxley, 

the renowned English novelist and essayist, was published. In this famous work Huxley 
satirized the mechanical world of the future in which technology replaced much of the 
everyday activities of humans. 

Professor George Counts of Columbia University Teachers College wrote Dare the 

School Build a New Social Order? [John Day Company: New York, 1932). He and many other 
American educators traveling back and forth to Russia became completely convinced that 
the Soviet Communist system was the ultimate system. Counts was deeply involved in, and 
a member of, the Carnegie Foundation-financed Commission on the Social Studies which 
produced the American Historical Association's Conclusions and Recommendations: Report 
of the Commission on the Social Studies in 1934. He was also the author of The American 

The Troubling Thirties : c. 1932 19 

Road to Culture series [Quinn and Broden, Co., Inc.: Rahway, N.J., 1930-1934) and The 
Soviet Challenge to America [John Day Co.: New York, 1931). Excerpts from this entry's major 
focus. Counts 's Dare the School Build a New Social Order?, follow: 

If property rights are to be diffused in industrial society, natural resources and all 
important forms of capital will have to be collectively owned.... This clearly means that, if 
democracy is to survive in the United States, it must abandon its individualistic affiliations in 
the sphere of economics.... Within these hmits, as I see it, our democratic tradition must of 
necessity evolve and gradually assume an essentially collectivistic pattern. 

The important point is that fundamental changes in the economic system are 
imperative. Whatever services historic capitalism may have rendered in the past, and they 
have been many, its days are numbered. With its dedication [to] the principle of selfishness, 
its exaltation of the profit motive, its reliance upon the forces of competition, and its placing 
of property above human rights, it will either have to be displaced altogether or changed so 
radically in form and spirit that its identity will be completely lost. 

Toward a Soviet America (Elgin Enterprises, Inc.: Los Angeles, 1932) by William Z. Foster, 
national chairman of the Communist Party of the United States, was published. Foster died in 
1961 in Moscow and was given a state funeral in the Kremlin. His book called for 

a U.S. Department of Education; implementation of a scientific materiahst philosophy; 
studies revolutionized, being cleansed of religious, patriotic and other features of the 
bourgeois ideology; students taught on the basis of Marxian dialectical materialism, 
internationaUsm and general ethics of a new sociahst society; present obsolete methods 
of teaching will be superseded by a scientific pedagogy. The whole basis and organization 
of capitahst science will be revolutionized. Science will become materiaUstic, hence truly 
scientific. God will be banished from the laboratories as well as from the schools. 

[Ed. Note: Everything called for by Foster has taken place. "Scientific pedagogy" is 
OBE/mastery learning/ direct instruction [Pavlov/Skinner). See the 1973 entry for Foundations 
of Behavioral Research, Second Edition, for some of the impUcations of implementing "a 
scientific materialistic philosophy. "] 

President Herbert Hoover appointed a research committee on recent social trends to 

implement the planned society in 1932. [In 1919 Franklin Roosevelt had told a friend that he 
personally would like to see Hoover in the White House.) The Research Committee was not 
approved nor funded by Congress; it became an Executive Action and was underwritten 
by the Rockefeller Foundation. No report was made to Congress or to the people during 
the time it functioned. The work of that committee has been called "a monumental 
achievement by the largest community of social scientists ever assembled to assess the 
social condition of a nation."' 

The National Education Association created the Educational Policies CoMMission [EPC) 
in 1932 for the purpose of changing the Goals for American Education. In 1944 the EPC 


prepared a volume of extreme importance entitled Education for All American Youth. This 
highly promoted document told, in fictional format and as though it were a fait accompli, 
how the "Planners" would solve all the problems; not just of youth, but of two imaginary 
communities — a village and a city — through involving citizens in cooperation for the goals 
of the planners. The following goals are laid out in this book: 

federal programs for health, education and welfare combined in one giant bureau 
Head Start programs 

getting pre-school children into the system 
teacher participation in curriculum decisions 
federal funds without federal control 
youth services through a "poverty program" 

removal of local control of political and educational matters "without seeming 
to do so" 
• sex education 

[Ed. Note: The involvement of "citizens in cooperation for the goals of the planners" is 
"participatory democracy," unheard of publicly until twenty years later. ^] 

The Eight- Year Study was initiated by the Commission on Relation of School and College 
of the Progressive Education Association in 1932. Chairman of the Commission and author 
of The Story of the Eight-Year Study [Harper & Brothers: New York, 1942) Wilford M. Aikin 
chronicled the study's beginnings and purposes. Recounting the proceedings at the 1930 
annual meeting of the Progressive Education Association, Aikin wrote: 

In the course of... discussion many proposals for improvement of the work of our 
secondary schools were made and generally approved. But almost every suggestion was 
met with the statement, "Yes, that should be done in our high schools, but it can't be 
done without risking students' chances of being admitted to college. If the student doesn't 
follow the pattern of subjects and units prescribed by the colleges, he probably will not be 
accepted." ...[SJomeone with courage and vision proposed that the Progressive Education 
Association should be asked to establish a Commission on the Relation of School and 
College to explore possibilities of better co-ordination of school and college work and 
to seek an agreement which would provide freedom for secondary schools to attempt 
fundamental reconstruction.... All members agreed that secondary education in the 
United States needed experimental study and comprehensive re-examination in the 
light of fuller knowledge of the learning process and the needs of young people in 
our society.... (p. 2) 

It has been assumed that physical and emotional reactions are not involved in the 
learning process, but if they are, they are not very important. The newer concept of 
learning holds that a human being develops through doing those things which have 
meaning to him; that the doing involves the whole person in all aspects of his being; 
and that growth takes place as each experience leads to greater understanding and more 
intelligent reaction to new situations. 

Holding this view, the participating schools believed that the school should become 
a place in which young people work together at tasks which are clearly related to their 
purposes.... The school should stimulate his whole being. It should provide opportunities for 

The Troubling Thirties : c. 1933 21 

the full exercise of his physical, intellectual, emotional and spiritual powers as he strives to 
achieve recognition and a place of usefulness and honor in adult society, (p. 17) 

Beginning in 1933 and continuing through 1941, the Eight- Year Study laid the groundwork 
for many of the education "reforms" and innovations we are encountering today. Most of 
the funding for the study came from the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the General 
Education Board. Commission and working committee members of note who participated in 
the study are: Wilford Aikin, Bruno Bettelheim, Burton P. Fowler, Frances Knapp, Louis Raths, 
Harold Rugg, Ralph Tyler, Hilda Taba, and Goodwin Watson. 

Over the eight years of the study five volumes were published: The Story of the Eight-Year 
Study by Wilford Aikin; Exploring the Curriculum: The Work of the Thirty Schools from the 
Viewpoint of Curriculum Consultants by H.H. Giles, S.P. McCutcheon, and A.N. Zechiel; 
Appraising and Recording Student Progress: Evaluation Records and Reports in the Thirty 
Schools by Eugene R. Smith, Ralph W Tyler and the evaluation staff; Did They Succeed in 
College?: The Follow-up Study of the Graduates of the Thirty Schools by Neal E. Drought and 
William E. Scott with preface by Max McConn; and Thirty Schools Tell Their Story: Each 
School Writes of Its Participation in the Eight-Year Study. 

[Ed. Note: As will be seen in later entries in this book, the Eight-Year Study was foundational 
to outcome-based education and proposals to remove the Carnegie Unit. The Carnegie Unit 
has traditionally been the measure of participation; a certain number of units — hours in 
each class — in various disciplines have been required of the student in order to graduate 
or be accepted at a college. The Carnegie Unit measure is representative of the educational 
philosophy reflected in most state constitutions— that the state is responsible to provide and 
make available educational opportunities to all its citizens. The removal of this unit has been 
a central feature of current OBE/ML reform plans which reflect the philosophy that the state 
must guarantee that all citizens receive and achieve an educational outcome determined by 
the state. A change from "inputs" to "outputs."] 


Humanist Manifesto I was originally published in 1933 in the New Humanist (Vol. VI, 

#3, 1933: Yellow Springs, Ohio), the main publication of the American Humanist Association. 
Co-author John Dewey, the noted philosopher and educator, called for a synthesizing 
of all religions and a "socialized and cooperative economic order." The following are 
excerpts taken from Secular Humanism and the Schools: The Issue Whose Time Has 
Come by Onalee McGraw, Ph.D. [Critical Issues, Series 2, The Heritage Foundation: 
Washington, D.C., 1976): 

The basis of humanist belief is that there is no Almighty God, the Creator and 
Sustainer of life. Humanists believe that man is his own god. They beheve that moral 
values are relative, devised according to the needs of particular people, and that ethics 
are likewise situational. 

Humanists reject Judeo-Christian moral and ethical laws, such as those contained 
in the Ten Commandments, calling them "dogmatic," "outmoded," "authoritarian," and 
a hindrance to human progress. In humanism, self-fulfillment, happiness, love, and 


justice are found by each man individually, without reference to any divine source. In 
the Judeo-Christian ethic, there is and can be no real self-fulfillment, happiness, love, 
or justice on earth that can be found which does not ultimately issue from Almighty 
God, the Creator and Sustainer. 

Several main differences between the humanist ethic and the Judeo-Christian ethic 
become clear upon reading the Humanist Manifestos I and II [1933 and 1973) and comparing 
them to the tenets of the Judeo-Christian ethic contained in the Old and New Testaments.... 
At issue is the basic concept concerning the nature of man and the "rules" by which men 
govern themselves individually, in society, and in government. In the Judeo-Christian ethic, 
man's ultimate deliverance and salvation — his finding a means of living together on this 
planet, in peace, harmony, justice, and love — is through God's given "rules." 

For the humanist, man's greatness, his coming of age, his total fulfillment is found 
when he no longer needs the idea of God. Man gets rid of God, not just to do what he wills 
but to regain possession of human greatness. 

Is Humanistic Education unconstitutional? Inasmuch as humanistic curriculum 
programs and "values clarification" and "moral education" teaching strategies are based 
upon materialistic values found only in man's nature itself, they reject the spiritual 
and moral tradition of theistic faith and religion. Thus, many parents who subscribe to 
Judeo-Christian behef oppose humanistic education in the tax-supported schools on grounds 
that such programs promote and advocate the rehgion of secular humanism in violation of 
the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. 

The U.S. Supreme Court cited Secular Humanism as a rehgion in the 1961 case of 
Torcaso v. Watkins [367 U.S. 488). Roy Torcaso, the appellant, a practicing Humanist in 
Maryland, had refused to declare his belief in Almighty God, as then required by State law 
in order for him to be commissioned as a notary pubhc. The Court held that the requirement 
for such an oath "invades appellant's freedom of belief and religion." The Court declared 
in Torcaso that the "no establishment" clause of the First Amendment reached far 
more than churches of theistic faiths, that it is not the business of government or its 
agents to probe beliefs, and that therefore its inquiry is concluded by the fact of the 
profession of belief. 

The Court stated: "We repeat and again reaffirm that neither a State nor the Federal 
Government can constitutionally force a person to profess a belief or disbelief in any religion. 
Neither can constitutionally pass laws or impose requirements which aid all religions as 
against non-believers, and neither can aid those religions based on a belief in the existence 
of God as against those rehgions founded on different beliefs." 

The Court has also stated "Among religions in this country which do not teach what 
would generally be considered a belief in the existence of God are Buddhism, Taoism, 
Ethical Culture, Secular Humanism and others." The Torcaso and Abington cases defined 
secular humanism as a religion and prohibited the government from establishing a 
religion of secularism by affirmatively opposing hostility to theistic religion, values, 
and behefs.^ 

In 1933 Dr. Paul Mori, chairman of the Progressive Education Association's CoMmittee 
on the Emergency in Education and one of the foremost authorities in the U.S. on school 
finance, wrote an article entitled "National Support for Our Public Schools," which was 
published in the December issue of Progressive Education [The Progressive Education 
Association: Washington, D.C., 1933). An excerpt follows: 

The Troubling Thirties : c. 1934 23 

At a time when schools should be particularly alert in helping to meet new conditions 
[Depression era], far too many of the individuals equipped to help in meeting these 
conditions have been removed from the payrolls, and in a vast number of communities 
schools have been reduced to the task of dishing out traditional subject matter. 

[Ed. Note: Read this quote at the next school budget meeting when taxpayers are being 
manipulated into paying more and more taxes to pay for controversial programs that have 
nothing to do with "traditional subject matter." You might point out that children were 
compelled to receive a better academic [traditional subject matter) education during the 
Depression due to hard times (less money). See the 1946 entry dealing with Community- 
Centered Schools: The Blueprint for another quote by Paul Mort regarding how long it 
takes to implement "change."] 

Dr. George Hartmann, professor of educational psychology at Pennsylvania State 

College, wrote "A New Definition of the Educated IVIan" for the December 1933 issue of 
Progressive Education. Hartmann was active in the League for Independent Political Action, 
the Farmer- Laborer Political Federation, and the Socialist Party. He was co-author of Readings 
in Industrial Psychology [Appleton) and a frequent contributor to psychological journals. 
Excerpts from "A New Definition of the Educated Man" follow: 

Some may at once protest, "What? Is education to have as one of its symptoms the 
acceptance of radical views?" The answer is "Yes," if "radicahsm" means any serious 
endeavor to alter our social arrangements for the better. We must consciously adopt and 
foster the position that it is the prime business of education to remake our institutions 
and our traditions — and learn to recognize the possession of this spirit as one of the main 
earmarks of the educated man.... The principal obstacle to the acceptance of this outcome is 
the persistence of a set of "inert" ideas (to use Whitehead's phrase] which lingers to affUct 
our civilization. One of the most subtle and pernicious of these inherited and unexamined 
postulates is the view that the aim of education [or life, for that matter] is the development 
of the individual's personality as such.... 

...For good or for ill, we must cease training people for what they are going to do, and 
point out instead what they should do. It wiU probably faU to our generation to resurrect the 
word "ought" to its rightful status in the affairs of men — for what else are values if not areas 
of experience with an imperious push or pull emanating from them? 

There are some purists who wiU be frightened by the indoctrination which must 
Inevitably follow if this recommendation is effective.... Such an objection is silly, for 
since indoctrination of attitudes occurs anyhow, our sole concern must be to ensure 
that the right ones are estabhshed.... 

How any one with the least pretensions to higher education can fail to be thrilled by 
the ultimate prospects of a single world government, the abolition of war and poverty, the 
enhancement of beauty in daily hfe, and the enlightened practice of eugenics and euthenics, 
is a riddle which can be explained only by a blind, exclusive regard for the immediately 
practicable.... What nobler and more enhghtened aim for education in this century can 
possibly be proposed than that it enhsts the enthusiasms of youth for the attainment of 
more rational forms of group living. 



Conclusions and Recommendations for the Social Studies (Chas. Scribner's Sons: New 

York, 1934) compiled by the American Historical Association was published. This book was 
the result of a project funded to the tune of $340,000 by the Carnegie Corporation of New 
York called "Investigation of the Social Studies in the Schools," and was carried out by 
the American Historical Association. Professor Harold Laski, a philosopher of British 
socialism, said of this report: "At bottom, and stripped of its carefully neutral phrases, 
the report is an educational program for a Socialist America."* Important excerpts from 
Conclusions follow: 

[Preface] The Commission is under special obligation to its sponsor, the American 
Historical Association. Above all, it recognizes its indebtedness to the Trustees of the 
Carnegie Corporation, whose financial aid made possible the whole five-year investigation 
of social science instruction in the schools, eventuating in the following Conclusions 
and Recommendations. 

The Commission could not limit itself to a survey of textbooks, curricula, methods 
of instruction, and schemes of examination, but was impelled to consider the condition 
and prospects of the American people as a part of Western Civilization merging into 
a world order (p. 1] 

Of utmost importance is the following admission of the planners' goals to change our free 
enterprise/representative republic: 

The Commission was also driven to this broader conception of its task by the obvious 
fact that American civilization, in common with Western civilization, is passing through 
one of the great critical ages of history, is modifying its traditional faith in economic 
individualism, and is embarking upon vast experiments in social planning and control which 
call for large-scale cooperation on the part of the people.... [pp. 1-2) 

Cumulative evidence supports the conclusion that in the United States as in other 
countries, the age of laissez faire in economy and government is closing and a new age 
of collectivism is emerging.... [p. 16) 

The implications for education are clear and imperative: (a) the efficient functioning 
of the emerging economy and the full utilization of its potentialities require profound 
changes in the attitudes and outlook of the American people, especially the rising 
generation — a complete and frank recognition that the old order is passing, that the new 
order is emerging.... [pp. 34-35) 

Organized public education in the United States, much more than ever before, is now 
compelled, if it is to fulfill its social obligations, to adjust its objectives, its curriculum, 
its methods of instruction, and its administrative procedures to the requirements of 
the emerging integrated order. 

If the school is to justify its maintenance and assume its responsibilities, it must 
recognize the new order and proceed to equip the rising generation to cooperate effectively 
in the increasingly interdependent society and to live rationally and well within its 
limitations and possibilities.... Signed: A.C. Krey, Chairman; Charles A. Beard; Isaiah 
Bowman (signed with reservations printed as Appendix C); Ada Comstock; George S. Counts; 
Avery 0. Craven; Guy Stanton Ford; Carlton J.H. Hayes; Henry Johnson; A.C. Krey; Leon C. 
Marshall; Jesse H. Newton; Jesse F. Steiner. [Frank A. Ballon, Edmund E. Day, Ernest Hom, 
and Charles E. Merriam declined to sign these Conclusions.) [p. 35) 

The Troubling Thirties : c. 1939 25 


Mein Kampf by Adolph Hitler (Stackpole Sons Publishers: Germany, 1939) was 

published. Excerpts follow: 

Academic sciiool training, which today is the be-all and end-ah of the State's entire 
educational work, can be taken over by the populist state with but slight changes. These 
changes are in three fields.... 

In the first place, the childish brain must in general not be burdened with things 
ninety-five per cent of which it does not need, and which it therefore forgets [emphasis in 
original] . The curriculum of primary and grammar schools, in particular, is a hybrid affair. 
In many of the individual subjects the material to be learned has increased to such an 
extent that only a fraction of it sticks in the individual's head, and only a fraction of this 
abundance can be used, while on the other hand it is not enough for the purpose of a man 
working and his living in a certain field. Take for instance the ordinary civil servant who 
has graduated from secondary school or from the upper realschule, when he is thirty-five or 
forty; and test the school learning which he once so painfully acquired. How little of all the 
stuff that was then drummed into him still remains! One will, indeed, be answered: "Yes, 
but the object of the amount that was learned was not simply to put a man in possession 
of a great deal of information later, but to train his power of intellectual absorption, and 
the thinking power, particularly the power of observation of the brain." This is true in part. 
But still there is danger that the youthful brain may be drowned in a flood of impressions 
which it is very seldom able to master, and whose individual elements it can neither sift 
nor judge according to their greater or less importance; and on top of that, it is usually not 
the inessential but the essential which is forgotten and sacrificed. Thus the main object of 
learning so much is lost; for after all it cannot consist in making the brain able to learn by 
unmeasured pihng-up of instruction, but in creating for later life a fund of knowledge which 
the individual needs, and which through him once more benefits society.... 

Summing up: the populist state will have to put general scholastic instruction into a 
shortened form, including the very essentials. Outside of that, opportunity must be offered 
for thorough, speciahzed scholarly training. It is enough if the individual person is given a 
store of general knowledge in broad outline, receiving a thorough detailed and speciahzed 
training only in the field which wiU be his in later life.... The shortening of the schedule and 
of the number of classes thus attained would be used for the benefit of the development of 
the body, the character, of will and resolution.... 

There should be a sharp distinction between general and specialized knowledge. As 
the latter threatens, especially today, to sink more and more into service of Mammon, 
general cultivation, at least so far as its more idealistic approach is concerned, must 
be preserved as a counter-weight. Here too the principle must be incessantly pounded in that 
industry and technology, trade and commerce can flourish only so long as an ideahstically- 
minded national community provides the necessary conditions. These conditions are 
founded not on materialistic egoism, but on self-denying readiness for sacrifice. 

[Ed. Note: This author has quoted extensively from Mein Kampf s chapter on education 
in order that the reader may see the similarity between Hitler's views on education and 
workforce training and those of American government officials implementing OBE and 
school-to-work programs in the 1990s. The above quotations also bear a striking resemblance 
to Theodore Sizer's Coalition of Essential Schools' philosophy of "less is more" and to the 
1988 Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development's Robert Muller World Core 


Curriculum in use in Eugene, Oregon and elsewhere.] 

World War II began in 1939. 


1 This material has been excerpted from The Impossible Dream by K.M. Heaton (Hart PubUcations: Bellingham, Wash., 1990). 
This important book may be ordered from K.M. Heaton by sending a check for $17.50 to: Hart PubUcations, 1507 Lincoln 
Street, Bellingham, WA. 98226. The Hon. John R. Rarick, former member of Congress, says of Mrs. Heaton's The Impossible 
Dream: "This is a dynamic volume of must reading for every American who loves this country and our system of government. 
Her in-depth writing arouses an awareness of the greatness this nation has achieved, a fear as to where we are heading, and 
of how far we must fall before it will all come to a hah.... There is an obvious, concerted program to irrevocably change our 
USA, yet many go on day after day, taking for granted what they didn't earn, and presuming the USA will go on forever. The 
change of our system from one of individual rights and freedoms to a one-world collective is taking place right before our 
very eyes." 

2 Ibid, p. 215. 

3 See 1988 entry for Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas's ruling on protection in the workplace from "abusive and intru- 
sive" training, rendered when Thomas served as chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission [EEOC). 

4 "A New Education for a New America" (The New Republic, July 29, 1936} carried quote by Prof. Harold Laski. 


of the forties and fifties 

iVlost Webster's dictionaries define the word "fomentation" as follows: "to stir up 
trouble, instigate; incite (as to foment a riot)." The forties and fifties will be remembered for the 
radical, un-American activities and views of some Americans and their paid staffs who, having risen 
to the highest levels in the tax-exempt foundations and government, were unfortunately accepted by 
the man on the street as having the best interests of this nation at heart. 

Had these individuals been dressed in dirty, ragged clothes, worn old shoes and funny felt 
hats, they would likely have been accused of "fomenting" or instigating trouble — planning the 
transformation of our nation from a sovereign, free constitutional republic to only one of many 
socialist democracies subservient to an internationalist world government. However, the fact 
that many of these gentlemen and their paid staffs were associated with Ivy League colleges, 
major industries, and prestigious civic and religious institutions, wore Brooks Brothers suits and 
button-down-collared shirts, and many had served with distinction in World War II worked to obscure 
the fact that their goals were alien to those of the average Main Street American — for that matter, alien 
to the Constitution of the United States of America and its Bill of Rights. 

United States membership in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
(UNESCO] in 1946 set in motion the destabilization of our society through the rejection of absolute 
morals and values, Judeo-Christian tradition, and Roman law. Legislation authorizing United States 
membership in UNESCO marked the end of United States autonomy in a very crucial area: that of 
education. From this time on UNESCO would dictate education poUcy to our government and others. 



This legislation was accompanied by President Harry Truman's remarkable statement: "Education 
must establish the moral unity of mankind." Truman's recommendation was bolstered by General 
Brock Chisholm, a Canadian psychiatrist and friend of Soviet agent Alger Hiss. Chisholm redefined 
health to include "mental" health, and presented a paper entitled "The Psychiatry of Enduring 
Peace and Social Progress" to the United Nations World Health Organization (WHO) in 1946 which 
"reinterpreted" (eradicated) the word "morality." Chisholm asserted that 

The reinterpretation and eventually eradication of the concept of right and wrong... these 
are the belated objectives of practically all effective psychotherapy. 

Brock Chisholm went on to recommend that teachers all over the world be trained in "no 
right/no wrong" psychotherapeutic techniques found in the schools today. The use of these techniques 
has resulted In (1) a high percentage of the populace (60% if the polls taken during the summer 
of 1998 related to the public's approval of President William Jefferson Clinton are to be believed) 
responding that lying under oath is not sufficient reason for a president's removal from office, and (2) 
incredibly immoral/amoral and violent behavior of American youth. 

Has the reader ever seen a more exquisite illustration of the dialectic at work? Create the chaos; 
people naturally call for help. The next step is to impose the totalitarian solution. The "New World 
Disorder" (chaos) , evident on the nightly news, will ultimately require the same totalitarian control 
described so well by George Orwell in his novel 1 984. Orwell said, "If you want a picture of the future, 
imagine a boot stamping on the human face — forever... and remember, that is forever." 

If one believes, as does this writer, that the well-being of mankind and the stability of this 
world and its institutions depend on the rule of law, then the 1940s and 1950s will be remembered as 
the commencement of the unraveling of civic order in the United States of America and throughout 
the world. The rule of law is usually based on concepts of right and wrong, grounded in some very 
widely accepted values that have been laid down since earliest times, and even spelled out in Roman 
law. Since the end of World War II, instead of the concept of law nations have been basing their 
actions on the United Nations' humanistic (non-absolutist) situational ethics philosophy set forth in 
the statements of General Brock Chisholm and President Harry Truman. 

In 1948, shortly after General Chisholm made his recommendation to banish the concept of right 
and wrong. Professors B.F. Skinner and Alfred C. Kinsey published their books, Walden "Bvo and Sexual 
Behavior in the Human Male, respectively. Skinner's novel, Walden Tlvo, recommended — amongst 
other radical things — that "children be reared by the state, to be trained from birth to demonstrate 
only desirable characteristics and behavior." Kinsey, as a taxonomic scientist, wrested human 
sexuality from the constraints of love and marriage in order to advance the grand scheme to move 
America and the world toward the eugenic future envisioned by the elite scientists of the "New 
Biology," a shift which would affect the legal and medical professions.' 

In 1953 Professor Skinner published Science and Human Behavior in which he said, "Operant 
conditioning shapes behavior as a sculptor shapes a lump of clay."^ Also, in 1953, as if commissioned 

The Fomentation 29 

by Skinner and Kinsey to come up with a system to facilitate the necessary "changes" in behavior 
through operant conditioning and restructuring of the human personality (taxonomizing it), 
Professor Benjamin Bloom with the assistance of Professor David Krathwohl completed Taxonomy 
of Educational Objectives— a classification of learning behavior encompassing the cognitive, affective 
and psychomotor "domains" of learning.^ Webster's Dictionary defines "taxonomy" as follows: "the 
study of the general principles of scientific classification: systematics." It should be noted that 
"scientific classification" related to education of a human being involves breaking behavior down 
into categories — to be measured and observed — behavior (actions) which can be isolated from the 
human personality with its important spiritual dimension. 

Bloom said in Taxonomy that "the philosopher, as well as the behavioral scientist must find ways 
of determining what changes (values) are desirable and perhaps what changes are necessary." He 
stated that for the schools to attempt to change values is a virtual "Pandora's Box," but that 

[0]ur "box" must be opened if we are to face reality and take action, and that it is 
in this "box" that the most influential controls are to be found. The affective domain 
contains the forces that determine the nature of an individual's life and ultimately the 
Hfe of an entire people. 

Kinsey and Bloom, as scientists, were involved in the breaking down of man (taxonomizing) 
into units of behavior which Skinner, as a behaviorist, could identify, measure and change. This 
breaking down or "deconstructing of Man" was intended to separate man from his God-given, 
freedom-providing identity. This opened the door to the study of methods to control man and society: 
enter Skinner, representing the Behaviorist School of the non-science "science" of psychology. Bloom 
changed the focus of education from a general, liberal arts education which benefited man as a 
whole to a narrow training which would be based on the behavioral psychologists' determination 
of what changes in "thoughts, feelings, and actions" would be desirable and, perhaps, necessary 
for the benefit of society as a wholes Bloom's Taxonomy provided the finishing and crucial 
touch to the foundation laid by Dewey and others of the bedrock of today's education and 
teacher training. 

The work of Bloom, Kinsey and Skinner provided the ingredients for future moral chaos with 
which we are struggling today at the national and international levels. People Weekly's cover story 
for the week of June 23, 1997, "Heartbreaking Crimes: Kids without a Conscience? Rape, murder, 
a baby dead at a prom: A look at young lives that seem to have gone very, very wrong," offers 
vivid examples of incredibly immoral/amoral and violent behavior. Melissa Drexler, 18 — baby was 
found dead at the prom; Daphne Abdela, 15 — accused of a Central Park murder; Jeremy Strohmeyer, 
18 — accused of killing a 7-year-old; Corey Arthur, 19 — accused of murdering Jonathan Levin; and 
Amy Grossberg, 18 — accused of killing her newborn. In addition, the past few years have provided 
Americans with news of tragedy after tragedy involving young people shooting their peers and 
teachers at schools across the country in Arkansas, Kentucky, Oregon, Washington state, Georgia, 


and with the most tragic of all because of the numbers involved, in Littleton, Colorado where 
twelve students and one teacher were murdered, two perpetrators committed suicide, and many 
others were critically injured. 

President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the first agreements with the Soviet Union in 1958, 
including an education agreement — something that would not come as a surprise to those familiar 
with the White House-directed plan to merge the United States and the Soviet Union explained to 
Norman Dodd in 1953 by Rowan Gaither, president of the Ford Foundation. Similar agreements have 
been signed from that time forward. The most important education agreements negotiated between 
the Carnegie Corporation and the Soviet Academy of Science, and those signed by Presidents Reagan 
and Gorbachev in 1985, remain in effect to this day. 

The forties and fifties set all the essential ingredients in place for implementation in the sixties 
of a system of education geared to behavior and values change. 


Education for Destruction was written by Dr. B.R. Burchett and published by her 

in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1941. The promotional flyer for Dr. Burchett's book 
read as follows: 

Arresting... Disturbing... Exciting 


HOW does the small Sovieteer minority control loyal teachers in our schools and 


HOW are anti-American, anti-religious, anti-Christ textbooks forced upon teachers 

and students? 

WHY are Washington and Jefferson ridiculed, while Marx and Lenin are canonized 

in the schools? 

WHY are boys and girls of 13 taught free love, sexual promiscuity, and other degrading 



The answers to these and other dismaying questions are all found 
in Education for Destruction 

[A]n eyewitness account by Dr. B.R. Burchett, former Head of Department of Latin in the 
Philadelphia public school system. It is a fearless and devastating expose of Communism 
in America's schools, its concealed objectives, hidden motives, serpent-like power, and 
its vicious demoralization of children and adolescents. EVERY parent... EVERY educator... 
EVERY clergyman should read this book! [emphasis in original] 

The Fomentation : c. 1941 31 

Dr. Burchett has included, opposite the title page of her book, a photograph of one of the 
classrooms in the school in which she taught. Under the photo are the words "No communism 
in the public schools?" accompanied by the following comments: 

An observer, seeing that the largest poster in sight bears the letters U.S.S.R., might 
think that this is a picture of a school room in Russia. It is a picture of a room in a public 
school in Philadelphia. Did Superintendent Broome know about this? Did the Board of 
Education know about it? The picture is taken from Dr. Broome's Annual Report to the 
Board of Education, for the year ended June 30, 1936.... 

There had been a branch of the Young Communist League meeting in the South 
Philadelphia High School. According to the papers Miss Wanger made a great virtue of having 
disbanded it. Strangely, there was no "investigation" as to how it came to be meeting here in 
the first place, with a regularly assigned room and with a teacher as sponsor. 

In spite of the facts presented in Mr. Allen's circular, and in spite of such an 
amazing thing as the meeting of the Young Communist League in the school, Dr Broome, 
Superintendent of Schools, according to the Philadelphia Record of May 7, 1936, said: "I 
don't propose to investigate any general statement; if she (myself, Burchett) has anything 
specific to say I will be glad to hear her and investigate."... Recently, a special committee 
was appointed to consider the attacks on the "books of Harold 0. Rugg and others on the 
ground of subversive teaching." Dr. Edwin C. Broome was a member of that Committee. 
It is not surprising, therefore, that the Rugg books were white-washed in the Committee 
report of February 26, 1941. 

According to the above quotes. Dr. Edwin Broome, under whom Dr. Burchett worked, 
was deeply involved in curriculum changes favorable to indoctrination of the students 
in communism. Of special interest is the fact that Dr. Edwin Broome is the same Dr. 
Edwin Broome about whom Dorothy Dawson wrote in her article entitled "The Blueprint: 
Community-Centered Schools" for the Montgomery County, Maryland Advertiser, April 
11, 1973. Mrs. Dawson personally typed the original Blueprint for Montgomery County 
Schools for Dr. Broome to present to the board of education in 1946. An additional excerpt 
from Mrs. Dawson's article follows: 

In 1946 Dr Edwin W. Broome was Superintendent of Schools.... From the Maryland 
Teacher, May 1953: "Dr Edwin W. Broome announces retirement from Superintendency" 
by Mrs. Florence Massey Black, BCC High School. "Edwin W. Broome, the philosopher who 
took John Dewey out of his writings and put him to work in the classrooms of Montgomery 
County, is being honored upon his retirement this year by various groups in the State 
of Maryland and in his own county. He has served thirty-six years as superintendent of 
schools and forty-nine years in the county system. Greatly influenced by the late John 
Dewey, Edwin W. Broome set to work to show by analogy, specific example, and curriculum 
development, how each teacher could bring that philosophy into his work. And so it was 
that John Dewey came into the classrooms of Montgomery County. " 

[Ed. Note: Additionally, the Maryland Teacher did not mention that Dr. Broome had also 
served a controversial term as superintendent in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania pubhc school 
system. One might add that John Dewey not only came into the classrooms of Montgomery 
County, but also into all the classrooms of the United States, since the Montgomery County 
Plan was a pilot for the nation. This writer, when serving on her school's Philosophy 
Committee in 1973, had an updated copy of the "Montgomery County Philosophy" given 


to her by her Harvard-educated, change-agent superintendent. He recommended it as one 
philosophy statement to which our committee might wish to refer as we drew up a new 
philosophy for our school district. [See Appendix I for further excerpts from the Blueprint 
for Montgomery County Schools.]] 


In 1942 Time magazine (March 16, 1942) ran an extensive article in its Religion section 
dealing with a proposal by Protestant groups in the United States for a plan of action toward 
"a just and durable peace" for the years following the end of World War II. Excerpts from 
Time's "American Malvern" follow: 

These are the high spots of organized U.S. Protestantism's super-protestant new 
program for a just and durable peace after World War II: 

Ultimately, "a world government of delegated powers." 

Complete abandonment of U.S. isolationism. 

Strong immediate limitations on national sovereignty. 

International control of all armies and navies. 

A universal system of money. . . so planned as to prevent inflation and deflation. 

Worldwide freedom of immigration. 

Progressive elimination of all tariff and quota restrictions on world trade. 

"Autonomy for all subject and colonial peoples" [with much better treatment 

for Negroes in the U.S.). 

"No punitive reparations, no humiliating decrees of war guilt, no arbitrary 

dismemberment of nations." 

A "democratically controlled" international bank "to make development capital 

available in all parts of the world without the predatory and imperialistic aftermath 

so characteristic of large-scale private and governmental loans." 

This program was adopted last week by 375 appointed representatives of 30-odd 
denominations called together at Ohio Wesleyan University by the Federal Council of 
Churches. Every local Protestant church in the country will now be urged to get behind 
the program. "As Christian citizens," its sponsors affirmed, "we must seek to translate 
our beliefs into practical realities and to create a public opinion which will insure that 
the United States shall play its full and essential part in the creation of a moral way 
of international living."... 

The meeting showed its temper early by passing a set of 13 "requisite principles for 
peace" submitted by Chairman John Foster Dulles and his inter-church Commission to 
Study the Basis of a Just and Durable Peace. These principles, far from puthng all the 
onus on Germany or Japan, bade the U.S. give thought to the short-sightedness of its own 
policies after World War I, declared that the U.S. would have to turn over a new leaf if 
the world is to enjoy lasting peace.... 

Some of the conference's economic opinions were almost as sensational as the 
extreme internationalism of its political program. It held that "a new order of economic 
life is both imminent and imperative" — a new order that is sure to come either "through 

The Fomentation : c. 1943 33 

voluntary cooperation within the framework of democracy or through explosive political 
revolution." Without condemning the profit motive as such, it denounced various defects 
in the profit system for breeding war, demagogues and dictators, "mass unemployment, 
widespread dispossession from homes and farms, destitution, lack of opportunity for youth 
and of security for old age." Instead, "the church must demand economic arrangements 
measured by human welfare... must appeal to the Christian motive of human service as 
paramount to personal gain or governmental coercion." 

"Collectivism is coming, whether we like it or not," the delegates were told by no 
less a churchman than England's Dr. William Paton, co-secretary of the World Council of 
Churches, but the conference did not veer as far to the left as its definitely pinko British 
counterpart, the now famous Malvern Conference [Time, Jan. 20, 1941). It did, however, 
back up Labor's demand for an increasing share in industrial management. It echoed Labor's 
shibboleth that the denial of collective bargaining "reduces labor to a commodity. " It urged 
taxation designed "to the end that our wealth may be more equitably distributed." It urged 
experimentation with government and cooperative ownership.... 

The ultimate goal: "a duly constituted world government of delegated powers: an 
international legislative body, an international court with adequate jurisdiction, international 
administrative bodies with necessary powers, and adequate international police forces and 
provision for enforcing its worldwide economic authority." (pp. 44, 46-47] 


The American Federation of I^achers (AFT) published the book America, Russia and 

the Communist Party in the Postwar World by John L. Childs and George S. Counts [The John 
Day Co., New York). [The reader will recall previous entries in this book relating to George S. 
Counts's role in the promotion of collectivism in the early part of this century and a similar 
agenda mapped out by the Federal Council of Churches referenced earlier.) 

Prior to reading excerpts from this remarkably naive book, the reader is reminded 
that it was written after Stalin's mass terror of the 1930s, which included purges, trials, 
self-denunciations, disappearances, imprisonments and executions. Excerpts taken from 
the book's jacket follow: 

This book is the first in a series projected for publication by The Commission on 
Education and the Postwar World of the American Federation of Teachers.. . . It demonstrates 
beyond all argument that if this war is to be followed by a just and lasting peace, America 
and Russia must find a way to get along together. For the United Nations, including America 
and Russia, is the only agency that can establish such a peace. Russia's stupendous 
achievements, and her vast area, population, and resources, make her a world power 
second to none. We are blind if we think we can continue half grateful ally, half suspicious 
rival, of Russia. What then, stands in the way of good relations between America and Russia? 
It is not differences in social systems and ideologies, for these can [emphasis in original] 
exist side by side.... It is a twenty-five year legacy of mutual suspicion, fear, and active 
hostility. The removal of this legacy requires concessions on both sides. 

The preface states in part: 

Among the subjects already chosen (by the Commission) for study are the problems of 


American youth, education for world-citizenship, and the kind of educational program 
required to meet the demands of our technological society. 

Excerpts from chapter X, "Bases of Collaboration," are revealing: 

6. The United States, on her side, will have to make profound readjustments in her 
historical policy with regard to the rest of the world in general and with regard to the 
Soviet Union in particular.... The following constitute the bare minima of readjustments 
required of our country: 

a. She must abandon the notion that she can enjoy security and maintain her 
democratic way of life by adhering to her historic policy of no "entangling alliances. " 
She cannot have peace if she continues to disregard the fact of world-wide 
interdependence— economic, political, military, and cultural, [p. 80) 

c. She must enter unreservedly into the partnership of the United Nations.... 

e. She must revise her estimate of the enduring character of a coUectivist state. She 
must banish from her mind the naive doctrine, which controlled her relations with 
the Soviet Union in the early years of the Russian Revolution, that a coUectivist 
state, being contrary to the laws of human nature, economics, and morality, must 
sooner or later collapse, (p. 81]... 

g. She must repudiate her earUer pohcy toward the Soviet Union. She must convince 
the Russian people she wiU have no part whatsoever in any effort to isolate, to 
encircle, and to destroy their coUectivist state. . . . She must show by word, deed, and 
spirit that she is prepared to collaborate with nations of different traditions, different 
ideologies, and different economic and political systems in the organization of the 
world for peace and progress.... All of this means that those privUeged groups 
in our own society which are fearful of any change in our property relations 
[free enterprise system] and which were primarily responsible for the shaping 
of the earlier pohcy must not be permitted to determine our postwar relations 
with Russia, (p. 82] 

h. She must, finally, have a vivid consciousness of the weaknesses in her own 
domestic economy. She must realize that, in spite of the very real advances made 
in recent years, we have only begun to face the problem of rebuUding the economic 
foundations of our democracy. In the process of rebuUding perhaps we may be able 
to learn something from the experiences of the Russian people, (p. 83] 


In 1945 World War II ended. The preparation of a "Just and Durable Peace" to produce 
"a duly constituted world government" began. 

United Nations Charter became effective on October 24, 1945. Playing an iMPORtant 

role in the creation of the United Nations was the United States Chamber of Commerce. In 
1999 when parents find their local Chamber of Commerce deeply involved in the highly 
controversial, sociaUst/fascist, dumbing-down workforce training — necessary for a planned, 
global economy — the fact that the U.S. Chamber was a prime mover in establishing the 
United Nations should not be forgotten. The following information is excerpted from an 

The Fomentation : c. 1945 35 

important research paper by Erica Carle entitled "The Chamber of Commerce: Its Power 
and Goals" (December, 1983): 

Two slogans were popularized in order to gain backing for Chamber leadership: 
"World peace through world trade" and "More business in government and less government 
in business." 

The Chamber sought to commercialize the world under its own direction. To do this it 
needed to find ways to affect and bypass operating policies of various states and nations. To 
change national poUcies, and even laws, required popular support and collective action. A 
new type of blanket organization was needed, one that could blanket not only governments, 
but professions, unions, educational institutions, farms, industries, sciences, religions 
and even families. An organization was sought which could bring about the cooperation 
and commercialization of all of these. A strong controllable international blanket 
organization was needed. 

By the 1930's plans for the new blanket organization to serve the Chamber's purposes, 
the United Nations, were already well under way. The Chamber had the cooperation of 
tax-exempt foundations, some of which, such as the Carnegie Foundation for International 
Peace and the Rockefeher Foundation, had been set up early in the century. Large banks 
and trusts could see future profits for themselves if they cooperated with the Chamber; 
and the cooperation of international corporations was assumed, especially since Thomas 
J. Watson was President of the International Chamber of Commerce and a Trustee of the 
Carnegie Foundation for International Peace. 

World War II aided... efforts to establish a "rational" international commercial 
system.... The United Nations organization could be used to gain governments' compliance 
with the Chamber's plans for a unified, controlled world economy, and also the cooperation 
of various non-Governmental organizations. 

The following are some of the measures the Chamber of Commerce has supported 
to aid in the transfer of power from individuals and independent governments, groups, 
businesses and professions to the Chamber-advocated management system: 

1. Creation of the United Nations. 

2. Creation of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 

3. Regional Government or "New Federalism." 

4. Medicare (Commercialization of medical professions). 

5. Postal reorganization. 

6. Organized Crime Control Act. 

7. Contracting for school services with private industry. 

8. Voucher system for education. 

9. Management and human relations techniques for handling personnel in industry. 

10. Health care planning councils. 

11 . Prepaid medical practice (HMOs) . 

12. Federal land use planning. 

13. Federally-imposed career education. 

14. Equal Rights Amendment. 

15. Cross-town busing for desegregation.' 

Indiana University added two new faculty members to its roster in 1945. Dr. Burrhus 
Frederic (B.F.) Skinner became chairman of the Psychology Department and continued work 


on his forthcoming book, Walden 11. Dr. Hermann J. Muller [future Nobel Prize winner), 
zoologist and private advocate of forced sterilization and selective eugenics, arrived in the 
Zoology Department to join long-time faculty member Alfred C. Kinsey. A publicly-allied 
communist, Muller had authored the book Out of the Night: A Biologist's View of the Future 
(The Vanguard Press: New York, 1935), which dealt with selective breeding and the 
advocacy of cloning of masses of human "resources." [Thirteen years after Muller's death 
in 1967 a sperm bank was established in California in Muller's honor, the Repository 
for Germinal Choice, which stores and distributes the sperm of Nobel Prize winners and 
others of "exceptional" ability.) 


"The Psychiatry of Enduring Peace and Social Progress" in The William Alanson White 
Memorial Lectures by Major General G.B. [Brock] Chisholm, C.B.E., M.D., Deputy Minister of 
Health, Dept. of National Health and Welfare, Canada [Vol. 9, No. 1) was published in 1946. 
The book contained a foreword by Abe Fortas, former U.S. secretary of state. The article 
"The Psychiatry of Enduring Peace and Social Progress" was re-published in the March 1948 
[No. 437) issue of International Conciliation pubUshed by the World Health Organization and 
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. This last version included a preface written 
by Alger Hiss, former president of the Carnegie Endowment who would later be convicted 
of spying for the Soviet Union. It is important also to remember that Dr. David Hamburg, 
former president of the Carnegie Corporation of New York who signed the Carnegie 
Corporation/Soviet Academy of Science education agreement in 1985, is a psychiatrist. 
Excerpts from Brock Chisholm's article follow: 

The re-interpretation and eventually eradication of the concept of right and wrong 
which has been the basis of child training, the substitution of intelligent and rational 
thinking for faith in the certainties of the old people, these are the belated objectives of 
practically all effective psychotherapy. Would it not be sensible to stop imposing our local 
prejudices and faiths on children and give them all sides of every question so that in their 
own time they may have the ability to size things up, and make their own decisions? ...If 
the race is to be freed from its crippling burden of good and evil it must be psychiatrists 
who take the original responsibility.... The people who matter are the teachers, the 
young mothers and fathers, the parent-teacher associations, youth groups, service clubs, 
schools and colleges, the churches and Sunday schools — everyone who can be reached and 
given help toward intellectual freedom and honesty for themselves and for the children 
whose future depends on them.... 

The battle, if it is to be undertaken, will be long and difficult but the truth will 
prevail — whenever enough people want it to. With luck we have perhaps fifteen or twenty 
years before the outbreak of the next world war if we remain as we are, twenty years in 
which to change the dearest certainties of enough of the human race, twenty years in which 
to root out and destroy the oldest and most flourishing parasitical growth in the world, the 
tree of the knowledge of good and evil, so that man may learn to preserve his most precious 
heritage, his innocence and intellectual freedom, twenty years in which to remove the 
necessity for the perverse satisfactions to be found in warfare. 

The Fomentation : c. 1946 37 

If the reader is inclined to dismiss the above statements by Brock Chisholm as statements 
from an individual biased by his psychiatric profession and spoken at a point in time 
remote from today, please read the following statement by U.S. Ambassador to the United 
Nations Madeline Albright in Atlanta, Georgia, September of 1996, as it appeared in The 
Congressional Digest for January 1997: 

Setting Global Standards. The United Nations is one instrument that we use to make 
this world a little less inhumane, a little less brutal, a little less unfair than it otherwise 
would be. This brings us to another important, and basic, function of the United 
Nations. And that is its role in creating a global consensus about what is right and 
what is wrong, [p. 14) 

[Ed. Note: The reader should refer back to the preface of this book, the deliberate dumbing 
down of america, for discussion of the need to create robots who do not know right from 
wrong and who do not have a conscience — leaving the determination of right and wrong to 
the proposed United Nations "Global Conscience."] 

C.S. Lewis wrote That Hideous Strength (Copyright by Clive Staples Lewis: Macmillan 
Company: New York, 1946). Lewis's uncanny ability to predict accurately how society 
would be manipulated into acceptance of totalitarian control was displayed in the following 
excerpt taken from a conversation Lewis's fictitious Lord Feverstone had with a young 
man named Mark: 

[Feverstone] "Man has got to take charge of Man. That means, remember, that some 
men have got to take charge of the rest — which is another reason for cashing in on it 
as soon as one can. You and I want to be the people who do the taking charge, not the 
ones who are taken charge of. Quite. " 

"What sort of thing have you in mind?" 

"Quite simple and obvious things, at first — sterilization of the unfit, liquidation of 
backward races (we don't want any dead weights), selective breeding. Then real education, 
including pre-natal education. By real education I mean one that has no 'take-it-or-leave-it' 
nonsense. A real education makes the patient what it wants infallibly: whatever he 
or his parents try to do about it. Of course, it'll have to be mainly psychological at 
first. But we'll get on to biochemical conditioning in the end and direct manipulation 
of the brain...." 

"But this is stupendous, Feverstone. " 

"It's the real thing at last. A new type of man: and it's people like you who've 
got to begin to make him." 

"That's my trouble. Don't think it's false modesty, but I haven't yet seen how 
I can contribute. " 

"No, but we have. You are what we need: a trained sociologist with a radically reahstic 
outlook, not afraid of responsibility. Also, a sociologist who can write." 

"You don't mean you want me to write up all this? " 

"No. We want you to write it down — to camouflage it. Qnly for the present, of course. 
Once the thing gets going we shan't have to bother about the great heart of the British 
pubHc. We'll make the great heart what we want it to be." (p. 42) 

[Ed. Note: Appendix XXVI contains an example of Brian Rowan's literary fulfillment of 


Feverstone's request for "a trained sociologist who can write." It is also interesting to note 
that William Spady, the "father of OBE," is a sociologist as well. The definition by Feverstone 
of "real education" not being "take-it-or-leave-it nonsense" reflects the 1990s outcome-based 
education reform call for emphasis on "outputs" rather than on constitutionally supported 
"inputs" discussed in chapter 1.] 

Community-Centered Schools: The Blueprint for Montgomery County Schools, Maryland, 
was proposed by Dr. Nicholaus L. Englehardt and Associates, Consultants, and written by 
Dr. Walter D. Cocking of New York City on April 1, 1946. This material was provided by the 
late Dorothy Dawson who was secretary to the superintendent of schools of Montgomery 
County, Maryland, Dr. Edwin Broome. Mrs. Dawson typed this Blueprint for presentation 
to the Montgomery County Board of Education. [See Appendix I.) The Letter of Transmittal 
that accompanied The Blueprint said: 

Dr. Paul Mort and others have accumulated evidence which shows a period of almost 
fifty years between the establishment of need [needs assessment] and the school programs 
geared to meet it... if the school as an agency of society is to justify itself for the period 
ahead of us, it must be accepted that its fundamental function is to serve the people of the 
entire community, the very young children, the children of middle years, early adolescent 
youth, older youth and the adults as well. 

"Learning and Peace: UNESCO Starts Its Work" by Richard A. Johnson was printed in 

the October 1946 [No. 424) issue of International Conciliation published by the Carnegie 
Endowment for International Peace. This booklet gives the history of UNESCO [United 
Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) from the Conference of Allied 
Ministers of Education in 1943-45, through legislation authorizing United States membership 
in UNESCO [P.L. 565, 79th Congress) approved July 30, 1946. President Harry Truman's 
remarkable statement of the same date accompanied this legislation: "[E]ducation must 
estabUsh the moral unity of mankind." 

The Educational ItsTiNC Service (ETS) of Princeton, New Jersey, was funded with an 
initial endowment of $750,000 from the Carnegie Corporation in 1946. 

[Ed. Note: For further amplification and understanding of the far-reaching implications 
of the relationship between Educational Testing Service and the Carnegie Corporation, the 
reader should be sure to read: 1964 entry regarding the National Assessment of Educational 
Progress [NAEP) which ETS administers; two 1995 entries for articles from The Bismarck 
[North Dakota) Tribune dealing with NAEP; and Appendix IV.] 


National "Riaining Laboratory (NTL) was established in 1947. The first LABORAtory 

session on human relations and group processes was held at Gould Academy in Bethel, 

The Fomentation : c. 1948 39 

Maine. Founders of the National Training Laboratory had important connections with the 
Office of Strategic Services (OSS] — World War II forerunner to the Central Intelligence Agency 
[CIA). The NTL would become — with the National Education Association [NEA) — a premiere 
agency for human relations training [change agent/brainwashing) . 

A 1962 book pubhshed jointly by NTL and the NEA entitled Five Issues in Training 
addressed the process of "unfreezing, changing, and refreezing" attitudes in order to bring 
about change by stating the following: "The Chinese communists would remove the target 
person from those situations and social relationships which tended to confirm and reinforce 
the vahdity of the old attitudes." [p. 49) 

This process is widely used in education, theology, medicine, business, government, 
etc., by pressuring individuals to participate in "retreats," removing them from familiar 
surroundings to "unfreeze" their attitudes and values. People have been coming from all 
over the world to attend these retreats at NTL in Bethel, Maine since its founding. An excerpt 
from the 1977 issue of NTL Newsletter follows: 

From the New Britain workshop dialogues of the founders emerged the notions of "action 
research laboratory" and "change agent" which were terms coined to denote a very vigorous 
proactive social change kind of posture, a merging of radical education, deviant behavioral 
science, and humanistic democracy. 

Higher Education for American Democracy; v. 3, Organizing Higher Education, report 
of the President's Commission on Higher Education [U.S. Government Printing Office: 
Washington, D.C., 1947) was circulated. It revealed that: 

The role which education will play officially must be conditioned essentially by policies 
established by the State Department in this country and by ministries of foreign affairs 
in other countries. Higher education must play a very important part in carrying out in 
this country the program developed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and 
Cultural Organization and in influencing that program by studies and reports bearing upon 
international relations.... The tJnited States Office of Education must be prepared to work 
effectively with the State Department and with the UNESCO, [p. 48) 


Sexual Behavior in the Human Male by Alfred C. Kinsey with Wardell Pomeroy, Clyde 
Martin and Paul Gebhard [WB. Saunders: Philadelphia, PA, 1948) was pubhshed. This book 
and the controversial "research" it represented became a hghtning rod around which much 
social turmoil was generated in this country and abroad. 

As Judith Reisman, Ph.D., has described in her book, Kinsey: Crimes and Consequences^ 
[Institute for Media Education: Arlington, Va., 1998): 

Three books written by leading legal, scholarly, and scientific authorities and assisted by 
Kinsey, were published in 1948 in tandem with Kinsey's Sexual Behavior in the Human 
Male. All three books called for legal implementation of Kinsey's "grand scheme" to loosen. 


alter and/or overturn America's laws concerning sexual behavior. 

Those books were: [1) Sexual Habits of American Men: A Symposium on the Kinsey 
Report, edited by Albert Deutsch [Prentice Hall: New York, 1948); [2) American Sexual 
Behavior and the Kinsey Report by Morris Ernst and David Loth [WW. Norton: New York, 
1948); and [3) a re-pubUcation of the 1933 book The Ethics of Sexual Acts [Alfred A. 
Knoff: New York, 1948) by Rene Guyon, French jurist and pedophile noted for having 
coined the phrase in reference to children: "Sex before eight or it's too late." To further 
elaborate on the connections of these books and ideas generated by them, Reisman wrote 
on page 189 of her book: 

Dr. Harry Benjamin, an endocrinologist and international sexologist, and close 
friend and correspondent of both Kinsey and Guyon, wrote of their collaboration in his 
Introduction to Guyon's 1948 book: 

Many... sex activities, illegal and immoral, but widely practiced, are 
recorded by both investigators... Guyon speaking as a philosopher, and 
Kinsey, judging merely by empirical data... [are] upsetting our most cherished 
conventions. Unless we want to close our eyes to the truth or imprison 95% of 
our male population, we must completely revise our legal and moral codes.... It 
probably comes as a jolt to many, even open-minded people, when they realize 
that chastity cannot be a virtue because it is not a natural state. 

[Ed. Note: The above extraordinary statement revealed the depth of some very perverse 
thinking in the area of human sexuality — thinking which would become institutionalized 
to the extent that in 1999 the American Psychological Association [APA) felt comfortable 
publishing in its Journal a study suggesting that pedophilia is harmless and even beneficial 
if consensual. According to an article in the June 10, 1999 issue of The Washington Times, 
entitled "Psychology Group Regrets Publishing Pedophilia Report: Practice Not Always 
Harmful, Article Said," the APA was taken by surprise when "its report provoked angry 
public reaction, including a House of Representatives resolution condemning it. It followed 
up with an abrupt about-face in an apologetic letter to House Majority Whip Tom DeLay" 
which expressed regret— not that it supported the idea of acceptable adult-child sex— but 
that the article had been published in a pubhc journal.] 

To prove the march toward sexual revolution had, indeed, reached the courts, Reisman 
further quotes Manfred S. Guttmacher, M.D., author of The Role of Psychiatry and Law 
[Charles C. Thomas: Springfield, 111., 1968) and special consultant to the American Law 
Institute Model Penal Code Committee: 

In 1950 the American Law Institute began the monumental task of writing a Model Penal 
Code. I am told that a quarter of a century earlier the Institute had approached the 
RockefeUer Foundation for the funds needed to carry out this project, but at that time. Dr. 
Alan Gregg, man of great wisdom, counseled the Foundation to wait, that the behavioral 
sciences were on the threshold of development to the point at which they could be of great 
assistance. Apparently, the Institute concluded that the time has arrived. 

The Fomentation : c. 1948 41 

Walden Two, a novel by B.F. Skinner (The Macmillan Company: New York, 1948) was 

published. Skinner recommended in this novel that children be reared by the state; to be 
trained from birth to demonstrate only desirable characteristics and behavior. He also wrote 
on page 312 of the paperback edition: 

What was needed was a new conception of man, compatible with our scientific knowledge, 
which would lead to a philosophy of education bearing some relation to educational 
practices. But to achieve this, education would have to abandon the technical limitations 
which it had imposed upon itself and step forth into a broader sphere of human engineering. 
Nothing short of a complete revision of a culture would suffice. 

The late Professor Skinner died before his ideal school described in Walden II would 
become somewhat of a reality — a "Model School for the 21st Century." The following excerpts 
from Walden Two contain some restructuring terminology and resemble in many ways what 
a "restructured" school is supposed to look like in the 1990s: 

A much better education would cost less if society were better organized. 

We can arrange things more expeditiously here because we don't need to be constantly 
re-educating. The ordinary teacher spends a good share of her time changing the cultural 
and intellectual habits which the child acquires from its family and surrounding culture. Or 
else the teacher duplicates home training, in a complete waste of time. Here we can almost 
say that the school is the family, and vice versa, [emphasis in original] 

...We don't need "grades." Everyone knows that talents and abilities don't develop 
at the same rate in different children. A fourth-grade reader may be a sixth-grade 
mathematician. The grade is an administrative device which does violence to the nature of 
the developmental process. Here the child advances as rapidly as he likes in any field. No 
time is wasted in forcing him to participate in, or be bored by, activities he has outgrown. 
And the backward child can be handled more efficiently too. 

We also don't require all our children to develop the same abilities or skills. We don't 
insist upon a certain set of courses. I don't suppose we have a single child who has had a 
"secondary school education," whatever that means. But they've all developed as rapidly as 
advisable, and they're well educated in many useful respects. By the same token, we don't 
waste time in teaching the unteachable. The fixed education represented by a diploma is a 
bit of conspicuous waste which has no place in Walden Two. We don't attach an economic 
or honorific value to education. It has its own value or none at all. 

Since our children remain happy, energetic, and curious, we don't need to teach 
"subjects" at all. We teach only the techniques of learning and thinking. As for geography, 
literature, the sciences — we give our children opportunity and guidance, and they learn 
them for themselves. In that way we dispense with half the teachers required under the old 
system, and the education is incomparably better. Our children aren't neglected, but they're 
seldom, if ever, taught anything, [emphasis in original] [pp. 118-120) 

In the United States, 1990s teachers are instructed to act as facilitators and guidance 
counselors. Computer technology will take care of workforce training and whatever 
"education" remains. Wisconsin history teacher Gene Malone wrote a short review of Walden 
Two. Some of Malone's excerpts follow: 

Walden Tluo is fiction based on a Utopian community named after Henry David Thoreau's 
nature-Utopia, Walden Pond. Burris... teUing the story of a planned society appears 


to be B.F. Skinner speaking. Frazier is the planner/manager/founder of the Utopia.... 
The Utopia/Walden Two is presented in the United States. Burris and his friends are 
given a tour of Walden Two and Castle is unimpressed. Burris, at the end, joins Walden 
Two. Quotes follow from pages: 

92 — "Community love" 

245 — "We not only can control human behavior, we MUST." 

219 — "The new order." 

189 — "Psychologists are our priests." 

188 — "Walden Two is not a religious community." 

282 — "Their behavior is determined, yet they're free." 

286 — "What is love, except another name for the use of positive reinforcement?" 

278 — "Let us control the lives of our children and see what we can make of them." 

274 — "Behave as you ought!" 

186 — "We can make men adequate for group living.... That was our faith." 

134 — "Our goal is to have every adult member of Walden Two regard our children as 

his own, and to have every child think of every adult as his parent." 
135 — "No sensible person will suppose that love or affection has anything to 

do with blood." 
112 — "Education in Walden Two is part of the life of the community.... Our children 

begin to work at a very early age. " 
108 — "History is honored in Walden Two only as entertainment." 
105 — "We are always thinking of the whole group." 
160— "We are opposed to competition." 
139 — "The community, as a revised family" 

Conclusion: This fictional presentation of Skinner's ideal community is much like the 
language and laws in use today by the behavioral elite — describing their plans for your 
children, your schools, your country. It is behavior management by the unchosen. 

During the year of 1948, Dr. Skinner moved his family from Indiana University to 
Cambridge, Massachusetts to join the faculty of Harvard University. 

During 1948 Alger Hiss, who later would be convicted of spying for the Soviet Union, 
wrote the preface to Gen. Brock Chisholm's lecture, "The Psychiatry of Enduring Peace and 
Social Progress," which was re-published in International Conciliation [No. 437, March, 1948, 
p. 109). Alger Hiss was at that time president of the Carnegie Endowment for International 
Peace, the publisher of International Conciliation. The preface to Chisholm's lecture, which 
redefined the word "health," follows: 

The World Health Organization came into formal existence early in February. 
For nearly a year and a half its most urgent functions have been performed by an 
Interim Commission. 

The new specialized agency carries on one of the most successful parts of the work 
of the League of Nations. The Constitution of the World Health Organization, however, has 
a far wider basis than that established for the League organization, and embodies in its 
provisions the broadest principles in public health service today. Defining health as a "state 
of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease 

The Fomentation : c. 1949 43 

or infirmity," it includes not only the more conventional fields of activity but also mental 
health, housing, nutrition, economic or working conditions, and administrative and 
social tech- niques affecting public health. In no other held is international cooperation 
more essential and in no other field has it been more effective and political difference 
less apparent. 

The present issue of International Conciliation reviews the history of the Interim 
Commission through its last meeting in February. The first World Health Assembly will 
convene in June 1948. A brief introductory article has been prepared by Dr. Brock Chisholm, 
Executive Secretary, World Health Organization, Interim Commission. Dr. Chisholm is an 
eminent psychiatrist and served during the war as Director-General of Medical Services 
of the Canadian Army. The main discussion of the World Health Organization has been 
contributed by C.E.A. Winslow, Professor Emeritus of the Yale University and Editor of 
the American Journal of Public Health. Dr. Winslow has been a member of the Board of 
Scientific Directors of the International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation, 
Medical Director of the League of the Red Cross Societies, and Expert Assessor of the Health 
Committee of the League of Nations. 

Alger Hiss, President 
New York, New York 
February 21, 1948 


Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction (University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 
1949) by Professor Ralph Tyler, chairman of the Department of Education at the University 
of Chicago, was pubhshed. Tyler stated that: 

Since the real purpose of education is not to have the instructor perform certain activities 
but to bring about significant changes in the student's pattern of behavior, it becomes 
important to recognize that any statement of the objective... should be a statement of 
changes to take place in the student. 


In 1950 "Man out of a Job: Pasadena Tries too Late to Hold onto Its School 

Superintendent" was carried in Life Magazine [December 11, 1950). An excerpt follows: 

Last month criticism of [Willard] Goslin took a serious turn. A militant citizens' group 
accused him of permitting Communistic influences in the schools — because he continued 
already established classes in sex education and favored the elimination of report cards. 
Then while Goslin was in New York City on business, the school board sent him a 
telegram asking him to resign. 



"The Greatest Subversive Plot in History: Report to the American People on UNESCO" 
from The Congressional Record, Proceedings and Debates of the 82nd Congress, First Session 
in 1951 included the extended remarks of Hon. John T. Wood (Idaho) in the U.S. House of 
Representatives, Thursday, October 18. Excerpts follow: 

Mr. Speaker, I am herewith appending an article published by the American Flag 
Committee... bearing the title "A Report to the American People on UNESCO." Just how 
careless and unthinking can we be that we permit this band of spies and traitors to exist 
another day in this land we all love? Are there no limits to our callousness and neglect of 
palpable and evident treason stalking rampant through our land, warping the minds and 
imaginations of even our little children, to the lying propaganda and palpable untruths we 
allow to be fed to them through this monstrous poison?... 

UNESCO's scheme to pervert public education appears in a series of nine volumes, 
titled Toward World Understanding which presume to instruct kindergarten and elementary 
grade teachers in the fine art of preparing our youngsters for the day when their first 
loyalty will be to a world government, of which the United States will form but an 
administrative part.... 

The program is quite specific. The teacher is to begin by eliminating any and all words, 
phrases, descriptions, pictures, maps, classroom material or teaching methods of a sort 
causing his pupils to feel or express a particular love for, or loyalty to, the United States of 
America. Children exhibiting such prejudice as a result of prior home influence — UNESCO 
calls it the outgrowth of the narrow family spirit — are to be dealt an abundant measure 
of counter propaganda at the earliest possible age. Booklet V, on page 9, advises the 
teacher that: 

The kindergarten or infant school has a significant part to play in the child's education. 
Not only can it correct many of the errors of home training, but it can also prepare 
the child for membership, at about the age of seven, in a group of his own age and 
habits — the first of many such social identifications that he must achieve on his way 
to membership in the world society. 

While You Slept: Our Tragedy in Asia and Who Made It by John T. Flynn (The 

Devin-Adair Co., New York, 1951) was published. This Cold War treatise on the connections 
between the American left-wing elite and Communist organizers concludes with the following 
statement and significant quotation which served as an early warning, heralded again 
and again throughout this book: 

While we arm against Russia, we remain defenseless against the enemies within our 
walls. It is they, not Stalin's flyers or soldiers or atomic bombers, who will destroy us. One 
of the greatest of all Americans once made a speech on the "Perpetuation of our Political 
Institutions." It is these institutions from which we draw our great strength and promise of 
survival. It was Abraham Lincoln who said: 

Shall we expect a transatlantic military giant to step the ocean and crush us at a 
blow? Never! All the armies of Europe, Asia and Africa combined with all the treasure of 
the earth (our own excepted) in their military chest, with a Bonaparte for a commander. 

The Fomentation : c. 1952 45 

could not by force take a drink from the Ohio or make a track on the Blue Ridge in a trail 
of a thousand years.... At what point then is the approach of danger to be expected? I 
answer: If it [should] ever reach us it must spring up amongst us; it cannot come from 
abroad. If destruction be our lot, we must ourselves be its author and finisher. As a nation 
of freemen we must live through all times or die by suicide.' 

Impact of Science upon Society by Bertrand Russell (Columbia University Press: 

New York, 1951; Simon and Schuster: New York, 1953) was published. What follows 
calls to mind the extensive use of behavior modification techniques on students, causing 
them to question and reject traditional values, and preparing them to willingly submit 
to totalitarian controls: 

Education should aim at destroying free will so that after pupils are thus schooled 
they will be incapable throughout the rest of their lives of thinking or acting otherwise 
than as their school masters would have wished.... Influences of the home are obstructive; 
and in order to condition students, verses set to music and repeatedly intoned are very 
effective.... It is for a future scientist to make these maxims precise and discover exactly 
how much it costs per head to make children believe that snow is black. When the 
technique has been perfected, every government that has been in charge of education 
for more than one generation will be able to control its subjects securely without the 
need of armies or policemen. 


Subversive Influence in the Educational Process: Hearings before the SuBcoumittee to 

Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of 
the Committee on the Judiciary: United States Senate, Eighty-Second Congress, Second Session 
on Subversive Influence in the Educational Process was printed for the Committee on the 
Judiciary [Printing Office: Washington, D.C., Sept. 9, 10, 23, 24, 25 and October 13, 1952). 
Robert Morris was counsel and Benjamin Mandel was director of research for this project. 
Excerpts from the testimony of Bella V. Dodd, New York, who was accompanied by her 
attorney Godfrey P. Schmidt, follow: 

Mr. Morris: Dr Dodd, how recently have you been associated with the Communist 

Mrs. Dodd: June 1949. 
Mr. Morris: Do you mean you severed your connection with the Communist Party 

at that time? 
Mrs. Dodd: They severed their connection with me. I had previously tried to find 

my way out of the Communist Party. In 1949 they formally issued a resolution 

of expulsion.... 
Mr. Morris: Dr. Dodd, will you tell us what relationship you bore to the Communist 

Party organization while you were the legislative representative for the Teachers' 

Mrs. Dodd: Well, I soon got to know the majority of the people in the top leadership 


of the Teachers' Union were Communists, or, at least, were influenced by the 
Communist organization in the city. 

Sen. Homer Ferguson [Mich.): In other words, the steering committee, as I take 
your testimony, was used for the purpose of steering the teachers along the line 
that communism desired? 

Mrs. Dodd: On political questions, yes.... I would say also on certain educational 
questions. You take, for instance, the whole question of theory of education, 
whether it should be progressive education or whether it should be the more 
formal education. The Communist Party as a whole adopted a line of being 
for progressive education. And that would be carried on through the steering 
committee and into the union.** 

[Ed. Note: Let us look ahead to 1985 to the U.S. -Soviet Education Agreement signed by 
Presidents Reagan and Gorbachev, and the Carnegie-Soviet Education Agreement. It was the 
same Robert Morris who served as counsel for the Senate Judiciary Committee's investigation 
who later, in 1989 as the new president of America's Future, Inc., permitted the publication 
of this writer's pamphlet "Soviets in the Classroom: America's Latest Education Fad" — four 
years after the agreements were signed. At that time, Mr. Morris — as politically knowledgeable 
and astute a person as one could hope to meet— was completely unaware of the agreements! 
The major conservative organizations and media had refused to publicize these treasonous 
agreements, with the exception of two well-known organizations which gave them "once 
over lightly" treatment.] 

Cooperative Procedures in Learning (Columbia University Press: New York, 1952) 

by Alice Miel, professor of education at Teachers College of Columbia University, and 
associates at the Bureau of Publications at Teachers College of Columbia University was 
published. Excerpts follow: 

[Foreword] As is true of most of the pubHcations of the Horace Mann-Lincoln Institute 
of School Experimentation, Cooperative Procedures in Learning represents the work of many 
people and emphasizes the experimental approach to curriculum improvement. 

Having just completed a unit in social studies, we spent today's class period planning 
the procedure for a new unit. I started the discussion by pointing out the three methods by 
which we had studied other units: (1) individual project work, [2] group project work, [3] 
textbook work. I asked the class to consider these three methods and then to decide which 
they preferred, or suggest another method for studying our coming work. 

It was here that I noticed that most of those who seemed in favor of group projects 
were students who were well developed socially and had worked well with others in the 
past, whereas those favoring individual projects were almost entirely the A students who 
obviously knew they were capable of doing good work on their own and would receive 
more recognition for it through individual work. 

[Ed. Note: The coUectivist philosophy that the group is more important than the individual got 
off the ground in education in the 1950s as a result of the experimental research of educators 
conducting work similar to that of Alice Miel. By the 1990s egalitarian dumbing-down, 
outcome-based education— with its cooperative learning, mastery learning, group grades, 
total quality management, etc.— is the accepted method in the schools of education 

The Fomentation : c. 1953 47 

and in the classroom.! 

In 1952 "Modern Math" was introduced to dumb down math students so that they 

couldn't apply the math concepts to "real hfe situations when they get out of schools," 
according to a "Dr. Ziegler" who served as chairman of the Education Committee of the 
Council on Foreign Relations in 1928. [Refer to 1928 entry concerning O.A. Nelson, math 
teacher, for background of this entry.) 


Norman Dodd, a Yale graduate, intellectual and New York City investment banker, 

was chosen to be the research director for the Reece Committee of the U.S. House of 
Representatives in 1953. The Reece Committee was named for its creator. Rep. Carroll Reece 
of Tennessee, and was formed to investigate the status of tax-exempt foundations. Dodd sent 
committee questionnaires to numerous foundations, and as a result of one such request, 
Joseph E. Johnson, president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, invited 
Dodd to send a committee staffer to Carnegie headquarters in New York City to examine the 
minutes of the meetings of the foundation's trustees. These minutes had long since been 
stored away in a warehouse. Obviously, Johnson, who was a close friend of former Carnegie 
Endowment's president and Soviet spy Alger Hiss, had no idea what was in them. 

The minutes revealed that in 1910 the Carnegie Endowment's trustees asked themselves 
this question: "Is there any way known to man more effective than war, to so alter the life 
of an entire people?" For a year the trustees sought an effective "peaceful" method to "alter 
the life of an entire people. " Ultimately, they concluded that war was the most effective way 
to change people. Consequently, the trustees of the Carnegie Endowment for International 
Peace next asked themselves: "How do we involve the United States in a war?" And they 
answered, "We must control the diplomatic machinery of the United States by first gaining 
control of the State Department." Norman Dodd stated that the trustees' minutes reinforced 
what the Reece Committee had uncovered elsewhere about the Carnegie Endowment: "It had 
already become a powerful policy-making force inside the State Department. " 

During those early years of the Carnegie Endowment, war clouds were already forming 
over Europe and the opportunity of enactment of their plan was drawing near. History proved 
that World War I did indeed have an enormous impact on the American people. For the first 
time in our history, large numbers of wives and mothers had to leave their homes to work 
in war factories, thus effectively eroding woman's historic role as the "heart" of the family. 
The sanctity of the family itself was placed in jeopardy. Life in America was so thoroughly 
changed that, according to Dodd's findings, "[T]he trustees had the brashness to congratulate 
themselves on the wisdom and validity of their original decision." They sent a confidential 
message to President Woodrow Wilson, insisting that the war not be ended too quickly. 

After the war, the Carnegie Endowment trustees reasoned that if they could get control 
of education in the United States they would be able to prevent a return to the way of hfe 
as it had been prior to the war. They recruited the Rockefeller Foundation to assist in such 
a monumental task. According to Dodd's Reece Committee report: "They divided the task 
in parts, giving to the Rockefeller Foundation the responsibility of altering education as it 


pertains to domestic subjects, but Carnegie retained the task of altering our education in 
foreign affairs and about international relations. " 

During a subsequent personal meeting with Mr. Dodd, President Rowan Gaither of 
the Ford Foundation said, "Mr. Dodd, we invited you to come here because we thought 
that perhaps, off the record, you would be kind enough to tell us why the Congress is 
interested in the operations of foundations such as ours?" Gaither answered his own rhetorical 
question with a startling admission: 

Mr. Dodd, all of us here at the policy making level of the foundation have at one time or 
another served in the OSS [Office of Strategic Services, CIA forerunner] or the European 
Economic Administration, operating under directives from the White House. We operate 
under those same directives.... The substance under which we operate is that we shall use 
our grant making power to so alter life in the United States that we can be comfortably 
merged with the Soviet Union. 

Stunned, Dodd rephed, "Why don't you teh the American people what you just told 
me and you could save the taxpayers thousands of dollars set aside for this investigation?" 
Gaither responded, "Mr. Dodd, we wouldn't think of doing that." 

In public, of course, Gaither never admitted what he had revealed in private. However, 
on numerous public occasions Norman Dodd repeated what Gaither had said, and was neither 
sued by Gaither nor challenged by the Ford Foundation. Dodd was subsequently warned that 
"If you proceed with the investigation as you have outlined, you will be killed. '"^ 

The Reece Committee never completely finished its work of investigating and receiving 
testimony in open hearings involving the representatives of the major tax-exempt foundations. 
The process was completely disrupted and finally derailed by the deliberately disruptive 
activity of one of its members. Congressman Wayne Hays of Ohio. According to general 
counsel for the Reece Committee, Renee A. Wormser's account in Foundations: Their Power 
and Influence [Devin- Adair: New York, 1958, p. 341), "[Hays] was frank enough to tell us 
that he had been put on the committee by Mr. [Sam] Rayburn, the Democratic Leader in 
the House, as the equivalent of a watchdog. Just what he was to 'watch' was not made 
clear until it became apparent that Mr. Hays was making it his business to frustrate the 
investigation to the greatest extent possible. " 

[Ed. Note: The Cox Committee, created by Congress as a result of Rep. E.E. Cox of 
Georgia submitting a resolution to the House of Representatives in the 82nd Congress, was 
a forerunner of the Reece Committee. The Cox Committee was created to "direct a thorough 
investigation of foundations." However, just as the Reece Committee which followed, 
the Cox Committee was unable to get to the bottom of tax-exempt foundation affairs. 
Again, according to Mr. Wormser, "The Cox Committee did find that there had been a 
Communist, Moscow-directed plot to infiltrate American foundations and to use their 
funds for Communist purposes."] 

Science and Human Behavior by B.F. Skinner (Macmillan & Co.: New York, 1953) was 

published. To quote Skinner again, "Operant conditioning shapes behavior as a sculptor 
shapes a lump of clay. " 

The Fomentation : c. 1953 49 

Alfred C. Kinsey, along with Wardell Pomeroy, Clyde Martin, and Paul Gebhard, 

published Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (W.B. Saunders: Philadelphia, Pa., 1953). 
According to Professor David Allyn, lecturer in the Department of History at Princeton 
University, this book, along with Kinsey's Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, served 
to solidify the move which 

changed the way social scientists studied sexuality by breaking from the accepted social 
hygienic, psychoanalytic, psychiatric and physiological approaches.... [Kinsey's work] 
played [a] critical role in the mid-century privatization of morality. In the post- WWII era, 
experts abandoned the concept of "pubhc morals," a concept which had underpinned the 
social control of American sexuality from the 1870's onward.... In the 1950's and 60's, 
however, sexual morality was privatized, and the state-controlled, highly regulated moral 
economy of the past gave way to a new, "deregulated" moral market.... Kinsey's [work] 
argued against government interference in private life. 

[Ed. Note: The above statement by Allyn was made during a presentation entitled "Private 
Acts/Public Policy: Alfred Kinsey, the American Law Institute and the Privatization of 
American Sexual Morality" at the 1995 Chevron Conference on the History of the Behavioral 
and Social Sciences as part of a special symposium on Alfred Kinsey. Allyn acknowledged the 
Charles Warren Center at Harvard University and the Rockefeller Archive Center as providing 
grants which made his research possible.] 

Dr. Lewis Albert Alesen published a fascinating book entitled Mental Robots [The 
Caxton Printers, Ltd.: Caldwell, Idaho, 1953). Dr. Alesen, distinguished physician and 
surgeon, served as president of the Cahfornia Medical Association from 1952-1953, and also 
wrote The Physician's Responsibility as a Leader. Some excerpts from Dr. Alesen's chapter 7 
of Mental Robots, "The Tools of Robotry," follow: 

Herbert A. Philbrick [double agent and author of / Led Three Lives] has been recently 
quoted as stressing that Soviet psychiatry is the psychiatry of Pavlov, upon whose original 
work on dogs the theory of the conditioned reflex is based. This conditioned reflex is the 
principle underlying all of the procedures employed by the Soviets in their brain-washing 
and brain-changing techniques. Under its skillful use the human can be, and has been in 
countless instances, so altered as completely to transform the concepts previously held and 
to prepare the individual so treated for a docile acceptance of all manner of authoritarian 
controls. The psychiatrist boasts that he possesses the power to alter human personality, 
and he has certainly made good his boast in many respects, at least to the extent of 
being able to force phony confessions out of men like Cardinal Mindszenty, Robert 
Vogeler, and a host of others who have been subjected to all manner of torture during 
their period of conditioning. 

In a book entitled Conditioned Reflex Therapy by Andrew Salte, published in 1949 by 
the Creative Age Press, individual free will, freedom of choice, and, of course, individual 
responsibility are categorically denied in these words: 

We are meat in which habits have taken up residence. We are a result of the way 
other people have acted to us. We are the reactions. Having conditioned reflexes means 
carrying about pieces of past realities.... We think with our habits, and our emotional 
training determines our thinking. Where there is a conditioned reflex, there is no will. Our 


"will power" is dependent on our previously learned reflexes. 

Certainly it is true that the Communists, both in Russia, China, and the Iron Curtain 
countries, have accomplished spectacular changes in the thinking of millions of their 
citizens. Whether or not this mass changing is altogether sincere or durable is not for the 
moment as significant as the fact that it has taken place, and that based upon it there has 
been, apparently, a ready acceptance of revolutionary doctrines radically defying former 
custom and accepted usage, and transforming the individual under this spell of persuasion 
or compulsion into an individual possessing entirely different characteristics from those 
formerly exhibited. And thus, whole new social, economic, political, and even religious 
regimes have been accepted in a comparatively short time. 

In order to comprehend at all adequately what has been and what is happening to the 
mental processes and attitudes of the American people during recent years, and in order 
most particularly to be aware of and alert to the carefully planned goals of the inner and 
hard-core sponsors of the so-cahed mental health program, it is pertinent to explore briefly 
the science and art of cybernetics. Cybernetics, according to Gould's medical dictionary, 
"The science deahng with communication and communication-control theory as applied 
to mechanical devices and animals; and including the study of servo-mechanisms, that is, 
feed-back mechanicisms; Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, 565 Park Avenue, N.Y. 21, N.Y., has 
published a series of symposia on cybernetics 'Circular Causal and Feed-Back Mechanisms 
in Biology and Social Systems.'" 

In a Freedom Forum presentation entitled "Inside U.S. Communism" by Herbert Phil- 
brick, at Harding College, Searcy, Arkansas, April 16, 1954, and distributed by the National 
Education Program, Mr. Philbrick had this to say about cybernetics: 

The Communists, I have discovered, have a favorite term for their system of 
influencing people in devious ways. The word they use as an over-all title of this 
technique is "cybernetics." Cybernetics as a pure science has a very legitimate and worth- 
while function. It has to do with how to improve conduits and cables, how to make better 
coaxial cables for television, how to improve telephone service, how to make more efficient 
electronic brains, etc. It has a very legitimate service as a pure science. 

But since a human being, to a Communist, is simply another machine; since 
human nerve centers have exactly the same function as an electronic circuit; since 
a human has not a soul — he is only a mechanical apparatus — the Communists have 
decided that this particular science has a very useful appUcation — not on machines 
but on humans. 

Now we've heard a great deal more recently about brain- washing. Back in 1940 
that word wasn't familiar to us, but what was going on inside these Young Communist 
League cells was a technique of cybernetics, a technique of brain-washing, if you will; 
the highly developed science of demolishing the minds and the spirits of men. [emphasis 
in original] The Communists brag that theirs is a "technique of Soviet psychiatry." Now 
Soviet psychiatry is based on the same basic principles as that of our own doctors and 
psychiatrists except that the Communists have a different purpose in their psychiatry. 
Our doctors work with unhealthy minds and try to make them healthy and whole again. 
The Communists have decided that cybernetics provides a very wonderful way to go to 
work on healthy minds and to destroy them. And of course we are now getting a bit 
of that picture from our own prisoners of war who were jailed and imprisoned by 
the North Koreans and the Red Chinese. One of my good friends is Robert Vogeler. 
We've learned a great deal from Bob Vogeler about the technique of brain-washing. 
It's a horrifying story. 

I would suggest that you folks who are interested in this subject, perhaps some of 
you students, could adopt for special study this field of cybernetics. It is brand new. I 
don't know of a single book on the subject in connection with what the Communists are 

The Fomentation : c. 1954 51 

doing with it. As a matter of fact, my own knowledge is very limited because the only 
facts I have are those few things which we have gathered from inside the Communist 
Party which indicate that the Reds have been working around the clock in this study 
of the scientific manipulation and control of information. It is based on the findings of 
Pavlov which say that a man, like an animal, conditioned to respond to certain impulses, 
can be conditioned to respond to words, phrases and symbols. Therefore you pour in 
the words, phrases and symbols to which he will respond without thinking [emphasis in 
original] . And then you withhold other certain words which will cause him to respond 
in a way which you may not desire. It is the scientific control of human beings by 
means of control [of] information. 

As the pattern for tlie international robot of the future, so meticulously drawn to scale 
by our condescending planners and masters, becomes increasingly clear, it behooves us to 
study that plan carefully, to determine to just what extent it has already been effectuated, 
to appraise the multitudinous forces aiding and abetting its adoption, and to determine, 
finally, whether we as individuals do, in fact, possess characteristics of sufficient value to 
justify any resistance to this seemingly almost overwhelming juggernaut of collectivism 
which is rushing headlong upon us. Have we in America, the greatest land upon which 
God's sun has ever shone, succumbed to the fleshpots of a modern Egypt? Have we become 
so softened by bellies lined with rich food, wives clad in rich raiment, and housing and 
appurtenances designed to shield us from every intellectual endeavor that we are no longer 
interested in making any effort to reclaim and to reinvigorate the one economic, social, and 
political system which has made all of this possible for us? 


Alice A. Bailey, an American Theosophist, wrote Education in the New Age (Lucis 

Trust: New Yorl<: and London, 1954).^° Tlie following information was written in the front 
of the book: "The publication of this book is financed by the Tibetan Book Fund which is 
established for the perpetuation of the teachings of the Tibetan and Alice A. Bailey. This 
fund is controlled by the Lucis Trust, a tax-exempt, religious, educational corporation. It is 
published in Dutch, French, Spanish, German, Italian and Portugese. Translation into other 
languages is proceeding." Following are some excerpts from chapter 3, "The Next Step in 
the IVIental Development of Humanity": 

The IVIental Transition Period 

There are three immediate steps ahead of the educational system of the world, and 
some progress has already been made towards taking them. First: The development of 
more adequate means of understanding and studying the human being. This will be 
made possible in three ways: 

1. The growth and the development of the Science of Psychology. This is the science 
of the essential man, and is at this time being more generally recognised as useful to, and 
consistent with, the right development of the human unit. The various schools of psychology, 
so numerous and separative, will each eventually contribute its particular and peculiar truth, 
and thus the real science of the soul will emerge from this synthesis. 

2. The growth and the development of the Science of the Seven Rays. This science will throw 
light upon racial and individual types; it will clearly formulate the nature of individual and 


racial problems; it will indicate the forces and energies which are struggling for expression 
in the individual and in the race; and when the two major rays and the minor rays 
(which meet in every man] are recognised and studied by the educator in connection 
with the individual, the result will be right individual and group training, and correct 
vocational indications. 

3. The acceptance of the Teaching anent [about] the Constitution of Man given by the 
esotericists, with the impHed relation of soul and body, the nature of those bodies, their 
qualities and purpose, and the interrelation existing between the soul and the three vehicles 
of expression in the three worlds of human endeavors. 

In order to bring this about, the best that the East has to offer and the knowledge 
of the West will have to be made available. The training of the physical body, the control 
of the emotional body, and the development of right mental apprehension must proceed 
sequentially, with due attention to the time factor, and also to that period wherein planned 
coordination of all aspects of the man should be carefully developed, (pp. 69-70) 

[Ed. Note: After returning from a stint in the U.S. Department of Education in the early 1980s, 
this author attended a school board meeting and noticed the change agent superintendent's 
scrawlings on a blackboard, which had evidently been used as part of some sort of in-service 
training. He had divided a circle into the following sections: physical, mental, creative, and 
"spiritual." My reaction was "Hmmm," since it was he with whom I had sparred over the 
use of values clarification — which destroyed any real Judeo/Christian spirituality — when I 
served on the board in the late 1970s. 1 


The New York Times reported on August 6, 1955 that President Dwight D. Eisenhower 
called for the first White House Conference on Education. The announcement follows: 

WASHINGTON, D.C. — Reservations have been made in eight hotels here for 2045 rooms 
to be occupied November 20 through December 1 by participants in the White House 
Conference on Education. This conference, first of its kind to be called by a President, 
wiU be unusual in many ways. The ground rules call for two or more noneducators to 
each educator in order to stir up the widest possible education support by citizenry in the 
States.... However, the really unusual part of the conference plan hes in its sharp departure 
from the conventional, somewhat haphazard way of conducting big conferences. The 
President's committee has set up six subjects to be discussed; five of them to be thrashed 
out at the conference, and one to be taken home. Each of the five questions to be gone into 
here will be discussed in successive all-delegate sessions of 200 tables of 10 persons plus a 
discussion leader. The five questions under mass consideration wiU be: 

1. What should our schools accomphsh? 

2. In what ways can we organize our school system more effectively and 

3. What are our school building needs? 

4. How can we get good teachers — and keep them? 

5. How can we finance our schools — build and operate them? 

The question to be taken home is: How can we obtain a continuing interest in 

At the close of each all-delegate session a stenographic pool will be on hand to 

The Fomentation : c. 1958 53 

compile the consensus at each table and to jot down the dissents. The 200 discussion 
leaders will convene around 20 tables in a smaller room, further refine the results and give 
their "consensus" and "dissents" to a second flight of stenographers. The mass of delegates 
then proceed to another question. The leaders of the 20 tables subsequently move to two 
tables. Their findings, set down by stenographers, will be forwarded to the conference 
committee for incorporation in the final report. 

[Ed. Note: This conference was probably one of the first national conferences to use the 
manipulative and non-representative group dynamics/Delphi Technique to orchestrate the 
participants into reaching consensus on pre-determined goals. Anyone who has participated 
in local or state goal-setting committees should recognize the drill. This conference provided 
an excellent example of the dialectical process at work.] 


Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook 
II, Affective Domain by David Krathwohl, Benjamin Bloom, and Bertram Massie [Longman: 
New York/London, 1956) was published. This Taxonomy provided the necessary tool for 
the schools of education to restructure education from academics to values [behavior) 
change. The swinging door was finally propped open to incorporate attitudes, values and 
beliefs into the definition of education. It is impossible to overestimate the Taxonomy's 
importance. An excerpt follows: 

In fact, a large part of what we call "good teaching" is the teacher's ability to attain affective 
objectives [attitudes, values, beliefs] through challenging the students' fixed beliefs and 
getting them to discuss issues, [p. 55) 



first United States-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics [U.S.S.R.) agreements. These 
agreements included education. 

National Defense Education Act was passed in 1958 by the U.S. Congress as a result 
of Soviet success in space, demonstrated by the launching of Sputnik. This Act, which set 
the stage for incredible federal control of education through heavy financing for behavior 
modification, science, mathematics, guidance counseling, and testing, etc., involved 
"modern techniques developed from scientific principles," the full weight of which would 
be felt at the end of the century. Title I, General Provisions, Findings and Declaration of 
Policy, Sec. 101 of this Act reads: 

The Congress hereby finds and declares that the security of the Nation requires the fullest 
development of the mental resources and technical skills of its young men and women. The 


present emergency demands that additional and more adequate educational opportunities be 
made available. The defense of this nation depends upon the mastery of modern techniques 
developed from complex scientific principles. It depends as well upon the discovery and 
development of new principles, new techniques, and new knowledge. 


1 For a thorough treatment of this subject, please read Dr. Judith A. Reisman's book Kinsey: Crimes and Consequences — The 
Red Queen and the Grand Scheme (The Institute for Media Education, Inc.: Arlington, Va., 1998). To order call 1-800-837- 

2 B.F. Skinner. Science and Human Behavior (Macmillan & Co.: New York, 1953]. 

3 The Taxonomy involves: Cognitive — how a student perceives or judges knowledge or facts; Affective — how a student feels or 
what he believes about a subject; Psychomotor — what a student does as a result of what he perceives or beheves; converting 
belief to action. 

4 See Appendix XIX for an excellent critique of Bloom's Taxonomy. 

5 This document may be ordered from: Education Service Council, P.O. Box 271, Elm Grove, WI 53122. Erica Carle's latest and 
very important book, Why Things Are the Way They Are (Dorrance Publishing Co.: Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996], can be ordered in 
hardcover from: Dorrance Publishing Co., 643 Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15222. 

6 To order Dr. Reisman's book, call 1-800-837-0544. 

7 Speech before Young Men's Lyceum, Springfield, lUinois, January, 1837. 

8 For further information, purchase School of Darkness: The Record of a Life and of a Conflict between Tlvo Faiths by Bella V. 
Dodd (P.J. Kennedy & Sons: New York, 1954. Copyright transferred in 1963 to Bella V. Dodd, Devin-Adair Pubhshers). 

9 This section deaUng with the Dodd Report was written by Robert H. Goldsborough and published in his book Lines of Credit: 
Ropes of Bondage, (The American Research Foundation, Inc.: Baltimore, 1989). This fascinating book may be obtained by 
sending a check for $8.00 to: Robert H. Goldsborough, PO. Box 5687, Baltimore, MD 21210. 

10 The offices of Lucis Trust (formerly Lucifer Publishing) which were previously located across from the United Nations Building 
in New York have offered for sale the Robert Muller World Core Curriculum (a New Age elementary education curriculum), 
written by Muller who served as the under secretary of the UN. The World Core Curriculum states that it is based on the 
teachings of Alice Bailey's spirit guide, the Tibetan teacher Djwhal Khul. The present address for Lucis Trust is: 120 Wall 
St., New York, NY. MuUer's curriculum can also be ordered from: Robert Muller School, 6005 Royaloak Dr., Arlington, TX. It 
should be noted that the Robert Muller School is a member of the UNESCO Associated Schools Project, certified as a United 
Nations Associated School. 


psychology and skills 

1 residents Eisenhower, Kennedy and Johnson, while ostensibly concerning them- 
selves with racial injustice, economic inequities, and equal educational opportunities, were, in fact, 
responsible for installing the lifelong control system — the Planning, Programming, Budgeting Manage- 
ment System (PPBS) — into all departments of government. This was accomplished during what would 
become "The Sick Sixties" under the guise of "accountability to the taxpayers," a theme which will be 
repeated throughout the remainder of this century. 

American education would henceforth concern itself with the importance of the group rather than 
with the importance of the individual. This would be true in spite of the push towards individualized 
education (mastery learning and computers) , leading people to believe that concern for the individual 
was the driving force behind change. 

Like "accountability," another common thread running through "The Sick Sixties" was the idea 
that for the first time in America the purpose of education would be to focus on the student's emotional 
health rather than on his academic learning. In order to change society, it was essential to identify 
the attitudinal changes needed in each student; then, modify the student's behavior according to the 
preconceived model approved by government social engineers known as "change agents." This model 
did not allow for competition or individual thought, belief, etc., but was conceived to standardize 
(robotize) human beings — particularly Americans — so that the entire populace would be in general 
agreement with government policy and future planning for world government. 

Removal of the last semblance of local control would come through the passage of the Elementary 



and Secondary Education Act of 1 965 (ESEA) , the most important piece of legislation to pass during 
Lyndon Johnson's administration. 

Two of the major federal initiatives developed with funding from The Elementary and Secondary 
Education Act of 1 965 which have contributed to the "deliberate dumbing down" of not only students 
but teachers as well, are listed below: 

1. the 1965-1969 Behavioral Science Teacher Education Program (BSTEP), and 

2. the 1969 publication by the federal government of Pacesetters in Innovation, a 584-page cata- 
logue of behavior modification programs to be used by the schools. 

Pacesetters provided evidence of a concerted effort to destroy the last vestiges of traditional aca- 
demic education, replacing it with a behavior and mind control system guaranteed to create the "New 
Soviet Man" who would be unlikely to challenge totalitarian policies emanating from his local, state 
or federal/international government. Professor John Goodlad, the nation's premiere change agent who 
has been receiving federal and tax-exempt foundation grants for at least thirty years, said in 1969: 

The most controversial issues of the twenty-first century will pertain to the ends and means 
of modifying human behavior and who shall determine them. The first educational question 
will not be "what knowledge is of the most worth?" but "what kinds of human beings do we 
wish to produce?" The possibilities virtually defy our imagination.' 

Behavior change on such a massive scale necessitated the creation of many agencies and policy 
devices which would oversee the implementation of the necessary innovations. Three agencies were: 
(1) the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), which tested students at various grade 
levels; (2] the Education Commission of the States (ECS), which enabled the states to become unified 
regarding education and its outreach — one entity supposedly controlled by its member states, but in 
reality controlled by its consensus policy which invariably reflected federal policy — and (3) the National 
Diffusion Network (NDN) which served as the transmission belt and advertising agency for federally 
funded programs, the majority of which were intended to destroy traditional right/wrong absolutist 
values through psychotherapeutic and behavioral techniques.^ 

Congressman John M. Ashbrook of Ohio, to whose memory the writer has dedicated this book, 
expressed his concern over the above-described radical shift in the direction of education before the 
U.S. House of Representatives on July 18, 1961 in a speech he delivered entitled "The Myth of Federal 
Aid to Education without Control." With extraordinary foresight, John Ashbrook warned that: 

In the report A Federal Education Agency for the Future we find the vehicle for Federal domi- 
nation of our schools. It is a real and present danger . . . The battle lines are now being drawn 
between those who seek control and uniformity of our local schools and those who oppose 
this further bureaucratic centralization in Washington. It is my sincere hope that the Congress 
will respond to this challenge and defeat the aid to education bills which will implement the 
goals incorporated in A Federal Education Agency for the Future. 

Unfortunately, Congressman Ashbrook's words of wisdom did not convince his fellow colleagues 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1960 57 

and, therefore, did not influence the burgeoning sentiment of the majority in Congress. Had Ashbrook's 
views prevailed, the citizens of this great nation would be in a far better position to deal with the 
problems we face at home and abroad in 1999. 


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's Convention Against 
Discrimination was signed in Paris, France in 1960. This Convention laid the groundwork for 
control of American education — both public and private — by U.N. agencies and agents. 

Soviet Education Programs: Foundations, Curriculums, TiiACHER Preparation by William 
K. Medlin [specialist in Comparative Education for Eastern Europe, Division of International 
Education), Clarence B. Lindquist [chief of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Division of 
Higher Education), and Marshall L. Schmitt [specialist for Industrial Arts, Division of State and 
Local School Systems) was published in 1960 under the auspices of U.S. Department of Health, 
Education and Welfare Secretary Arthur S. Flemming and Office of Education Commissioner 
Lawrence G. Derthick [OE-14037, Bulletin 1960, No. 17). Americans familiar with the details 
of American school-to-work restructuring will see that the United States is adopting the Soviet 
polytechnic system described in the following paper. The "Pavlovian conditioned reflex theory" 
discussed is the Skinnerian mastery learning/ direct instruction method required in order to 
implement outcome-based education and school-to-work. Excerpts from this extraordinarily 
important report follow: 


In the school classroom and workshop, in the machine building plant, at the country- 
side, and wherever we went, we felt the pulse of the Soviet Government's drive to educate 
and train a new generation of technically skilled and scientifically literate citizens. Such is 
the consensus of the three speciaHsts who are authors of this volume. 

The ideas and practices of Soviet education form a philosophy of education in which the 
authoritarian concept predominates.... With 60 percent of the adult male population illiterate 
in 1900, a massive educational effort was deemed necessary to transform this situation into 
one where new skills and scientific inquiry could meet national needs. 

The curriculum is unified and is the same for all schools throughout the U.S.S.R. with 
but shght variations in non-Russian nationality areas.... Principles of Darwinism, which are 
studied in grade 9 of U.S.S.R. schools, teach children about the origin of life together with 
the history of evolution in the organic world. The main theme of the course is evolution. 

Major efforts of U.S.S.R. schools during the past 30 years have been to train youngsters 
for the Government's planned economic programs and to inculcate devotion to its political 
and social system.... Science and mathematics occupy 31.4 percent of the student's time in 
the complete U.S.S.R. 10-year school. 

According to school officials, all work of pupils in these subjects has to be done in pen 
and ink in order to inculcate habits of neatness and accuracy. 

U.S.S.R. plans are to bring all secondary school children into labor education and train- 
ing experiences through the regular school program. The "school of general education" is 


now named the "labor-polytechnic school of general education." 

Industrial and agricultural sciences and technical developments are causing Soviet 
educators to be concerned about future needs for readapting the schools to give more appro- 
priate instruction for the coming age of automation, atomic power, and space.... The authors 
consider the polytechnic program in the Soviet elementary-secondary schools "as an integral 
part of the Soviet philosophy of education." It is not a subject but in fact a type [emphasis in 
the original] of education, and other subjects... contribute to the polytechnic area. 

Soviet patriotism — fidelity to the Soviet land and to the ideas of communism — occupies 
a leading place in this educational conditioning, and in this sense gives the school a politi- 
cal character as well as a moral one. Employing primarily the conditioned reflex theory as 
elaborated by Pavlov (1849-1936), Soviet psychologists have worked out a system of didactics 
which are strict and fixed in their conception and application; one might even use the term 
"narrow" to distinguish them from the broad scope of methods employed, for example, in 
most U.S. schools. Soviet psychologists maintain that fundamentally all [except physically 
disturbed or handicapped) children can learn the standardized subject matter through the 
teaching methods devised for all schools. By definition, therefore, they exclude from practical 
consideration many educational techniques.... The curriculum, dominated until now by the 
so-called "hard" subjects, is designed to give all future citizens an intellectual foundation 
that is, in form, a traditional European one. This systematic approach to educafion tends to 
give Soviet teachers a classroom control that appears complete. 

Certain of their psychological research findings in the past are not the only explanation 
that we observe for this principle, however, and it is well to point out that Soviet psycholo- 
gists have only recently been in a position to try out new methods in connection with a more 
diversified curriculum. As one Moscow educator pointed out to us in a discussion on methods, 
the researchers are not always successful in getting their results and viewpoints adopted in 
school programs. Psychologists and other researchers are busily engaged in work on such 
areas as development of the cognitive activity of pupils in the teaching process (especially 
in relation to the polytechnic curriculum); simplification in learning reading and arithmetic 
skills in the lower grades; the formation of character and teaching moral values, including 
Soviet patriotism; psychological preparation of future teachers; the principles and methods 
for meeting individual children's needs (such as "self- appreciation"),^ in terms of handicaps 
and as regards a child's particular attitudes, pecuharities, and maturity; and understanding 
the internal, structural integrity of each school subject and its interrelationships with other 
branches of knowledge. These research activities are carried out under Soviet conditions and 
exemplify some of the major problems which educators there now face. 

Soviet educators define their system as an all-round training whereby youth can par- 
ticipate in creating the conditions for a sociaUst, and ultimately. Communist society. Such 
participation can become possible, they hold, only as students cultivate all the basic disci- 
plines and only through a "steady rise in the productivity of labor"... which is hnked closely 
with the educative process. School children and students are engaged in a total educational 
program which aims to teach all the same basic subjects, morals and habits in order to pro- 
vide society with future workers and employees whose general education will make them 
socialist (Communist) citizens and contribute to their productivity upon learning a vocation 
(profession), (pp. 10-11) 

In 1960 President Dwight D. Eisenhower received a final report from his CoMmission on 
National Goals entitled Goals for Americans. The 372-page volume recommended carrying out 
an international, socialist agenda for the United States. This report, following on the heels of 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1960 59 

the 1955 White House Conference on Education's use of the Delphi technique,* served to carve 
in stone the use of dialectic methods in public policy making through the use of results-based 
"planning" by consensus, not consent. This also may have marked the beginning of restructur- 
ing America from a constitutional republic to a socialist democracy. 

Before listing an excerpted version of Goals for Americans, the writer would like to point 
out that although on their face these goals may sound legitimate, they are, in fact, blatantly 
socialistic. Only those recommendations which lean towards socialism have been included in 
this entry. 


II. EQUALITY. Every man and woman must have equal rights before the law, and an equal 
opportunity to vote and hold office, to be educated, to get a job and to be promoted 
when qualified, to buy a home, to participate fully in community affairs. 

III. THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS. ...With firm faith in individual American responsibil- 
ity, the Commission answered these questions with a confident and yet measured 
"yes." While stressing private responsibility, the Commission also forthrightly favors 
government action at all levels whenever necessary to achieve the national goals.... 
The Commission adopted as its own his [Professor Wallace S. Sayre of Columbia 
University] principal recommendations, that "the President be given unequivocal 
authority and responsibility to develop a true senior civil service," and that the pay 
of top government employees should be drastically increased. 

IV. EDUCATION. Annual Public and Private Expenditure for Education by 1970 Must 
Be Approximately $40 Billion — Double the 1960 Figure.... There must be more and 
better teachers, enlarged facilities, and changes in curricula and methods. Above all, 
schooling should fit the varying capacities of individuals; every student should be 
stimulated to work to his utmost; authentic concern for excellence is imperative. 

Among specific steps, the Commission recommended that: 

1. Small and inefficient school districts should be consolidated, reducing the total 
number from 40,000 to about 10,000.= 

2. Teachers' salaries at all levels must be improved. 

3. Two-year colleges should be within commuting distance of most high school 

4. Adult education should provide a new emphasis on education throughout 

VI. DISARMAMENT. Disarmament should be our ultimate goal. 

VII. LESS DEVELOPED NATIONS. The success of the underdeveloped nations must 
depend primarily on their own efforts. We should assist by providing education, 
training, economic and technical assistance, and by increasing the flow of public 
and private capital.... Doubling their rate of economic growth within five years is a 
reasonable objective.... The U.S. share of such an effort would require by 1965 an 
outflow of $5 to $5.5 billion per year of pubUc and private capital, as compared with 


$3.4 billion per year in the 1956-59 period.... 

X. THE UNITED NATIONS. A key goal in the pursuit of a vigorous and effective foreign 
policy is the preservation and strengthening of the United Nations. 

At the end of the Commission on National Goals report is the following: 

[Ajttributed to American Assembly, founded by Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1950 
when he was President of Columbia University. 

Attached to the report was a pamphlet entitled "Suggestions for Holding a Local Assem- 
bly on National Goals." The process for arriving at "consensus" explained in the pamphlet is 
actually group dynamics. Consensus is not consent! These documents prove there has been a 
well-formulated and funded plan to change the American system of government through deci- 
sion-making by unelected task forces, Soviet-style five-year plans, Delphi-type discussion groups, 
etc. This type of participatory decision making called for by regional government — involving 
partnerships and unelected councils— is taking place in every state of the nation today. It is 
rarely challenged since few Americans understand our constitutional form of government, and 
are, therefore, unable to recognize the important differences between a representative republic 
and the parliamentary form of government found in socialist democracies. 

TiACHiNG Machines and Programmed Learning: A Source Book (Department of Audio- 
Visual Instruction, National Education Association: Washington, D.C., 1960), edited by A. A. 
Lumsdaine [program director of the American Institute for Research and professor of education 
at the University of California in Los Angeles) and Robert Glaser [professor of psychology at 
the University of Pittsburgh and research advisor at the American Institute for Research) was 
published. Extensive excerpts from this document can be found in Appendix II Some interest- 
ing selections follow: 

[Chapter entitled] The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching by B.F. Skinner 

Recent improvements in the conditions which control behavior in the field of learning 
are of two principal sorts. The "law of effect" has been taken seriously; we have made sure 
that effects do occur and that they occur under conditions which are optimal for producing 
the changes called learning. Once we have arranged the particular type of consequence called 
a reinforcement, our techniques permit us to shape the behavior of an organism almost at 
will. It has become a routine exercise to demonstrate this in classes in elementary psychology 
by conditioning such an organism as a pigeon, [pp. 99-100)... 

In all this work, the species of the organism has made surprisingly little difference. 
It is true that the organisms studied have all been vertebrates, but they still cover a wide 
range. Comparable results have been obtained with rats, pigeons, dogs, monkeys, human 
children, and most recently — by the author in collaboration with Ogden R. Lindsley — with 
human psychotic subjects. In spite of great phylogenetic differences, all these organisms show 
amazingly similar properties of the learning process. It should be emphasized that this has 
been achieved by analyzing the effects of reinforcement and by designing techniques which 
manipulate reinforcement with considerable precision. Only in this way can the behavior of 
the individual organism be brought under such precise control. It is also important to note 
that through a gradual advance to complex interrelations among responses, the same degree 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1961 61 

of rigor is being extended to behavior which would usually be assigned to such fields as 
perception, thinking, and personality dynamics, (p. 103) 


Programmed Learning: Evolving Principles and Industrial Applications (FouNDAtion for 

Research on Human Behavior: Ann Arbor, Mich., 1961) edited by Jerome P. Lysaught was 
published. Appendix III contains significant material from this book. An excerpt from the 
introduction by Thomas H. Miller follows: 

To introduce the subject, we would like to have each of you work through the first lesson 
of Dr. B.F. Skinner's course in psychology. We would hope, incidentally, that a portion of 
the material is somewhat new to you so that some learning will actually take place in your 
encounter with the subject matter. Further, we hope it will demonstrate certain phenomena 
that will be spoken of repeatedly today, such as effective reinforcement of the learner and 
progress at the individual rate. 

Imagine yourself to be a freshman student at Harvard. You are taking, for the first 
time, a college course in psychology. This is your first day in that course. Your introduction 
to the course consists of the presentation of the programmed learning sequence on the next 

The directions are simple. You should read the first stimulus item, S-1, consider it, and 
then construct in your own words the best possible answer. As soon as you have done this, 
turn the page and compare your answer with the answer listed at R-1, the first response item. 
Proceed through the program, going on to S-2 on the next page. 

Under the section entitled "Principles of Programming," written by Robert Glaser, we find 
the following excerpts to be revealing: 

It is indeed true that this book would never have been conceived without the well-known 
and perhaps undying work of Professor Skinner.... It is largely through Professor Skinner's 
work that all this theory and excitement about teaching machines and programmed learning 
has come about. 

The essential task involved is to evoke the specific forms of behavior from the student 
and through appropriate reinforcement bring them under the control of specific subject matter 
stimuli. As a student goes through a learning program certain of his responses must be strength- 
ened and shaped from initial unskilled behavior to subject matter competence.... Our present 
knowledge of the learning process points out that through the process of reinforcement, new 
forms of behavior can be created with a great degree of subtlety. The central feature of this 
process is making the reinforcement contingent upon performances of the learner. (Often the 
word "reward" is used to refer to one class of reinforcing events.)... 

The term "programming" refers to the process of constructing sequences of instructional 
material in a way that maximizes the rate of acquisition and retention and enhances the 
motivation of the student.... A central process for the acquisition of behavior is reinforce- 
ment. Behavior is acquired as a result of a contingent relationship between the response of 
an organism and a consequent event. In order for these contingencies of reinforcement to be 
effective, certain conditions must be met. Reinforcement must follow the occurrence of the 
behavior being taught. If this is not the case, different and perhaps unwarranted behavior 


will be learned. 

On July 18, 1961, Congressman John M. Ashbrook delivered a speech before CoNgress 
entitled "The Myth of Federal Aid to Education without Control" [Congressional Record: pp. 
11868-11880). Excerpts from his very important speech, which documented and exposed the 
plans for the internationahzation and transformation of American education, follow: 

That there was any doubt of the Federal bureaucrats' intentions in this matter was laid to 
rest with the discovery of a Health, Education, and Welfare publication, A Federal Educa- 
tion Agency for the Future, which is a report of the Office of Education, dated April 1961.... 
I feel that its pronouncements are a blueprint for complete domination and direction of our 
schools from Washington. The pubhcation was not popularly distributed and there was some 
difficulty in obtaining a copy. 

Fifty-six pages of findings contain recommendations which call for more and more 
Federal participation and control and repeatedly stress the need for Federal activity in formu- 
lating educational policies. It recommends a review of teacher preparation, curriculum and 
textbooks. It calls for an implementation of international education projects in cooperation 
with UNESCO in the United Nations, and ministries of education abroad. Of course, it rec- 
ommends an enlarged office of education and the use of social scientists as key advisers.... 
It places stress on "implementing international educational projects in the United States and 
bringing maximum effectiveness to the total international educational effort." Would not the 
Communists, with their footholds and infiltrations in these organizations, love this? No detail 
has been overlooked — "curriculum will have to undergo continual reshaping and upgrading; 
and new techniques and tools of instruction will have to be developed" and "teacher prepa- 
ration, textbooks, and the curriculum in these subject fields must be improved in the decade 
ahead." In the report... we find the vehicle for Federal domination of our schools. 

. . .The battle lines are now drawn between those who seek control and uniformity of our 
local schools and those who oppose this further bureaucratic centralization in Washington. 
It is my sincere hope that the Congress will respond to this challenge and defeat the aid to 
education bills which will implement the goals incorporated in A Federal Education Agency 
for the Future. 

Ashbrook went on to point out that 

[Under] The Mission [as stated in the report] . . . the basic mission of the Office [of Education] 
to "promote the cause of education" remains unchanged since its establishment in 1867. 

...What is meant when he [Sterling M. McMurrin, Commissioner of Education] says, "I 
anticipate that much of this activity will take place through normal administrative processes 
within the Office and the Department"? In the jargon of Washington bureaucracy this means 
that the report will be largely implemented on the administrative level without Congressional 
action and approval. 

The House Committee on Education and Labor recently voted out H.R. 7904 which 
would extend the National Defense Education Act. ... It is evident that the administration 
has chosen this vehicle for enacting piecemeal the recommendations of A Federal Education 
Agency for the Future. 

Ashbrook continued to quote from Agency for the Future which he said "laid bare the real 
nemesis of the Federal bureaucrats — the tradition of local control." The report stated, "The 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1961 63 

tradition of local control should no longer be permitted to inhibit Office of Education leader- 
ship." The Committee on Mission and Organization called for 

[An] Office of Educational Research that would administer a separate program of extra-mural 
contracts and grants for basic and experimental research in disciplines bearing upon the 
educational situation, and would serve the other parts of the Bureau with advice on research 
problems.... Since it is presumed that the Centers, oriented to education as it is organized 
and administered, will deal with educational problems directly confronting schools and 
colleges, it is beheved desirable that extra-mural research be significantly attentive to basic 
problems of human development, training and teaching, regardless of whether or not they 
are acknowledged as immediately pressing problems by educators. In short, some research 
should be conducted precisely because it challenges the assumptions upon which practicing 
educators are proceeding. 

The above is obviously a reference to behavioral sciences research which, until that time, 
had not found a permanent home at the local school educator level nor was there the need to 
conduct such research in order to challenge the "assumptions upon which practicing educators 
are proceeding." Attached to the Committee's report were appendices from which the follow- 
ing excerpts are taken: 

Appendix B 
The Mission of the Office of Education in the 1960s 

The schools of tomorrow must prepare their students for living in a world of continu- 
ous and rapid change, presenting them with unprecedented social, economic, and political 
problems. We must, in fact, give to education a character that will initiate and support a 
process of lifelong learning if Americans are to keep abreast of the accelerating advent of new 
knowledge and of the increasing complexity of modern fife. These prospective conditions 
are already suggested in part by the rapidly increasing demand for highly specialized and 
professional skills. During the coming decade, new means must be developed for identifying 
and releasing student potential; curriculums wih have to undergo continual reshaping and 
upgrading; and new techniques and tools of instruction will have to be developed.... 

• Education is basic to effort to bring about an enduringly peaceful world. 

• Next decade will bring closer and multiple relationships with Ministries of Educa- 
tion abroad and international organizations, such as UNESCO, the Organization of 
American States, International Bureau of Education. 

• Variations among States and school districts in standards of instruction, facilities, 
staff, and services expose serious inadequacies. Our progress toward the ideal of 
equality of educational opportunity is tragically uneven. 

• In the area of international educational cooperation, in particular, it must play the 
major role, since only the Federal Government can enter into agreements with other 
governments. Along with these responsibilities should be included that of stimulating 
and participating activity in the process of formulation, examination, and reformula- 
tion of the goals of our national society in terms of educational objectives. 

• The development of uniform, consistent and compatible statistical data in ah States 
and in aU institutions of higher education will call for both technical and financial 
assistance to these sources from the Office of Education.... 

• Economists, sociologists, and other social scientists will be needed on the staff to 
assist in dealing with educational problems in their total context. 


National Defense Education Act [NDEA) Amendment of 1961 — Additional Views, which 
accompanied H.R. 7904, included very important testimony regarding the dangers of the NDEA 
and the recommendations made in the above Agency for the Future report. A discussion of the 
dangers of federal control follows: 

We [the undersigned] reject, furthermore, the philosophy that there can exist Federal 
aid to any degree without Federal control. We further hold that there should not be Federal 
aid without Federal control. It is the responsibiUty of the Federal Government to so supervise 
and control its allocations that waste and misuse is kept to a minimum. Since we do not 
desire such federal control in the field of pubUc education, we do not desire Federal aid to 

We should never permit the American educational system to become the vehicle for 
experimentation by educational ideologues. A careful analysis of the writings and statements 
of vocal and influential spokesmen in the governmental and educational fields indicates a 
desire on the part of some of these individuals to utilize the educational system as a means 
of transforming the economic and social outlook of the United States. 

We point to a statement by Dr. Harold Rugg, for many years professor of education at 
Teachers College, Columbia University, who declared in Frontiers of Democracy on May IS, 
1943 [pp. 247-254) concerning the teachers' colleges: 

Let them become powerful national centers for the graduate study of ideas and they will 
thereby become forces of creative imagination standing at the very vortex of the ideational 
revolution. Let us make our teacher education institutions into great direction finders for 
our new society, pointers of the way, dynamic trailblazers of the New Frontiers. 

We could supply pages of documentation analyzing the type of new frontier planned. It 
is indeed a Socialist frontier. It had been hoped that the philosophy of education expressed by 
Dr. Rugg and his cohorts back in the early forties, had long since been repudiated. However, 
in April of 1961, the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare published a booklet 
entitled A Federal Education Agency for the Future. Anyone who doubts that the Federal aid 
to education bills now before Congress would mean eventual Federal control of education, 
should carefully read and analyze for himself what the Office of Education is planning for 
tomorrow's schools. They openly predict their "need" for new powers on the passage of the 
multimillion-dollar aid legislation now before us. They recommend that their Office of Edu- 
cation be elevated to the status of U.S. Education Agency, "to reflect the more active role of 
this unit of Government." They envision the new Agency's mission as one of "leadership" 
(p. 42), "national policymaking" (p. 43), "national planning" (p. 47), "to prepare students 
to understand the world of tomorrow" (p. 40). The Office of Education writers further say 
"along with these responsibilities should be included that of stimulating and participating in 
the process of formulation, examination, and reformulation of the goals of our society in the 
terms of educational objectives" (p. 43). 

[Ed. Note: A careful warning was sounded through the National Defense Education Act Amend- 
ment of 1961 — Additional Views when the Congressmen said, "We reject that there can exist 
Federal aid to any degree without Federal control. We further hold that there should not be 
Federal aid without Federal control." This apphes as well to all of the voucher and tax credit 
proposals before us today [in 1999) flying under the banner of "choice." 

The Mission Statement of the Office of Education clearly called for the establishment of 
the National Center for Education Statistics, the National Assessment of Educational Progress, 
and the "whohstic" approach to education through the inclusion of social scientists in the 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1961 65 

education process— a clear departure from academically oriented educational pursuits into 
intrusive areas totally unrelated to education. 

Even taking into account the coUectivist direction taken by radical educators in the first half 
of this century, this movement could not have borne fruit had it not been for President Dwight 
Eisenhower's Commission on National Goals which produced Goals for Americans in 1960. 
These goals, along with the implementation of PPBS and Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational 
Objectives, seem to have provided the catalyst for the "planned economy" being implemented 
in the United States in 1999.1 

On September 2, 1961 the 87th Congress passed the Arms Control and DisARMAment Act 
[P.L. 87-297, H.R. 9118) which established a United States Arms Control and Disarmament 
Agency. Following is the statement of purpose for this important Act: 

Public Law 87-297 

87th Congress, H.R. 9118 

September 26, 1961 

To establish a United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. 
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in 
Congress Assembled, 

SECTION 1. This Act may be cited as the "Arms Control and Disarmament Act." 
SECTION 2. As used in this Act— 

(a) The Terms "arms control" and "disarmament" mean the identification, verification, 
inspection, limitation, control, reduction, or elimination, of armed forces and armaments of 
all kinds under international agreement including the necessary steps taken under such an 
agreement to establish an effective system of international control, or to create and strengthen 
international organizations for the maintenance of peace. 

As partial fulfillment of the provision to take "the necessary steps. . . to establish an effective 
system of international control, or to create and strengthen international organizations for the 
maintenance of peace," President John F Kennedy's U.S. Department of State simultaneously 
issued State Department Publication 72 77: The United States Program for General and Complete 
Disarmament in a Peaceful World. The following are excerpts from Publication 7277: 

[a] world in which adjustment to change takes place in accordance with the principles of 
the United Nations. 

In order to make possible the achievement of that goal, the program sets forth the fol- 
lowing specific objectives toward which nations should direct their efforts. 

• The disbanding of all national armed forces and the prohibition of their reestablish- 
ment in any form whatsoever other than those required to preserve internal order 
and for contributions to a United Nations Peace Force. 

• The elimination from national arsenals of all armaments including all weapons of 
mass destruction and the means for their delivery, other than those required for a 


United Nations Peace Force and for maintaining internal order. 

• The manufacture of armaments would be prohibited except for those of agreed types 
and quantities to be used by the U.N. Peace Force and those required to maintain 
internal order. All other armaments would be destroyed or converted to peaceful 

During the Congressional debate over the Arms Control and Disarmament Act, those favor- 
ing the establishment of the agency called it the "Peace Agency." Congressman John Ashbrook, 
an opponent of the measure and its implications, called it the "Surrender Agency" and further 
expressed his concern that the agency "may well be the back door for the one-worlders to 
accomplish their goal of an International World Court." Additionally, Senator Joseph S. Clark 
of Pennsylvania declared on the floor of the U.S. Senate March 1, 1962 that this new interna- 
tional focus was "the fixed, determined and approved policy of the government of the United 
States," much to his sorrow. 

[Ed. Note: The goal perceived by Ashbrook, Clark and others of the Arms Control and Disarma- 
ment Act was to further extend the influence and control of the United Nations through United 
States contributions to the power of the UN regional alliances such as the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization [NATO) and Southeast Asia Treaty Organization [SEATO). The development of 
education curriculum by United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization 
[UNESCO) and its outreach to the youth and communities throughout the world, coupled 
with the international political and economic weight of the UN through NATO and the UN's 
treaty-making capacity, lends credence to the concerns voiced in Congress and elsewhere that 
a one-world government has been in the making since the end of World War II.] 

"Harrison Bergeron," one of the several short stories by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., included in 
his book Welcome to the Monkey House [Delacorte Press/Seymour Lawrence: New York, 1961), 
provided uncanny insight into the nature of America's dumbed-down society in the year 2081. 
How the elitist "planners, managers" deal with Americans whose intellects and independence 
create problems for the smooth functioning of a society controlled for the benefit of all is the 
focus of the story.'' An excerpt follows: 

The year was 2081, and everybody was equal. They weren't only equal before God and 
the law. They were equal every which way. Nobody was smarter than anybody else. Nobody 
was stronger or quicker than anybody else. All this equality was due to the 211th, 212th, 
and 213th Amendments to the Constitution, and to the unceasing vigilance of agents of the 
United States Handicapper General. 

[Ed. Note: The reader will, later in this book, recall this fictional forecast when encountering 
outcome-based education. Individual Education Plans [lEP's) for ALL — not just the handi- 
capped—and the Reading Excellence Act passed by Congress October 16, 1998, which will 
provide federal tax support for Skinnerian phonics instruction programs developed and used 
with special education children for over 25 years. In 1999 House Education and Workforce 
Committee Chairman William Goodling [PA) will also propose the removal of funding from 
present titles of the Elementary and Secondary Act [ESEA) in order to completely fund the Indi- 
viduals with Disabilities in Education Act [IDEA). Vonnegut's office of "Handicapper General" 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1962 67 

may not wait until 2081 !] 


In the September 3, 1962 edition of The Dan Smoot Report^ (Vol. 8, No. 36) Smoot's article 
"Stabbed in the Back on the Fourth of July" dealt with an Independence Day speech given in 
Philadelphia by President John F. Kennedy in which he said: 

But I will say here and now on this day of independence that the United States will 
be ready for a Declaration of Interdependence — that we will be prepared to discuss with a 
United Europe the ways and means of forming a concrete Atlantic Partnership — a mutually 
beneficial partnership between the new union now emerging in Europe and the old American 
Union founded here 175 years ago. 

Today Americans must learn to think intercontinentally. 

On July 11, 1961, according to Smoot's report: 

James Reston [a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and an admirer of President 
Kennedy) commented on the President's speech in a New York Times article : 

This year... President Kennedy went to Independence Hall, of all places, and on the Fourth 
of July, of all days, and virtually proposed to repeal the Declaration of Independence in 
favor of a declaration of interdependence.... Maybe it is just the drowsy indolence of the 
summer, but American opinion seems remarkably receptive, or at least acquiescent, to 
President Kennedy's proposal for a partnership of the Atlantic nations.... In Washington, 
there was not a whisper of protest from a single national leader. 


The Role of the Computer in Future Instructional Systems was published as the March/ 
April, 1963 supplement of Audiovisual Communication Review [Monograph 2 of the Techno- 
logical Development Project of the National Education Association [Contract #SAE9073], U.S. 
Office of Education, Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare: Washington, D.C., 1963). James 
D. Finn of Los Angeles was the principal investigator and Donald P. Ely was the consulting 
investigator for this project. [Donald Ely also became project director for the U.S. Department of 
Education's Project BEST: Basic Educational Skills through Technology, which wih be discussed 
in a later entry in this book.) Excerpts from a chapter entitled "Effortless Learning, Attitude 
Changing, and Training in Decision-Making" follow: 

Another area of potential development in computer applications is the attitude chang- 
ing machine. Dr. Bertram Raven in the Psychology Department at the University of California 
at Los Angeles is in the process of building a computer-based device for changing attitudes. 
This device will work on the principle that students' attitudes can be changed effectively 
by using the Socratic method of asking an appropriate series of leading questions designed 
to right the balance between appropriate attitudes, and those deemed less acceptable. For 
instance, after first determining a student's constellation of attitudes through appropriate 


testing procedures, the machine would calculate which attitudes are "out of phase" and 
which of these are amenable to change. If the student were opposed to foreign trade, say, 
and a favorable disposition were sought for, the machine would select an appropriate series 
of statements and questions organized to right the imbalance in the student's attitudes. The 
machine, for instance, would have detected that the student liked President Kennedy and 
was against the spread of Communism; therefore, the student would be shown that JFK 
favored foreign trade and that foreign trade to underdeveloped countries helped to arrest the 
Communist infiltration of these governments. If the student's attitudes toward Kennedy and 
against Communism were sufficiently strong. Dr. Raven would hypothesize that a positive 
change in attitude toward foreign trade would be effectively brought about by showing the 
student the inconsistency of his views. There is considerable evidence that such techniques 
do effectively change attitudes. 

Admittedly, training in decision-making skills is a legitimate goal of education in this 
age of automation, but the problem remains — does the educator know what values to attach 
to the different outcomes of these decisions?... What about students whose values are out of 
line with the acceptable values of democratic society? Should they be taught to conform to 
someone else's accepted judgment of proper values? Training in decision-making is ultimately 
compounded with training in value judgment and, as such, becomes a controversial subject 
that needs to be resolved by educators before the tools can be put to use. 

University of Pittsburgh's Learning Research and Development Center iNTRoduced in 1963 
the Individually Prescribed Instruction [IPI) model which would allow for the implementation 
of continuous progress programs necessary for value change and school-to-work training. A 
good example of what Individually Prescribed Instruction is designed to do is given in Planned 
Change in Education: A Systems Approach, edited by David S. Bushnell of Project Focus and 
Donald Rappaport of Price Waterhouse & Co. [Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich, Inc.: New York, 
1971). Excerpts from chapter 7, "Individualizing Instruction" by Robert G. Scanlon, program 
director for the Individualizing Learning Program of Research for Better Schools, Inc., and Mary 
V. Brown, assistant program director to the project, are reprinted below: 

IPI is an instructional system that permits the teacher to plan and conduct a program 
of studies tailored to the needs and characteristics of each student. Its procedures have been 
designed to enable the school to meet more of the needs of more individual pupils and take 
a new direction in the continuing search for ways to adapt instruction to individual pupils. 
The rate of learning, amount of practice, type of materials, and mode of instruction are the 
parameters of individual differences emphasized in IPI. 

During the school year 1963-64, the Learning Research and Development Center and 
the Baldwin-Whitehall pubUc schools (a suburban Pittsburgh school system] initiated an 
experimental project to investigate the feasibility of a system of individualized instruction in 
an entire K-6 school (Oakleaf) . This came as a result of a series of exploratory studies begun 
in 1951-1962 designed to test preliminary notions in a single classroom. The work started 
with the use of programmed instruction in an intact classroom. 

As work proceeded, it became apparent that the significant individualization feature of 
programmed instruction could not be augmented unless the organization of the classroom was 
changed to permit a more flexible context. Out of this experience grew the current Individu- 
ally Prescribed Instruction project in which various combinations of instructional materials, 
testing procedures, and teacher practices are being used to accommodate individual student 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1 963 69 


IPI is a system based on a set of specified objectives correlated with diagnostic instru- 
ments, curriculum materials, teaching techniques, and management capabilities. The objec- 
tives of the system are: 

1. to permit student mastery of instructional content at individual learning rates; 

2. to ensure active student involvement in the learning process; 

3. to encourage student involvement in learning through self-directed and self-initiated 

4. to encourage student evaluation of progress toward mastery and to provide instruc- 
tional materials and techniques based on individual needs and styles, (pp. 93-95] 

[Ed. Note: IPI is necessary to the success of outcome-based education because it does away 
with norm-referenced testing and the traditional grading system. The Carnegie Unit is also jeop- 
ardized by the introduction of IPI. The federally funded laboratory Research for Better Schools, 
Inc., in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania field-tested IPI, thus setting the stage for Skinnerian mastery 
learning/ direct instruction and the use of Skinner's "box" [the computer) to be incorporated 
into curriculum. Homeschoolers and Christian educators should be reminded that this project 
is reflected in many of the curricular and organizational designs advocated for their use.] 

ment of Educational Progress [NAEP) and became the model for individual state assessments 
which have created enormous controversy due to their focus on attitudinal and value change. 
This study was presented in A Plan for Evaluating the Quality of Educational Programs in Penn- 
sylvania: Highlights of a Report from Educational Testing Service to the State Board of Education 
of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania [Educational Testing Service: Princeton, N.J., June 30, 
1965). The combination of the Skinnerian method of training and the assessments' emphasis 
on change in attitudes, values and beliefs resulted in what the average parent considered a 
"lethal concoction," absolutely guaranteed to create a "robotized citizen for the New Pagan 
Age. " Although Appendix IV of this book includes verbatim text from the Plan, the following 
excerpts provide a fairly clear picture of the intent of those involved in this seminal project: 

This Committee on Quality Education sought the advice of experts [including Dr. Urie 
Bronfenbrenner of the Department of Sociology, Cornell University; Dr. David R. Krathwohl 
of the College of Education, Michigan State University [a co-author with Benjamin Bloom 
of The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Affective Domain] ; and Dr. Ralph Tyler, director 
of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in Palo Alto, Cahfornia. These 
experts constituted a Standing Advisory Committee for the project.... 

It [the Committee] concluded that an educational program is to be regarded as adequate 
only if it can be shown to contribute to the total development of pupils.... The Committee 
recognizes that many of the desirable qualities that schools should help pupils acquire are 
difficult to define and even more difficult to measure. It feels, nevertheless, that any evalua- 
tion procedure that leaves these qualities out of account is deficient as a basis for determining 
whether the program of any school district is educationally adequate.... 

The first step in judging the quality of educational programs is to decide on the purposes 
of education. What should children be and do and know [emphasis in original] as a conse- 
quence of having gone to school? What are the goals of the schools? These questions have 
been high on the agenda of the Committee on Quality Education. Its members wanted a set 


of goals that would reflect the problems society faces in the world of today. . . . Measures of 
conventional academic achievement, for instance, are at a more advanced stage of develop- 
ment than measures of attitude and values. 

Measures of progress toward the ten goals are unequally developed. Some are more 
dependable and valid than others. For example, tests of reading comprehension are relatively 
well developed and reasonably well understood while tests of such qualities as self-under- 
standing and tolerance are less well developed and poorly understood.... Where the available 
measures are clearly inadequate, intensive research and development should be undertaken 
immediately to bring them to the point where they can have full effect in the evaluation 

James Clavell wrote The Children's Story (Delacorte Press/Eleanor Friede: New York, 
1963) . In this book Clavell, author of King Rat, Tai-Pan, Shogun and Noble House, explains most 
eloquently how little children can have their minds manipulated into believing anything the 
teacher wants them to believe, even to the point of believing their parents are old-fashioned 
and should go back to school to unlearn bad thoughts, and that God does not exist. On the 
dust jacket of the book we learn: 

It was a simple incident in the life of James Clavell — a talk with his young daughter 
just home from school — that inspired this chilling tale of what could happen in twenty-five 
quietly devastating minutes. He [Clavell] writes: "the children's story came into being that 
day. It was then that I really realized how vulnerable my child's mind was — any mind for 
that matter — under controlled circumstances." 

Some excerpts from the last pages of this remarkable book follow: 

"Sit down, Johnny, and we'll start learning good things and not worry about grown-up 
bad thoughts. Oh yes," she said when she sat down at her seat again, brimming with happiness. 
"I have a lovely surprise for you. You're all going to stay overnight with us. We have a lovely 
room and beds and lots of food, and we'll all tell stories and have such a lovely time. " 

"Oh, good," the children said. 

"Can I stay up till eight o'clock?" Mary asked breathlessly. 

"Well, as it's our first new day, we'll all stay up to eight-thirty. But only if you promise 
to go right to sleep afterward." 

The children all promised. They were very happy. Jenny said, "But first we got to say 
our prayers. Before we go to sleep." 

The New Teacher smiled at her "Of course. Perhaps we should say a prayer now. In 
some schools that's a custom, too." She thought a moment, and the faces watched her Then 
she said, "Let's pray. But let's pray for something very good. What should we pray for?" 

"Bless Momma and Daddy," Danny said immediately. 

"That's a good idea, Danny. I have one. Let's pray for candy. That's a good idea, isn't 

They all nodded happily. 

So, following their New Teacher, they all closed their eyes and steepled their hands 
together, and they prayed with her for candy. 

The New Teacher opened her eyes and looked around disappointedly. "But where's our 
candy? God is all-seeing and is everywhere, and if we pray. He answers our prayers. Isn't 
that true?" 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1964 71 

"I prayed for a puppy of my own lots of times, but I never got one," Danny said. 

"Maybe we didn't pray hard enough. Perhaps we should kneel down like it's done in 

So the New Teacher knelt and all the children knelt and they prayed very, very hard. 
But there was still no candy. 

Because the New Teacher was disappointed, the children were very disappointed. Then 
she said, "Perhaps we're using the wrong name." She thought a moment and then said, 
"Instead of saying 'God,' let's say 'Our Leader.' Let's pray to Our Leader for candy. Let's pray 
very hard and don't open your eyes till I say." 

So the children shut their eyes tightly and prayed very hard, and as they prayed, the 
New Teacher took out some candy from her pocket and quietly put a piece on each child's 
desk. She did not notice Johnny — alone of all the children — watching her through his half- 
closed eyes. 

She went softly back to her desk and the prayer ended, and the children opened their 
eyes and they stared at the candy and they were overjoyed. 

"I'm going to pray to Our Leader every time," Mary said excitedly. 

"Me, too," Hilda said. "Could we eat Our Leader's candy now, teacher?" 

"Oh, let's, please, please, please." 

"So Our Leader answered your prayers, didn't he?" 

"I saw you put the candy on our desks! " Johnny burst out. "I saw you. ... I didn't close 
my eyes, and I saw you. You had 'em in your pocket. We didn't get them with praying. You 
put them there. " 

All the children, appalled, stared at him and then at their New Teacher. She stood at 
the front of the class and looked back at Johnny and then at all of them. 

"Yes, Johnny, you're quite right. You're a very, very wise boy. Children, / put candy on 
your desks. So you know that it doesn't matter whom you ask, whom you shut your eyes and 
'pray' to — to God or anyone, even Our Leader — no one will give you anything. Only another 
human being." She looked at Danny. "God didn't give you the puppy you wanted. But if you 
work hard, I will. Only I or someone hke me can give you things. Praying to God or anything 
or anyone for something is a waste of time." [all emphases in original] 


An article entitled "Ethical Education" was published in Free Mind, the journal of the 

American Humanist Association, in its June/July 1964 issue. The following is an excerpt: 

At the 1962 Humanist meeting in Los Angeles four women attended a workshop on humanist 
family services and began to lay the groundwork for the AHA's widespread involvement in 
ethical education for children.... The purpose of a humanist ethical education program should 
be to provide the child with tools by which he can make his own decisions. 

[Ed. Note: From this time on efforts would be made to develop and implement humanistic [no 
right/no wrong) values education under many labels, just a few of which were/are: values 
clarification; decision making; critical thinking; problem solving; and moral, character, citizen- 
ship and civic education.] 


In 1964 THE Carnegie Corporation appointed Ralph Tyler chairman of the CoMmittee on 
Assessing the Progress of Education which continued the project begun in 1963 that would in 
1969 become the National Assessment of Educational Progress [NAEP). 

[Ed. Note: In 1999 NAEP is funded by the federal government and widely used across the United 
States. Individual states are passing legislation to use NAEP as a state test and parents and 
legislators are mistakenly believing that these "tests" [assessments) will give them information 
about the performance of their children in academic subjects. This is a misconception; NAEP 
tracks conformity to government-generated goals.] 


The Behavioral Science I^acher Education Program (BSTEP), funded by the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Health, Education and Welfare, was initiated in 1965 at Michigan State University and 
carried out between the years 1965 and 1969. BSTEP's purpose was to change the teacher from 
a transmitter of knowledge/content to a social change agent/facilitator/ clinician. Traditional 
public school administrators were appalled at this new role for teachers. [For more extensive 
reading of the BSTEP proposal, see Appendix V.) 

Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 was passed by Congress. This 
marked the end of local control and the beginning of nationalization/internationalization of 
education in the United States. Use of goal-setting. Management by Objectives [MBO), Plan- 
ning, Programming, Budgeting Systems [PPBS) and systems management for accountability 
purposes would be totally funded by and directed from the federal level. The table of contents 
for ESEA included: 

• Title I — Financial Assistance to local educational agencies for education of children 
from low-income families 

Title II — School library resources, textbooks, and other instructional materials 
Title III— Supplementary educational centers and services, guidance counseling, and 

Title IV — Libraries, learning resources, educational innovation, and support 
Title V— Grants to strengthen State Departments of Education 
Title VI— Vacant 

Title VII — Bihngual education programs 
Title VIII — General provisions 
Title IX — Ethnic heritage program 

ESEA targeted low income/minority students for experimentation with Skinnerian "basic 
skills" programs; i.e.. Follow Through [mastery learning/direct instruction], Right-to-Read, 
Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction [ECRI), Project INSTRUCT, etc. By the end of the 
1980s state departments of education would be receiving between 60-75% of their operating 
budget from the U.S. Department of Education — which was not even in existence at the time 
of passage of the ESEAl 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1 965 73 

President Lyndon B. Johnson issued an Executive Order in 1965 introducing the Planning, 
Programming and Budgeting System [PPBS) into use throughout all departments of the entire 
federal government. 

The Education Commission of the States (ECS) was created in 1965 "in order to bring 
some degree of order out of this chaos," wrote Harvard University President James B. Conant 
in 1964 in reference to education policy making in the United States. ECS was to be made up 
of dues-paying "members" comprising representatives of each participating state's legislative 
Education Committees and their governors. The Competency-Based Education [CBE) move- 
ment — which evolved into outcome-based education (QBE), both using mastery learning as a 
base — was orchestrated by ECS. Since ECS served as the resource and coordinator of information 
flowing to state legislative committees and governors' offices across the land, it is no wonder 
that all states ended up having the same curriculum. 

A very important article, entitled "E.C.S. at 20: The Compact's Potential Is Still To Be 
Realized" by Thomas Toch which covered the history of ECS, was printed in Education Week 
[October 24, 1984). Excerpts follow: 

"Some degree of order needs to be brought out of this chaos," wrote James B. Conant, 
the President of Harvard University, in 1964 in reference to education policy making in 
the nation. "We cannot have a national educational policy," he added in his book Shaping 
Educational PoUcy, "but we might be able to evolve a nationwide policy. " The solution, Mr. 
Conant concluded, was a "new venture in cooperative federalism," a compact among the 
states to create an organization to focus national attention on the pressing education issues 
of the day. The following spring, the Carnegie Corporation and the Ford Foundation awarded 
a grant to Terry Sanford, who had recently left the governorship of North Carolina, to trans- 
form the Conant idea into reality. John W. Gardner was Carnegie's president at the time. A 
preliminary draft of the compact was completed by July and endorsed by representatives 
from all 50 states and the territories in September. Within five months, 10 states had ratified 
the agreement, giving it legal status. Out of the compact was born the Education Commission 
of the States (E.C.S.).... 

"We invented a little device to get the compact approved quickly," Mr. Sanford, now the 
President of Duke University, said recently. "We didn't need money from the legislatures, we 
had plenty of foundation funding, so we agreed that the governors could ratify it by execu- 
tive order."... 

But since the estabhshment under Governor James B. Hunt of the Commission's Task 
Force on Education for Economic Growth two years ago, ECS's role has begun to change. The 
task force's report Action for Excellence joined A Nation at Risk and the Carnegie Foundation 
for the Advancement of Teaching's High School acted as principal voices in the chorus of 
reform. It gained Gov. Hunt and several other "education governors" who were linked to ECS 
wide national pubUcity, and, in making a series of specific reform recommendations, thrust 
ECS into the pohcy-making arena. 


Foundation: Crucible imprint of Aquarian Press, Thorsons Pubhshing Group: Northampton- 
shire, England, 1965) by Dr. Roberto Assagioh, a practicing psychiatrist in Florence, Italy, was 


Roberto Assagioli defined "psychosynthesis" as the "formation or reconstruction of 
a new personality — tlie transpersonal or 'spiritual Self.'" An excerpt from Psychosynthesis 

What distinguishes psychosynthesis from many other attempts at psychological under- 
standing is the position we take as to the existence of a spiritual Self. . . . We consider that the 
spiritual is as basic as the material part of man. . . essentially we include within the study 
of psychological facts all those which may be related to the higher urges within man which 
tends to make him grow towards greater realization of his spiritual essence. Our position 
affirms that all the superior manifestations of the human psyche, such as creative imagination, 
intuition, aspiration, genius, are facts which are as real and as important as are the condi- 
tioned reflexes, and therefore, are susceptible to research and treatment just as scientifically 
as conditioned reflexes. 

As psychology began to assert itself as an "acceptable science" in the "sick sixties," 
Assagioli's "psychosynthesis" concept is credited with creating a paradigm that enabled an 
integration [synthesis) of psychology with spirituality. Assagioh emphasized a holistic world- 
view, laying the groundwork for the future educational pedagogy of "holistic education" of 
the 1990s — teaching the "whole child." He was also the originator of a group of exercises for 
"Spiritual Psychosynthesis" based on what we now call "role playing." These include: "on the 
Legend of the Holy Grail, " "on Dante's Divine Comedy, " and "on the Blossoming of the Rose. " 

Assagioli's view of the human psyche included a progression from lower to higher order 
"consciousness" [or thinking) which is similar to "New Age" ideas about the evolution of man 
into a "collective consciousness." These ideas laid the philosophical foundation for character 
education, values clarification, and consciousness-altering techniques used in the classroom. For 
example, the "sick sixties" were hallmarked by the emergence of "transpersonal psychology," a 
designation typified today by the statement, "I'm OK, you're OK." One of its promoters— and a 
disciple of Roberto Assagioli — was Jack Canfield. Canfield's name appears on many education 
curricula and training programs utilizing behavior modification for values clarification. 

Significantly, Roberto Assagioli's selected appendices in Psychosynthesis include an article 
entitled "Initiated Symbol Projection" [ISP) written by a German psychiatrist named Hans- 
carl Leurner. According to a note by Assagioli, "Dr. Leurner now prefers to call his method 
'Guided Affective Imagery'" — a form of guided imagery widely practiced in elementary and 
secondary classrooms, business training sessions, counseling sessions, and religious services. 
A description of what Leurner called his "psycho-diagnostic and psycho-therapeutic technique" 
is provided: 

The subject is seated in a comfortable chair or on a couch [lying down], asked to close his 
eyes, and induced to relax... a hght hypnoid state has proved valuable. Deep and regular 
breathing. . . [tjhen, in a psychological state characterized by diminished consciousness of the 
outer world, reduced conscious criticism and self-control, the subject is asked to visuahze.... 
In the phenomenology of medical psychology, they are similar to "hypnogic visions." 

[Ed. Note: The fact that guided imagery is a psychological technique raises a question regarding 
its use in the classroom by teachers who are not professional therapists.] 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1 966 75 


Psychology by Wilbert James McKeachie of the University of Michigan and CHARlotte 
Lackner Doyle of Cornell University [Addison- Wesley Publishing Co., Inc.: New York, 1966) was 
published. An excerpt from a chapter entitled "What Does a Psychologist Observe?" follows: 

Watson's approach to psychology, with its emphasis on observable behavior, became known 
as behaviorism. The major problem with this approach was that it excluded from psychol- 
ogy some of its major concerns. No one can directly observe the motives, feelings, percep- 
tions, thoughts, and memories of others. Re-defining thought in terms of muscle movements 
made thought a measurable event, but ignored some of the properties of thought that make 
it psychologically interesting. The behaviorists became committed to the study of muscle 
movements in place of an analysis of thought, (pp. 4-5) 


The Computer in American Education edited by Don D. Bushnell and Dwight W. Allen 
[John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1967) was published. Excerpts follow: 

The technology for controlling others exists and it will be used, given the persistence 
of power-seeking motives. Furthermore, we will need to use it, since the necessary social 
changes cannot come about if the affected people do not understand and desire them.... How 
do we educate "run-of-the-mill" citizens for membership in a democratic society?... How do 
we teach people to understand their relationship to long range planning?... And how do we 
teach people to be comfortable with the process of change? Should we educate for this? We 
shall probably have to. But how?... 

The need for educating to embrace change is not limited to youngsters.... Education 
for tomorrow's world wih involve more than programming students by a computer; it will 
equally involve the ways in which we program... parents to respond to the education... 
children get for this kind of world. To the extent we succeed with the youngsters but not 
with the parents, we wih have... a very serious consequence: an increasing separation of the 
young from their parents.... It will have psychological repercussions, probably producing in 
the children both guilt and hostility [arising from their rejection of their parents' views and 
values in lifestyles), [p. 7) 

Project Follow Through was initiated in 1967, funded under the Economic Opportunity 
Act of 1 964, and carried out as a part of President Lyndon Johnson's "War on Poverty. " Follow 
Through was administered by the U.S. Office of Education in the Department of Health, Edu- 
cation and Welfare. One of the models of instruction examined in trial under Follow Through 
was the Direct Instruction [DI) model developed by WC. Becker and Siegfried Engelmann. 
Direct Instruction is based on the work of the late B.F Skinner of Harvard, Edward Thorndike 
of Columbia University, and Ivan Pavlov of Russia, even though their works are not directly 
quoted in the DI literature. 

Alice M. Rivlin,** a member of the Brookings Institute staff, in a lecture entitled "Systematic 


Thinking for Social Action" for the institute's H. Rowan Gaither Lectures Series at the University 
of California at Berkeley [under the sponsorship of the Graduate School of Business Adminis- 
tration and the Center for Research in Management Science, 1970), critically evaluated Project 
Follow Through and its results. Following are excerpts from Rivlin's speech: 

The Follow Through program is another example of a current attempt to use federal 
funds to learn how to produce services effectively — in this case, services for young children. 
Follow Through is a quasi-experiment, with a statistical design far less sophisticated than that 
of the New Jersey income maintenance experiment. There was evidence that children could 
move ahead rapidly in a good preschool program, but that when they were dumped back 
into the same dismal slum school the gains were lost. The objective of Follow Through was 
to determine whether the gains achieved through Head Start could be maintained through 
special programs in the early years of elementary school.... The approaches were extremely 
varied. The Becker-Engelmann program [Direct Instruction], developed at the University of 
Ilhnois, emphasized intensive work with smaU groups of children on the cognitive skills that 
deprived children often lack — verbal expression, reading, math skills. The methods involve 
rapid-fire questioning of students by instructors with rewards in the form of praise and stars 
for the right answers. It is a highly-disciplined approach and has been described as an intel- 
lectual "pressure cooker"... 

Since Follow Through was not a scientifically designed experiment, there is reason to 
question whether vahd conclusions can be drawn from it about the relative effectiveness of 
the various approaches.... In any case, there are not enough projects of any type to support 
definitive statements about what works best with different kinds of populations. 

[Ed. Note: Although the evaluation of Follow Through cited some academic and self-esteem 
gains at some Direct Instruction model sites, it would have been virtually impossible for these 
gains not to have been made considering the models with which they were compared — the 
non-academic focus of the "touchy-feely" open classroom. Had the Direct Instruction model 
been in competition with a traditional phonics program which was not based on animal behav- 
ioral psychology ["scientific, research-based"), it is most unlikely it would have been able to 
point to any gains at all. Unsuspecting parents in the 1990s seeking more structured academic 
education for their children than can be found in schools experimenting with constructivistic 
developmental programs [whole language, etc.) are turning to DI, not realizing they are embrac- 
ing a method based on mastery learning and animal psychology.] 

Planning, Programming, Budgeting System (PPBS) was applied to education in 1967. During 
Ronald Reagan's tenure as governor of California, PPBS was installed in the Cahfornia school 
system. The California Assembly passed AB 61 [1967) which authorized a pilot study of PPBS; 
ACR 198 [1970) created the Joint Committee on Educational Goals and Evaluation; AAB 2800 
[1971) and SB 1526 [1971) set up the essential PPBS subsystems to facilitate federal funding and 
centrahzed control of state schools' goals, evaluation and management of all school programs 
and people; AB 293 [1971), the "Stull Bill," provided for teacher evaluation; the California 
State Board of Education approved Program Budgeting in a new California School Accounting 
Manual [Phase I of PPBS); and Reagan signed AB 1207 [1973), giving the accounting manual 
legal mandate in districts throughout the state. PPBS implementation in education [and in other 
governmental functions) was given considerable impetus by Governor Reagan who "strongly 
expressed" the intent of his administration to activate PPBS, a management tool of political 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1968 77 

change through funding, in Implementing PPB in State, City and County: A Report on the 5-5-5 
Project. [State-Local Finances Project of The George Washington University: Washington, D.C., 
June, 1969). This entry summarizes this Report, published in cooperation with: The Council of 
State Governments, The International City Managers Association, The National Association of 
Counties, The National Governors' Conference, The National League of Cities, and The United 
States Conference of Mayors. 


B.F. Skinner: The Man and His Ideas by Richard I. Evans was published (Button and Com- 
pany: New York, 1968). Evans's excellent critique of the totalitarian views of Professor Skinner 
was funded by the National Science Foundation. Extensive quotes from this book are included 
in Appendix XXIV. A few pertinent excerpts follow: 

"I could make a pigeon a high achiever by reinforcing it on a proper schedule. ". . . His [Skin- 
ner's] concern for what he believes to be the inadequacy of our formal education system led 
to applying the principles of operant conditioning to a learning system which he called the 
teaching machine, but Skinner's approach is concerned with more than merely methods and 
techniques. He challenges the very foundations by which man in our society is shaped and 
controlled, [p. 10)... 

..."[F]or the purpose of analyzing behavior we have to assume man is a machine, (p. 
24) ...You can induce him to behave according to the dictates of society instead of his own 
selfish interest." (p. 42)... 

..."I should not bother with ordinary learning theory, for example. I would eliminate 
most sensory psychology and I would give them no cognitive psychology whatsoever [mean- 
ing the students, ed.]." (p. 91)" ...It isn't the person who is important, it's the method. If the 
practice of psychology survives, that's the main objective. It's the same with cultural practices 
in general: no one survives as a person." [p. 96) "...It does bother me that thousands of teach- 
ers don't understand, because immediate gains are more likely in the classroom than in the 
clinic. Teachers will eventually know — they must [understand] — and I am more concerned 
with promoting my theories in education [operant conditioning]." (p. 96) "...I should like to 
see our government set up a large educational agency in which specialists could be sent to 
train teachers." [p. 109) 

In 1953 Skinner wrote Science and Human Behavior [Macmillan & Co. : New York, 1953) , within 
which is found the following quote: 

A rather obvious solution is to distribute the control of human behavior among many agencies 
which have so little in common that they are not likely to join together in a despotic unit. In 
general this is the argument for democracy against totalitarianism. In a totalitarian state all 
agencies are brought together under a single super-agency. 

[Ed. Note: Obviously, even before the U.S. Department of Education was established and orga- 
nized teacher in-service training had taken a behaviorist (performance-based) turn. Skinner was 
advocating these very operant conditioning methods in all phases of education. Beginning in 
1965, the federal government implemented several teacher education programs based on per- 
formance — performance-based teacher education — which would fulfill Skinner's plan. Skinner 


was always more concerned with "how" teachers teach than with "what" teachers teach. The 
reader should refer to Bettye Lewis's fine summary of the establishment of the Behavioral Sci- 
ence Teacher Education Program [BSTEP) in Appendix V for descriptions of these programs.] 

The May 1968 issue of the educational journal The Instructor ran an article by Dr. Paul 
Brandwein, adjunct professor at University of Pittsburgh, entitled "School System of the Future" 
which outlined the changes on the horizon relative to the relationship between children, parents 
and schools. The following quotes will be of interest: 

[Parents] often have little, if any knowledge of the rudiments of the human enterprise 
we call teaching and learning, or even the elements of the behavioral sciences undergirding 
child development.... The most formative years are what we call pre-kindergarten years.... 
Television can be utilized to provide the proper instruction [indoctrination] to the parent... 
a minimum of an hour a day... continuing over four or five years... aimed at the parent to 
equip him as "teacher. " 

Learning is synonymous with environmental behavior change.... Learning... is the 
modification of behavior through interaction with the environment.... [New school system 
structure] would maintain continuity over some nineteen years, with three carefully articu- 
lated periods of schooling... 1. Primary, with the first four or five years in the home with 
"informed" parents as teachers; 2. Secondary, with parents as teacher aides; 3. Preparatory, 
to be used differently for children with varying gifts and destinations.... The student would 
be able to choose vocational training, studies related to semi-skilled occupation, or collegiate 
work for the next four years, with one year given over to public service.... 

[P]rimary education with the parents as teacher has the aim of making the home a 
healthy and healing environment.... Education must heal. If it does not heal and make strong, 
it is not education. 

Assume with me that education, as profession and enterprise, would join forces with 
government and industry to support education of the parent in the mode, manner, and morality 
befitting the early education of children. Teachers and behavioral scientists — psychologists, 
psychiatrists, sociologists, students of child development — would be called upon. We have 
common, indeed universal, communication with the home through radio, television, and 
printed materials; and soon other aspects of electronic technology will be available. 

The Secondary Years, beginning with kindergarten, concern themselves with the con- 
cepts and skills required for effective participation in our society.... In structure [emphasis 
in original] , the curriculum might well be organized in terms of continuous and progressive 
experience (synonyms: non-graded curriculum, continuous progress).... Grades [marks, scores) 
as we know them would not be used, but there would be reports to the parents of child's 
progress, similar to what some schools are doing now. 

Each boy and girl would choose an area of pubUc service coordinated with his gifts and 
destination. Care of children, care of the aged and infirm, assisting in schools and in hospitals, 
conserving our natural resources, could well be among such tasks. The major peace-seeking 
and peace-keeping strategy of society is educahon. Peace is inevitable. 

Learning and Instruction, a Chicago Inner City Schools Position Paper presented in June 
of 1968 to the Chicago Board of Education, was produced by the planning staff in Chicago made 
up of: Dr. Donald Leu, Wilham Farquhar, Lee Shulman, and the Chicago and Michigan State 
universities in cohaboration. One reference used was Soviet Preschool Education, translated 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1968 79 

by Henry Chauncey [Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N.J.). Excerpts from the Chicago 
Mastery Learning Project position paper. Learning and Instruction, follow: 

We view the child with his defined characteristics as input to a school organization 
which modifies his capabilities toward certain goals and objectives as output. The school 
organization is an optimal deployment of teachers employing a special subject matter who 
attempt through instruction, with the aid of selected elements of the community, to achieve 
specified outputs. The joint participation of the children, school and community leave none 
of these elements unchanged.... 

This emphasis should be accomphshed within the context of a truly ungraded structure 
which we shall denote by the terms Continuous Development-Mastery Learning. This approach 
has the following characteristics: (a) Beginning with Chicago's present concept of Continuous 
Development, the objectives of the language arts curriculum must be much further differenti- 
ated and articulated in the manner currently being conducted by Sophie Bloom [wife of the 
late Benjamin Bloom] in Chicago, and Pittsburgh's Individually Prescribed Instruction Project. 
In the Continuous Development-Mastery Learning approach, a large number of sequentially 
designated objectives, tied into specific capabilities to be mastered by pupils, are idenfified. 
This is done by curriculum development speciahsts in collaboration with instructional person- 
nel. [References used in this paper were from the late Benjamin Bloom, John Carroll, Robert 
Gagne, Robert Glaser and Henry Chauncey, ed.] 

The following is an excerpt from an article published in Education Week, March 6, 1985 
entitled "Half of Chicago Students Drop out. Study Finds: Problem Called Enormous Human 

Calling the dropout problem in Chicago "a human tragedy of enormous dimensions," a recent 
study has found that almost half of the 39,500 pubhc school students in the 1980 freshman 
class failed to graduate, and that only about a third of those who did were able to read at 
or above the national 12th grade level. "These statistics about the class of 1984 reflect the 
destruction of tens of thousands of young lives, year in and year out," says the study, released 
in January by Designs for Change, a nonprofit research and child-advocacy organization in 
Chicago .... "Most of these young people are permanently locked out of our changing economy 
and have no hope of continuing their education or getting a permanent job with a future," 
the authors wrote. 

Professor Lee Shulman's involvement in the Chicago Mastery Learning disaster was, 
however, quickly forgotten or considered unimportant. According to Education Daily of May 
21, 1987— two years later: 

Shulman, who heads Stanford's Education Pohcy Institute, last week was awarded $817,000 
by Carnegie Corporation to develop over the next 15 months new forms of teacher assessment 
materials that would be the basis of standards adopted by a national teacher certification 

The Education Daily article further discussed the requirement for teacher critique of the way 
two textbooks treat photosynthesis and how they [teachers] developed a lesson plan based 
on each one: 

The teacher then would be directed to use the textbooks to tell the examiners how he 


or she would teach students with varying religious, cultural and ethnic backgrounds. 

Nine years later Education Week of October 23, 1996 reported Shulman again leading the 
outcome-/performance-based teacher education bandwagon of social change agents: 

His successful performance as developer of new forms of teacher assessment materials leads 
to his being named President of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 
filling the vacancy created by the death last year of Ernest L. Boyer. 

An excerpt from an October 21, 1996 New York Times article entitled "Carnegie Foundation 
Selects a New Leader" emphasized Shulman's importance in the field of behavioral psychol- 

He [Shulman] has been a Guggenheim Fellow, a Fellow of the American Psychological 
Association and a Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. He is 
the immediate past president of the National Academy of Education and a former president 
of the American Education Research Association. 

In a 1968 SPEECH entitled "The United Nations and Alternative Formulations — The Hard 
Road to World Order," Richard Gardner, former U.S. deputy assistant secretary of state and 
U.S. ambassador to Italy, provided an accurate forewarning and picture of the environment in 
which Americans and citizens of other countries live today, explaining how the elitist planners 
would, through the use of gradualism, succeed in their century-long plan to create a One World 
Government. In an excerpt from the speech Gardner explains the following: 

In short, we are likely to do better by building our "house of world order" from the bottom 
up rather than the top down. It wiU look like a great, "booming, buzzing confusion," to use 
William James's famous description of reality, but an end run around national sovereignty, 
eroding it piece by piece, is likely to get us to world order faster than the old-fashioned frontal 

Ethna Reid of the Granite School District, Salt Lake City, Utah received $848,536 in 

federal grants under Title III of the ESEA in 1968 to develop the Exemplary Center for Read- 
ing Instruction [ECRI), a Mastery Learning program. This grant far exceeded the legal cap on 
federal education program funding at that time. In 1982 Reid claimed that her mastery learning 
program "is undoubtedly one of those in greatest use today in the United States at all grade 
levels, K-U."" 

The 120-page teacher pre-service training manual from ECRI was devoted to the training of 
teachers in stimulus-response-stimulus/operant conditioning techniques [Skinner), and mate- 
rials on the "adaptation of birds, monitoring forms before and after instruction" (observation 
data sheet records). How to Teach Animals by B.F. Skinner and How to Teach Animals: A Rat, 
a Pigeon, a Dog by Kathleen and Shauna Reid are both listed as teacher and resource materi- 
als. The ECRI Teacher Training Manual cites the work of Siegfried Engelmann, the developer 
of DISTAR [Direct Instruction System for Teaching and Remediation) /Reading Mastery, and 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1968 81 

Direct Instruction in instructing teachers how to use operant conditioning, stimulus-response- 
stimulus to get desired behaviors. Reviewed by the U.S. Department of Education's Joint Dis- 
semination Review Panel [JDRP) and approved as an exemplary education program in 1974, 
ECRI was promoted throughout the National Diffusion Network [NDN), the federally funded 
transmission belt for controversial and mostly non-academic programs. 

On May 5, 1984 the officers of the Arizona Federation of Teachers unanimously passed a 
resolution — spearheaded by Ann Herzer, an Arizona teacher — which stated in part that mem- 
bers of the Arizona affiliate 

oppose such programs as ECRI, Project INSTRUCT and/or any other programs that use oper- 
ant conditioning under the guise of Mastery Learning, Classroom Management, Precision 
Teaching, Structured Learning and Discipline, and petition the U.S. Congress for protection 
against the use of such methods on teachers and students without their prior consent. 

The Arizona resolution was supported by Dr. Jeanette Veatch, internationally known expert 
in the field of reading, who in a July 1980 letter to Ann Herzer called the ECRI program "a more 
modern version of breaking children to the heel of thought control. ... It is so flagrantly dangerous, 
damaging and destructive I am appahed at its existence." Unfortunately, Albert Shanker, then 
president of the national American Federation of Teachers [AFT), tabled the Arizona affiliate's 
resolution at AFT's August, 1984 national convention in Washington, D.C. 

With this historical perspective in mind, consider an article which appeared in Education 
Week September 6, 1997 entitled "New AFT President Urges Members to Help Floundering 
Schools. " The late Albert Shanker would be pleased that the AFT continues to support Skinner- 
ian mastery learning/direct instruction, for the article states in part: "Also featured [at AFT's 
QUEST Conference] was Direct Instruction, a scripted set of lessons used for teaching at-risk 

John Goodlad's article, "Learning and ItACHiNG in the Future," was published by the 

National Education Association's journal Today's Education in 1968. Excerpts from Goodlad's 
article follow: 

The most controversial issues of the twenty-first century will pertain to the ends and means 
of modifying human behavior and who shall determine them. The first educational question 
will not be "what knowledge is of the most worth?" but "what kinds of human beings do we 
wish to produce?" The possibilities virtually defy our imagination. 


and became part of the educational lore of the day. An excerpt follows: 

Absolute power in education is not a serious issue today because it seems out of reach. How- 
ever, a technology of teaching will need to be much more powerful if the race with catastro- 
phe is to be won, and it may then, like any powerful technology, need to be contained. An 
appropriate counter control will not be generated as a revolt against aversive measures but 
by a policy designed to maximize the contribution which education can make to the strength 
of the culture. The issue is important because the government of the future will probably 


operate mainly through educational techniques, (p. 260) 

[Ed. note: Skinner was 100% correct. The government in 1999 "operates mainly through edu- 
cational techniques." Those individuals and agencies conforming with government policies, 
criteria, etc., are rewarded, whereas those who do not conform are either ignored or denied 
special privileges and funding. In the late twentieth century, following the philosophy of B.F. 
Skinner that the "environment is all," all evil is attributed to the environment and no one is 
held responsible for his actions.] 

"The Foundation Machine" by Edith Kermit Roosevelt was published in the DEcember 26, 
1968 issue of The Wanderer. In this important article Mrs. Roosevelt discussed problems that 
had been created by the Carnegie Corporation's new reading program as follows: 

Even now the Carnegie Corporation is facing protests from parents whose children are exposed 
to the textbooks financed by the foundation under its "Project Read." This project provides 
programmed textbooks for schools, particularly in "culturally deprived areas." An estimated 
five million children throughout the nation are using the material in the programmed text- 
books produced by the Behavioral Research Laboratories, Palo Alto, California. This writer 
has gone over these textbooks in the "Reading" series financed by the Carnegie Corporation 
and authored by M.W. Sullivan, a linguist. These foundation-funded books reveal a fire pat- 
tern that amounts to an incitement to the sort of arson and guerilla warfare that took place 
in Watts, Washington, D.C., and elsewhere. On one page in the series we find a torch next 
to a white porch. The caption reads invitingly, "a torch, a porch." Further along there is a 
picture of a man smiling while he holds a torch aloft. The caption beneath it reads: "This 
man has a t_rch in his hand." The children are required as an exercise to insert the missing 
letter to fill in the word torch. The next picture shows the burning torch touching the porch, 
with a caption, "a torch on a porch." Thus, the children are led in stages to the final act that 
suggests itself quite naturally. The picture in the series shows a hand moving the hands of 
a clock to twenty-five minutes past one, while this same shack is being devoured by flames. 
The message is plain: an example of a man who deliberately commits the criminal act of set- 
ting a home on fire. Tragically, these young children are being indoctrinated with a pattern 
of anti-social ideas that will completely and violently alienate them from the mainstream of 
American middle-class values.... Other pictures in the Carnegie-funded supposedly educa- 
tional texts include a comparison of a flag with a rag, the ransoming of an American soldier 
in a Chinese prison, a picture that shows people kneeling in a church to say their prayers 
beside a picture of a horse being taught to kneel in the same way, a reference to a candidate 
elected to pubhc office as a "ruler," a picture of a boy stealing a girl's purse, and another boy 
throwing pointed darts at a companion whom he uses as target practice. 

Understandably, the Carnegie-financed books are causing concern to local law-enforce- 
ment officials, many of whom have to cope with riot or near-riot conditions. Ellen Morphonios, 
prosecutor for Florida in its attorney's office, and a chief of its Criminal Court Division, said 
recently: "It's a slap in the face and an insult to every member of the Negro community, saying 
that the only way to communicate with Negro children is to show a robber or violence. It's 
like subliminal advertising. If this isn't subversive and deliberately done as part of a master 
plan.... Only a sick mind could have produced it." 

Repeated instances of this type of anti-social activity obviously constitute a strong argu- 
ment for removing the tax-exempt status of these educational foundations, and for curbing 
their activities by Federal regulations and Congressional oversight. 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1 968 83 

[Ed. Note: The programmed textbooks used in Project Read are based on Skinnerian animal 
psychology. Programmed instruction calls for individualized instruction/self-instruction [pro- 
grammed books and or teaching machines) and differs from the lecture/discussion method of 
teaching where the teacher, not the program, is the dispenser of knowledge.] 

Agenda for the Nation, edited by Kermit Gordon (Brookings Institution: WASHington, 
D.C., 1968) and funded by the Ford Foundation, was published. Ralph Tyler's article "Invest- 
ing in Better Schools" (pp. 207-236) was included in the compilation of articles which were 
written as a contribution to public discussion and debate as a new president and a new Con- 
gress assumed their responsibilites. Other contributors included: Stephen K. Bailey, Kenneth 
B. Clark, Clark Kerr, Henry A. Kissinger, Edwin 0. Reischauer, and Charles L. Schultze. The 
following excerpted recommendations from Tyler's article which refer to the Certificate of Initial 
Mastery, no more Carnegie Units, the Eight- Year Study and outcome-based education, read like 
pages out of Goals 2000: Educate America Act and reports prepared by Marc Tucker's National 
Center on Education and the Economy, the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary 
Skills (SCANS), etc. — all of which are involved in the socialistic restructuring of the nation's 
schools and economy: 

What is required is a major effort to furnish high school students with significant adult activi- 
ties — job programs, community service corps experience, work in health centers, apprentice 
experience in research and development, and in staff studies conducted by public agencies. 
It will be necessary to redesign the high school in order to open it to the community and to 
utilize many kinds of persons in education. The school will need to serve a wider range of ages 
and allow students to vary the amount of time devoted to studies. To supply a substitute for 
grades and credits as qualification for employment opportunities, a certification system will 
need to be developed to validate the student's competence in various major areas. This will 
also tend to reduce the emphasis upon purely formal requirements such as class attendance 
and the completion of prescribed courses. 

1968-1969. Narrative Report of Project Funded under Title HI, Elementary and Sec- 
ondary Education Act (FY 1969)— Title of Project: OPERATION PEP a Statewide Project to 
Prepare Educational Planners for California (U.S. Office of Education Grant Award No. OEG 
3-7-704444410-4439, 7-1-68 to 6-30-69. $299,457 grant to San Mateo County Superinten- 
dent of Schools, Redwood City, California, Project Director: Donald R. Miller) was compiled 
and registered with the U.S. Office of Education in the Department of Health, Education and 
Welfare. An excerpt from this report follows: 

Major Objectives: The objectives of Operation PEP have been specified with respect for 
the educational needs of society and the role requirements of professional educators. They 
include: (1) to plan, develop, vaUdate, and implement an instructional program for educa- 
tional planners and managers featuring a system approach to educational management; [2] 
to establish an orderly diffusion process for system approach concepts, principles, and pro- 
cedures involving key agencies, organizations, and individuals; (3) to provide assurance that 
the program developed by Operation PEP will be continuously renewed and presented, and 
(4) to promote the utilization and adoption of a system approach to educational management 


and educational leaders in California. 

[Ed. Note: Mastery learning/direct instruction fits into PPBS systems management. Manage- 
ment by Objectives [MBO) and computer-assisted instruction as a hand fits into a glove. OBE 
in 1999 is Operation PEP in 1968. California's teachers' union was adamantly opposed to its 
enabling legislation and to Operation PEP in general.] 


Pacesetters in Innovation: Cumulative Issue of All Projects in Operation as of February 
1969 under Title HI, Supplementary Centers and Services Program, Elementary and Second- 
ary Education Act of 1965 [U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare: Washington, 
D.C.,1969) was published. This incredible 584-page catalog of education programs gives 
abstracts of innovative programs dealing with humanistic education; i.e., values clarification, 
self-esteem programs, individuahzed education, open classroom, etc. Shirley Correll, Ph.D., 
president of Florida's Pro-Family Forum, wrote "An Evaluation of HEW's Publication Pacesetters 
in Innovation" which said in part: 

A thorough evaluation of HEW's 584-page publication. Pacesetters in Innovation, is 
alarming, even to one accustomed to the thrust of today's public schools, and even more 
interesting when placed in its proper perspective of total HEW funding. It is described as 
a program "to support supplementary education centers and services, guidance counseling 
and testing" on state and local levels. These PACE programs [Projects to Advance Creativity 
in Education] describe "Psychotherapy," "Behavior Modification," "Psychoeducation Clin- 
ics," "Changed Parent-Student Relationships," "Total Environmental Control," "Humanistic 
Curriculum," "Sensitivity Training," and attitudinal measuring devices, ad nauseam. One 
program discusses "Experimental Buses featuring multichannel programming, individual 
receivers and active response opportunities (allowing audio presentations of cognitive and/or 
affective [emotional] instructional materials." Could it be that there's more to this busing 
than integration? 

I found that PACE'S direction was to "organize the process of change to restructure and 
reorganize the school system." Many different methods were used to accomplish this. Teach- 
ers are subjected to "Sensitivity Training" and "Change Agentry" training (an educational 
term used to describe the role of group leader as that of changing the attitude of students and 
others), not only to condition the teachers to new philosophies, but to "spread their influence 
to others in their own district and throughout the state via various visitation programs." 

Through the influences of these and various other programs, "structured or graded 
classes are systematically phased out and replaced by ungraded individualized instruction" 
(which ultimately becomes the opposite of individualized instruction as all children eventu- 
ally are fit to a pre-conceived mold or norm by computerized assessment). 

The Role of the School in the Community was published (Pendell Publishing Co.: Midland, 
Michigan, 1969). This shm 136-page book, edited by Dr. Howard W. Hickey, Dr. Curtis Van 
Voorhees, and associates, was "written to serve as a much-needed textbook for teachers and 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1969 85 

students in Community Education; and to serve as a handbook on Community Education for 
school officials and community education leaders." The following excerpts are from The Role 
of the School in the Community: 

Chapter III. An Overview by Jack D. Minzey and Clarence R. Olsen 

As the social forces have sought to bring action to bear on community problems, the need 
for a vehicle of action has become apparent. Not all groups have identified the most effective 
means of implementing their programs structured about community problems, but a number 
of influential persons and groups are aware of the community education concept and are 
extremely optimistic about its possibilities as the means by which their goals of social engi- 
neering can be accomplished, (p. 40) 

Chapter VI. A Developmental Process by Curtis Van Voorhees 

When a community school director attempts to identify courses to be included in the ques- 
tioning process it is important to remember, as previously mentioned, that people are typi- 
cally unable to identify many of their own problems and needs. While they may sometimes 
be able to identify what they want in the way of a class, it is unlikely that many people who 
need assistance in preparing nutritious meals are aware of that fact. And parents who are 
in need of information about child health practices are unlikely to recognize that they need 
such help. So it must be remembered that the simple existence of a problem does not guar- 
antee its recognition by the person with the problem. Community school coordinators must, 
therefore, develop a questioning form which will get at the unidentified problems of people 
without unduly alarming or offending the respondent; they must seek to soUcit information 
from people which will allow community school coordinators to plan better programs for the 
people they attempt to serve — programs that will hopefully change, in a positive way, the 
attitude, behavior and life style of the community residents. 

[Ed. Note: The term "community education" is rarely used today due to its socialistic philoso- 
phy causing extreme controversy in the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s. The average American 
rejected the notion that the community was there to serve his/her needs and that decision- 
making by unelected councils was acceptable or perhaps preferable to decision-making by 
elected officials. The change agents wisely dropped the label and now use terms such as "com- 
munitarianism," "participatory democracy," "site-based management," "school-based clinics," 
"year-round schools," Hillary Clinton's It Takes a Village to Raise a Child concept, all of which 
are individually or collectively Community Education. As Anita Hoge, a well-known education 
researcher, says, "It doesn't take a village to raise a child unless you live in a commune." At 
a Community Education Conference held in Washington, D.C. in 1976 a community educator 
from Alaska stated that "community education could be likened to the system in Russia and 
China. '10] 

Master Plan for Public Education in Hawaii— Toward a New Era for Education in Hawaii 
was pubhshed in 1969 by the State of Hawaii Department of Education, Honolulu, Hawaii. This 
pubhcation was partially funded under Title V, Sec. 503, P.L. 890-10 [U.S. Office of Education). 
Excerpts follow from this extraordinarily frank Master Plan which would serve as a model for 
the rest of the nation: 

Imphcations for Education... Second, the computer will enhance learning.... The teacher wiU 
operate as a manager.... The teacher wifl have a ready record of each student's performance 


and a ready access to the information the student needs during each stage of his progress, 
(p. 36) 

Perhaps we must go significantly beyond the present, minimum family educational programs 
that candidly discuss interpersonal relationships, family conflicts and tensions, counseling 
and rehabilitation services and the many areas that need to be explored between a man, a 
woman, and their children, [p. 46) 

The task of the schools during the past stable, relatively unchanging world was to emphasize 
fixed habits, memorization of facts, and development of specific skills to meet known needs. 
But for a future which will include vast changes, the emphasis should be on how to meet 
new situations, on the skills of research, observation, analysis, logic and communication, 
on the development of attitudes appropriate to change, and on a commitment to flexibility 
and reason, (p. 50) 

Behavioral sciences subject matter should form a part of our modern curriculum to provide 
a basis for self knowledge and behavioral concepts.... Study of ethical traditions, concepts 
and changes in value structure should be emphasized.... Department of Education should 
experiment with the group therapy, role playing and encounter group approach that are pro- 
fessionally planned and conducted, as a basis for understanding other people, races, cultures 
and points of view. (pp. 51-52) 

From the point of view of the teacher, individualized instruction should provide for opportuni- 
ties to diagnose the learning styles, and strengths and weaknesses of pupils; direct assistance 
by skilled counselors, psychologists, social workers and physicians will assist in accurate and 
meaningful diagnosis.... The Department should adopt team teaching and non-gradedness as 
the basic approach to classroom instruction. The present system of age and grade classification 
of students is excessively rigid and not conducive to individualized instruction. A non-graded 
approach, therefore, on a K-12 basis, is sought as an ultimate goal. (p. 54) 

The school system will seek financial support of educational programs on the basis of edu- 
cational outputs, that is, the improvement, growth and changes that occur in the behavior of 
the pupil as a result of schooling, (p. 55) 

This school system will systematically study the benefits of any promising non-educational 
input to enhance learning. Recent discoveries from the field of bio-chemistry suggest that 
there already exists a fairly extensive class of drugs to improve learning such as persistence, 
attentiveness, immediate memory, and long term memory.... The appUcation of biochemical 
research findings, heretofore centered in lower forms of animal life, will be a source of con- 
spicuous controversy when children become the objects of such experimentation. Schools will 
conceivably be swept into a whole new area of collaboration in research with biochemists 
and psychologists to improve learning. The immediate and long-term impact on teaching as 
well as on learning and the ethical and moral consequences of extensive use of chemicals 
to assist in the learning process must be studied extensively.... The Department should initi- 
ate a long term, continuing series of discussions with individuals directly associated with 
these research efforts. Lay persons from our community should be an integral part of these 
discussions, [p. 56) 

The Department should take the initiative to estabUsh a state compact of all agencies with 
responsibilities in education in this state. The purpose of such a compact will be to coordi- 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1969 87 

nate planning and execution of educational programs.... Assuming that the basic period of 
schooling required for the youth of Hawaii may remain at twelve years, extending the school 
day and the school year may be the solution to this pressing problem. Some of the benefits 
which can be anticipated from an extended school year and a school day are: An improve- 
ment in economic and professional status of our teachers,... an increased use of facilities and 
equipment. School facilities will be in use throughout the year.... (p. 62] 

That our system of values should change as the conditions in which these values find their 
expression change is evident in history.... Our past also has shown that society courts trouble 
when it clings stubbornly to outmoded values after experience has clearly shown that they 
need to be revised. For example, developments in our society have now cast considerable 
doubts on the worth of such deep-seated beliefs, still held strongly in some quarters, as 
extreme and rugged individualism or isolationism in international affairs. While values tend 
to persist, they are tentative. They provide the directions basic to any conscious and direct 
attempt to influence pupil behavior.... Some will argue, of course, that direct and purposeful 
effort at changing value orientations of pupils is no concern of the schools. But from what 
we know of the pupil and his development, the school is inescapably involved in influencing 
his moral values and ethical structure, (p. 63) 

The roles and responsibilities of teachers will change noticeably in the years ahead. By 1985 
it should be more accurate to term a teacher a "learning clinician" for the schools will be 
"clinics" whose purpose is to provide individualized educational and psychological "services" 
to the student." (p. 69) 

However, in the spring of 1967, the Department undertook to install a new "System," more 
commonly referred to as "PPBS." This sophisticated system of budgeting was crystalized 
in the federal defense agency during the early 1960's, and has, since 1965, been formally 
adopted by all departments within the federal government.... From a long-range standpoint, 
PPBS is surely the direction we must move toward if we are to do more than survive in a 
rapidly approaching computerized world.... However, operationally, there are several reasons 
why the entire PPBS anatomy cannot be totally... operable at this time. Although some of 
the problems are due to the system itself, most are due to the present undeveloped state of 
the educational industry. Some of these factors are: While we accept the PPBS concept, we 
must constantly be mindful that the system is a tool of management, not an end in itself, 
not a panacea or solution for all our management problems. Further, it should never be 
considered a replacement for experienced human judgment, but only an aid in arriving at 
sound judgments... in the field of education, which deals primarily in human behavior, there 
is almost no reliable research data on causal relationships. We do not know exactly why or 
how students learn.... Cost/effectiveness analysis which Ues at the heart of PPBS is virtually 
impossible without this kind of data.... As can readily be seen, the multiphcity and complexity 
of objectives and the difficulty of quantifying human behavior makes it exceedingly difficult 
to state our objectives in the manner specified by PPBS.... Another significant problem — this 
time to do with PPBS — is that it does not formally allow for value consideration. And yet, 
values — academic, economic, political, social, esthetic — appear to play a crucial role in the 
decision-making process. But how do we quantify values? How do we negotiate conflicting 
values? What will be the proper mix of values and how do we factor it into the array of alter- 
natives and the decision-making process? These are vital questions that must be answered if 
we are to rationalize the decision-making process, (pp. 96-97) 

Mount a comprehensive and continuing effort to develop standards and a system of mea- 


surement that will permit effective evaluation of student and Department of Education per- 
formance, [p. 98) 

[Ed. Note: PPBS and MBO are essentially the same as TQM. At a 1992 Total Quality Management 
(TQM) in Education Conference in St. Paul, Minnesota — sponsored by the National Governors' 
Association and attended by the writer — a representative from IBM stated that TQM is a more 
"sophisticated, refined form of PPBS."] 

In 1969 Don Davies, former Deputy Commissioner of Education for the U.S. Office of Edu 

cation and editor of Communities and Their Schools, wrote "Changing Conditions in American 
Schools" as part of the "Elementary Teacher Training Models," a section of the Behavioral Sci- 
ence Teacher Education Program [U.S. Qffice of Education, Department of Health, Education 
and Welfare [developed at Michigan State University under HEW grant]: Washington, D.C., 
1969). The following are excerpts from "Changing Conditions in American Schools": 

(1) Moving from a mass approach to an individual approach in education; 

(2) Moving from an emphasis on memorizing to an emphasis on the non-cognitive, 
non-intellectual components of hfe; 

(3) Moving from a concept of a school isolated from the community; 

(4) Moving from a fear of technology to using machinery and technology for educational 

(5) Moving from a negative to a positive attitude towards children who are different; 

(6) Moving from a provincial perspective of the world in education to a multicultural 

(7) Moving from a system characterized by academic snobbery to one which recognizes 
and nurtures a wide variety of talents and values; and 

(8) Moving from a system based on serving time to one which emphasizes perfor- 

[Ed. Note: 1, 2, 4, 7, and 8 should be familar to the reader. They represent QBE/ML/DI and 
technology. Numbers 5 and 6 are global education/values education.] 

Professor Dean Corrigan, in a 1969 speech before the 22nd Annual I^acher EoucAtion 

Conference at the University of Georgia, predicted that "teaching machines will pace a student's 
progress, diagnose his weaknesses and make certain that he understands a fundamental concept 
before allowing him to advance to the next lesson." 

[Ed. Note: Skinner said "computers are essentially sophisticated versions of the teaching 
machines of the 1960s... programmed learning." [See Education Week 8/31/83.)] 

A Report from the State Committee on Public Education to the California State Board 
of Education — Citizens for the 21st Century— Long-Range Considerations for California Elemen- 
tary and Secondary Education [California State Assembly: Sacramento, California, 1969) was 
prepared by Professor John I. Goodlad. Funded by the Elementary and Secondary Education 
Act of 1965, the Report states: 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1969 89 

Experimentation, Innovation, Implementation. 

We have seen that mechanisms are needed for systematically determining the appropriate 
responsibilities of local, state, and federal education agencies. Similarly, we need mechanisms 
for systematically determining the kinds of human beings to be developed in our schools. 
Such mechanisms do not now exist in this state or any state. We need, too, mechanisms for 
appraising the quality of innovations and for systematically determining how a full range of 
projects might be put in a single school, [p. 471) 

Improving Educational Assessment and an Inventory of Measures of Affective Behavior 
by Walcott H. Beatty, chairman and editor [Association for Supervision and Curriculum Devel- 
opment Commission on Assessment of Educational Outcomes [NEA Stock No. 611-17804]: 
Washington, D.C., 1969) was published. A chapter entitled "The Purposes of Assessment" by 
Ralph Tyler, "the father of educational assessment," was included in this important book. The 
following excerpts relate primarily to the principle of transfer in learning: 

The function of the school's teaching is to develop young people whose behavior outside 
the classroom is effective and significant. Therefore, in appraising the relative effectiveness 
of curriculum materials or programs, one goes beyond a checking of program and purpose 
to consider whether the learnings are generalizable to life outside the school. The Progres- 
sive Education Association's Eight- Year Study, for example, followed a group of high school 
graduates into college and occupational roles to learn the extent to which they were able to 
utilize ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that the school had tried to develop.... 

We are all familiar with the general principle that any measures of education should 
be based upon educational objectives — what kind of learning are we seeking? Thirty-eight 
years ago, when Paul Diederich and I began some of these efforts in the Progressive Educa- 
tion Association, much was said about determining educational objectives. We talked about 
educational objectives at a level so general that such objectives represented desirable and 
attainable human outcomes. Now, as the people from conditioning have moved into an 
interest in learning in the schools, the notions of behavioral objectives have become much 
more specific... 

As far as I know, one cannot very well teach a pigeon a general principle that he can 
then apply to a variety of situations. The objectives for persons coming out of the Skinnerian 
background tend to be highly specific ones. When I Usten to Gagne, who is an intelligent and 
effective conditioner, talk about human learning objectives, I wince a good deal because he 
sets very specific ones. I know that we can attain levels of generalization of objectives that 
are higher than that.... 

As a graduate student at Chicago 42 years ago, I did a study with Judd, who was at 
that time arguing with Thorndike over the principle of transfer in learning. Thorndike had 
demonstrated that transfer was not automatic among the formal disciplines; a person could 
take a course in Latin and not be able to handle other kinds of languages any more effec- 
tively. Thorndike reached the conclusion that every objective had to be very specific, like 
conditioning objectives. His first treatise on the psychology of arithmetic established some 
3,000 objectives for elementary school arithmetic. Judd, however, had come out of the social 
psychology tradition, having studied with Wundt at Leipzig. His view was that generalization 
was not only possible but was essential in education. The task he assigned me was to check 
on Thorndike's view that the addition of every one of the 100 pairs of one-digit combinations 
had to be practiced by the learner before he could add all of the pairs. The design of my study 
was to take the principles of grouping for addition and help pupils see them. I noted that 


five and two, and six and one, and zero and seven and three and four all total seven and had 
the students practice 21 out of the 100, emphasizing that each operation illustrated a general 
principle. I found that the youngsters in the experimental group who had practiced on only 
21 illustrations did just as well on the average over the sample of the total 100 as the pupils 
who had practiced systematically every one of the 100.... 

The possibihty of generalization is of course not new to the reader of this booklet. In 
curriculum development we now work on the principle that human beings can generaUze, 
so they do not have to practice every specific. The question is at what level of generalization 
do we set up objectives. There are overgeneralizations you can immediately see; for example, 
the use of "you" for both singular and plural forms often confuses students in grammar exer- 
cises. The problem of the effective curriculum maker and teacher is to figure out the level 
of generafization that is possible with a certain child or a certain group, then to estabhsh 
objectives based on reaching that level of generalization. You will have twenty objectives 
perhaps, but not more. The conditioning view, based upon specific situations and practices, 
may involve several hundred objectives for a course because specific practices must be used 
to accomplish each aspect of the conditioning, (pp. 8-9) 

"U.S. Plan to 'Take Over' Grade Schools Intimated" by John Steinbacher was an article 
which appeared in the Anaheim Bulletin [Anaheim, California) in 1969. Excerpts follow: 

Is the U.S. Office of Education, a division of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 
poised for a total takeover of every elementary school in the nation? 

That was indicated Thursday in a federally funded project at Cal State, FuUerton by 
Bernard Kravett, a professor at the school who took part last year in a federally funded proj- 
ect at the University of Washington. Known as the Tri-University Project, three universities 
were involved in a massively funded federal project to restructure the entire higher education 
system for training teachers, which, in effect, would make local elementary schools only a 
subsidiary arm of the federal government.... This system, to be called Teacher Preparation 
Experienced Systematically, is to be instituted at once.... All teacher training institutions will 
operate jointly with local school districts and teacher organizations to "establish performance 
criteria which become behavioral objectives." ...Students in colleges who are studying to 
be teachers will be placed in "clinical settings," where there will be a clinical counselor for 
each 12 students.... 

As the teacher trainees progress through the four-year course, they will be constantly 
assessed by testing and performance criteria, as well as constantly counseled by the trained 
psychologists.... At the end of each year, the teacher trainee will either pass on to the next 
level or will be recycled to take additional work in the areas in which he is found deficient.... 
The new approach is to stress attitudinal changes on the part of the teachers and the stu- 

Built into the system is a strong emphasis on the findings of the behavioral scientists. 
Teacher trainees will be counseled into becoming a "good team member on the faculty," and 
those who cannot adapt to "teamstanding" will be washed out of the teacher courses. The 
teacher is to learn how to "carry out the order of the team and the team leader " . . .The purpose 
of the so-called college activities will be to "build on behavioral objectives in order to help 
children find out who they are and help the child in his quest for identity. All education will 
be built on behavioral tasks rather than on course credits and grade point averages," he said. 
Kravett said the federal government had financed nine universities to come up with "programs" 
and it is from these programs, largely developed in behavioral science laboratories, that the 

The Sick Sixties : c. 1969 91 

new elementary program will come. California, he said, has a long way to go to catch up 
with the rest of the nation in accepting this new program. However, he said the government 
was spending "fantastic amounts of money and the Federal Government is totally behind it, 
pushing it and providing all the money you can possibly need." (p. 4) 

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), mandated by the U.S. Con- 
gress, was initiated in 1969. NAEP has periodically "assessed" [monitored the knowledge, 
skills, and performance of) students aged 9, 13, and 17, as well as various grade levels. The 
subject areas assessed have included: reading, writing, mathematics, science, citizenship, U.S. 
history, geography, social studies, art, music, literature, computer competence, and career and 
occupational development. NAEP also has collected background information from students, 
teachers, and administrators, and has related these data to student achievement. The Educa- 
tional Testing Service [ETS) in 1983 took over the contract to administer the NAEP from the 
Carnegie Corporation-spawned Education Commission of the States. This move effectively 
kept Carnegie in control of educational assessment, since it was the Carnegie Foundation for 
the Advancement of Teaching [a subdivision of the Carnegie Corporation) which had provided 
the $750,000 initial endowment [start-up funds) to launch ETS in 1947. Through an agree- 
ment between the American Council on Education, the Carnegie Foundation and the College 
Entrance Examination Board, all of whom turned over their testing programs and a portion of 
their assets to ETS, the move to establish Educational Testing Service as the primary provider 
of testing material was accomplished. 

In 1988 Congress established the National Assessment Governing Board [NAGB). The 
purpose of NAGB was to provide policy guidance for the execution of NAEP. The board was 
composed of nationally and locally elected officials, chief state school officers, classroom 
teachers, local school board members, and leaders of the business community, among others. 
Specifically, NAGB has been charged by Congress to perform the following duties: select subject 
areas to be assessed; identify appropriate achievement goals for each age group; develop assess- 
ment objectives; design a methodology of assessment; and produce guidelines and standards 
for national, regional, and state comparisons. 

Over a period of three decades research for Education for Results: In Response to A 

Nation at Risk, Vol. 1: Guaranteeing Effective Performance by Our Schools was conducted by 
Robert E. Corrigan, Ph.D., and Betty 0. Corrigan.^^ This final publication was published in 1983 
for the Reagan Administration's use. Rather than being the protection from harmful innova- 
tions that concerned parents had been promised, this report actually served as a springboard 
for implementing QBE. This writer is including it under the "Sick Sixties" since most of the 
programs comprising experimentation history [pilot OBE/ML/DI programs, including one in 
Korea) were, in the words of the Corrigans, implemented "across our country over a period of 
22 -I- years [1960-1983)." [For more complete understanding of the impact of this study, see 
Appendix VI.) 


1 John Goodlad, "A Report from the State Committee on Public Education to the California State Board of Education — Citizens 
for the Twenty-first Century — Long Range Considerations for California Elementary and Secondary Education," 1969. 

2 The function of the National Diffusion Network has been distributed throughout the U.S. Department of Education's organiza- 


tional subdivisions. The dissemination process is now carried on by individual offices and their projects. This was done as a 
result of the "Reorganization of Government according to the Malcolm Baldridge Award criteria" [TQM] under Vice President 
Al Gore's supervision. 

3 This is another term, used in this pubUcation, for today's "self-esteem." 

4 The writer recommends that those readers interested in the radical, leftist substance of "Recommendations for Delphi Discus- 
sion Groups," contact K.M. Heaton whose Road to Revolution contains information on this subject. See Resources for Heaton's 

5 The reader should turn to the inside cover of this book for the excellent cartoon by Joel Pett which carries the title "Consolida- 

6 "Harrison Bergeron" has been made into a video, available at your local video store. 

7 Dan Smoot was a former Harvard professor who served for 9-1/2 years in the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

8 Alice Rivlin later became director of the Congressional Budget Office, and presently serves as the chairman of the Board of 
Control for the District of Columbia. 

9 Ethna Reid was quoted in Dennis Bailey's article "Learning to Read the ECRI Way" for the January 8, 1982 issue of The Maine 

10 Audio tape of meeting from personal file of researcher who attended conference. 

11 In the January 1969 issue of Today's Education, journal of the National Education Association, two professors of education at 
Indiana University refer to schools of the 1970s as "clinics, whose purpose is to provide individualized psychosocial 'treatment' 
for the student." 

12 The Corrigans' organization is: SAFE Learning Systems, Inc., P.O. Box 5089, Anaheim, CA 92804. 



v^'oncerned with grave, important, or complex matters, problems" and "giving 
cause for concern" are two out of five definitions given in Webster's Dictionary for the word "seri- 
ous" which definitely apply to this chapter, "The Serious Seventies." Unfortunately, since the average 
American was purposely kept in the dark about what was taking place, being able "to be concerned" 
was an impossibility. To the change agents roaming the education landscape, "change" was the goal, 
and the end justified the means, even if it meant misleading through semantic deception the parents 
and taxpayers who paid the bills and provided the resources — the children and teachers upon whom 
the change agents would experiment. 

"The Serious Seventies" contains excerpts from important government documents, education 
journal articles, professional papers, and critiques by key educationists regarding the major components 
of reform planned for the end of the century as a result of federal legislation passed in the 1960s. From 
a study of the key documents one detects a vigorous tug-of-war taking place at the highest decision- 
making levels in education. Stringent debate was carried on regarding the pros and cons of the use of 
systematic planning and technology in an area of human endeavor (education) which until this time 
had had relatively little interference from political, social and economic planners (social engineers). 
State commissioners of education, local education agency superintendents, and especially teachers 
and school boards had been able to make decisions at the state and local level — decisions which they 
considered to be in the best interest of students and the communities in which they lived and worked. 
But "change" was the name of this serious new game. 

A careful reading of "The Serious Seventies" documents, especially the 1972 Association for 



Educational Computing and Technology (AECT) report entitled The Field of Educational Technology: 
A Statement of Definition (October, 1972), has convinced this writer that significant resistance to goal 
setting, systems management, computer-assisted instruction, etc., which existed at the beginning of 
the 1970s was, unfortunately, overcome. For instance, the above-referenced document contained the 
following most important warning regarding the use of technology in the classroom; a warning that, 
evidently, was not heeded in the years to come. The warning read in part: 

It should be clear that the concerned professional does not have to be a "liberal," or a 
"conservative." The concerned professional must, however, show moral sensitivity to the 
effect of what he or she does [in the field of technology] . It does not matter what position 
an individual comes to as long as it is not "I'll do it because it can be done." 

The above recommendation relating to the ethical use of technology in the classroom was evidently 
ignored by the change agents who decided instead that "We'll do it because it can be done." 

In 1971 Phi Delta Kappan published a paper entitled Performance-Based Teacher Education 
[PBTE]; What Is the State of the Art? This paper spelled out the raison d'etre for the transition from 
teacher education based on knowledge of subject matter to teacher education based on the ability 
to "perform" in the classroom. Skinnerian methods adopted by Madeline Hunter and others would 
become the foundation for future teacher training and accreditation, and ultimately the method for 
workforce training. This paper makes it all too clear that the purpose of PBTE was to "lower standards" 
so that the teaching profession could be more "inclusive" — or so "they" said. However, this writer 
believes inclusion was more than likely the cover (excuse acceptable to those who believed in equal 
opportunity] to install the performance-based system necessary for the eventual implementation of the 
school-to-work polytech system planned in 1934 and activated in the 1990s. From this time forward, 
the deliberate dumbing down would proceed with a vengeance. 

During "The Serious Seventies" the ship of education set a new course. Navigating these new 
waters would require a new chart, one entirely different from that used in the past. 


A Prohibition against Federal Control of Education, Section 432,General Eoucation 
Provisions Act [GEPA], was enacted in 1970 and reads as follows: 

Sec. 432. No provision of any applicable program shall be construed to authorize any depart- 
ment, agency, officer, or employee of the United States to exercise any direction, supervision, 
or control over the curriculum, program of instruction, administration, or personnel of any 
educational institution, school, or school system, or over the selection of library resources, 
textbooks, or other printed or published instructional materials by any educational institution 
or school system, or to require the assignment or transportation of students or teachers in 
order to overcome racial imbalance. (20 U.S.C. 1232a) Enacted April 18, 1970, P.L. 91-230, 
Title IV, sec. 401 (a) (10), 81 Stat. 169. 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1970 95 

[Ed. Note: The interpretation of the above prohibition lies in the eyes of the beholder. Parents 
and traditional teachers have held that all curriculum and teaching based on the federally 
funded Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory Goals Collection, National Diffusion Net- 
work Programs, and "scientific research-based" reading programs funded under the Reading 
Excellence Act of 1998 should be covered by GEPA and are consequently illegal. Educrats, on 
the other hand, have held that the only way for a program to be covered by GEPA would be 
for the secretary of education to sit on the sidewalk outside the U.S. Department of Education, 
developing curriculum, and passing it out to interested passersby.] 

The Shreveport [Louisiana] Journal of January 20, 1970 carried an article ENtitled "And 
It Came to Pass" in its Views from Other Newspapers section in which the author asked: 

Jackson (Miss.) Daily News— Has HEW Replaced NRA [National Recovery Act]l 

Thirty-seven years ago an unbelieving editor sat down and wrote an editorial for his paper. 
The Monroe Evening News of Monroe, Michigan, USA. The date was Wednesday, September 
13, 1933. 

Under the Lead Line, "Not That! ", that incredulous American newspaper editor went on 
to ask his readers of three decades ago, "Are the schools of America to be used as a propaganda 
agency to mould public opinion into conformity with the policies of the administration? " 

Still in a tone of utter disbelief that editor went on to quote from an interview with 
one Louis Alber, chief of the speakers division of the National Recovery Act. "Just read these 
astounding utterances by Mr. Alber," the editor challenges his subscribers. 

The rugged individualism of Americanism must go, because it is contrary to the purposes 
of the New Deal and the NRA which is remaking America. 

Russia and Germany are attempting to compel a new order by means of their nation- 
alism-compulsion. The United States will do it by moral persuasion. Of course we expect 
some opposition, but the principles of the New Deal must be carried to the youth of the 
nation. We expect to accomplish by education what dictators in Europe are seeking to do 
by compulsion and force. 

Mr. Alber went on to explain that a "primer" outlining methods of teaching to be 
used, along with motion pictures on the subject, were being prepared for distribution to 
all public and parochial schools and commented that: "NRA is the outstanding part of the 
President's program, but in fact it is only a fragment. The general public is not informed 
on the other parts of the program, and the schools are the places to reach the future build- 
ers of the nation. " 

From our vantage point in history we know that the notorious NRA was laid to rest early in 
its incubation period by the United States Supreme Court. 

What is important to each and all of us today is what has transpired in the intervening 
years since 1933. That editor of long ago remarked, "So as sweeping and revolutionary as 
NRA is, it is only a fragment of a greater program of which the public knows nothing, and 
this unknown program is to be inculcated into the minds of pupils in the schools everywhere, 
by official efforts and at government expense.... Now our schools are to become — like those 
of Germany and Russia — an agency for the promotion of whatever political, social, and eco- 
nomic poUcies the administration may desire to carry out. And the taxpayers, whether they 
like it or not, are to pay for having their children converted to those poUcies." 

The Editor closed by stating: "The whole proposition is so amazing, and so alarming 
in its implications, that we refuse to take it seriously. " 


Take a look about you today, with the Washington-directed school policies. Is the Health, 
Education and Welfare Department doing exactly what the defunct NRA started out to do? 

Report of the Study, Title HI, ESEA by Emery Stoof was produced by the EDUCAtional 
Innovation Advisory Commission and the Bureau of Planning and Development of the Cali- 
fornia State Department of Education in 1970. Excerpts follow: 

Origin of the Bureau... An Instructional Program Planning and Development Unit was estab- 
lished by State Board action in 1965 and was funded through a Title V, ESEA project. This 
unit was comprised of persons responsible for the state level administration of Title III, ESEA, 
and co-ordination of Title V, ESEA. A general conceptual model for effective planned change 
in education, as well as a management model for the administration of Title III, ESEA, was 
submitted to the State Board's Federal Aid Committee in 1965, with November 10, 1965 as 
the first deadline for receiving applications for funds.... 

Two significant developments early in the state administration of Title III, ESEA, were 
(1) the project to Prepare Educational Planners [Operation PEP), and (2) the funding of 
twenty-one regional planning centers. "PEP" sessions trained administrators in systematic 
planning procedures, systems analysis techniques, "planning, programming and budgeting 
system" and cost-benefit analysis. PACE (Projects to Advance Creativity in Education] was 
to encourage school districts to develop imaginative solutions to educational problems, to 
utihze more effectively research findings, to translate the latest knowledge about teach- 
ing and learning into widespread educational practice, and to create an awareness of new 
programs. Through the regional centers, the Bureau has endeavored to (1) encourage the 
development of creative innovations, (2) demonstrate worthwhile innovations in educational 
practice through exemplary programs, and (3) supplement existing programs and facilities. 

[Ed. Note: This is an example of how the Federal government began its takeover of all state 
and local education agencies, removing any semblance of what could be considered local 
control. The California report explains exactly what happened in every single state due to our 
elected officials' inability to resist taking federal money and their trust of education change 
agents [administrators, principals, superintendents, etc.) . How many American children have 
been severely handicapped academically and morally by experimental, "innovative" programs 
which had absolutely nothing to do with academics, but everything to do with attitude, value 
and behef change?] 

In 1970 Leonard S. Kenworthy, professor of education at Brooklyn College of the City 
of New York, wrote The International Dimension of Education: Background Paper II Prepared 
for the World Conference on Education (Asilomar, California, March 5-14, 1970), edited by 
Norman V. Overly. The conference was sponsored by the Association for Supervision and Cur- 
riculum Development, National Education Association, and the Commission on International 
Cooperation in Education. Excerpts from the report follow: 

III. The International Dimensions of Our Schools: Some Overall Considerations 
Here and there teachers have modified individual courses.... Schools have rewritten syUabi 
or added courses.... But nowhere has there been a rigorous examination of the total experi- 
ences of children and/or youth in schools and the development of a continuous, cumulative, 
comprehensive curriculum to create the new type of people needed for effective living in the 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1971 97 

latter part of the 20th century. . . . 

...All the work we do in developing internationally minded individuals should be 
directed to improved behavior. 

That means that all the efforts in this dimension of education must be predicated on the 
research in the formation, reinforcement, and change of attitudes and on the development 
of skills. Knowledge is tremendously important, but we should be clear by now that it must 
be carefully selected knowledge, discovered by the learners rather than told to them, and 
organized by them with the help of teachers or professors around concepts, generalizations, 
or big ideas. Teaching, therefore, becomes the process of helping younger people to probe, 
discover, analyze, compare, and contrast rather than telling. 

There is a rich mine of data now on attitude formation, change, and reinforcement 
which teachers need to study carefully and apply to this dimension of education as well as 
to others. For example, we know that most basic attitudes are learned very early but that 
attitudes can be changed at any age. We know that times of personal and societal crisis are 
the best times to bring about change. But we also know that people must not be threatened 
by changes. They must be relatively secure and much of their resistance to change recognized 
and tolerated as a manifestation of an inner struggle to reject the old and accept the new. 
Therefore, the acceptance of the old views with equanimity is important, so that the threat 
to a person is minimal. We know, too, that appeals to pride and self-interest may be helpful 
in bringing about change. So are the statements and actions of prestige persons. Membership 
in new groups is often helpful in insulating a person from slipping back into old patterns. 
We also know that changing a total group is easier and more likely to produce results than 
trying to change individuals. And it is clear that concentration upon specific areas of change 
rather than general approaches is usually most effective.... 

Changed behavior is our goal and it consists in large measure of improved attitudes, 
improved skills, and carefully selected knowledge — these three — and the greatest of these 
is attitudes.... 

The program emphasizes feelings as well as facts. In some parts of the world in the 
field of education today, the emphasis is upon cognitive learning or intellectual develop- 
ment. This is especially true in the United States.... But in the international dimensions of 
education, as in other dimensions, the affective domain or emotional development is just 
as important.... 

We need to get at the "gut level" in much of our teaching. We need to use music, art, 
powerful literature, films and other approaches which get at the feeling level of learning. 
For example, the writer has found tremendously effective a 10-minute film on the United 
Nations, entitled "Overture." There is no narrative in this film; the pictures are shown against 
a background of music, with the Vienna Symphony Orchestra playing the Egmont Overture. 
It is a powerful learning device and moves its viewers in a way few other approaches touch 
them. (pp. 23-39] 


Education: From the Acquisition of Knowledge to Programmed, Conditioned REsponses 
was submitted by Assemblyman Robert H. Burke [70th California Assembly District) to the 
California Legislature in 1971. An excerpt follows: 


Several months ago, my office began accumulating material which had particular significance 


in the area of Planning, Programming, Budgeting Systems because of its potential use as a 
tool of fiscal accountability in the field of education. As we searched into the information 
available on the application of this subject in education, it became increasingly difficult to 
see any relationship between the proposed programs and fiscal accountability. It was appar- 
ent after a study of the methods proposed for use by the schools for accountability purposes 
that fiscal accountability was being minimized and that techniques were being promoted 
for achieving behavioral objectives. Other seemingly unrelated organizations, projects, and 
programs were uncovered because of their influence on the application of accountability 
methods. They were as parts in a puzzle — analyzed by themselves, each of these projects 
appeared to be either harmless or an expression of someone's "dream. " When linked together 
with other "harmless" programs, they were no longer formless but could be seen as an entire 
package of plans outlining methods of implementation, organization structures (including 
flow-charts), computerization, use of behavioral profile catalogs, and goals and objectives 

Controversial sexologists Lester A. Kirkendall and Ruth F. Osborne developed in 1971 a 
program entitled "Sex Education— Student Syllabus No: 216786, correlated with M.I.P. 180800" 
which was one of the first sex education programs to use a mastery learning approach. This 
program was published by the National Book Company, owned by Carl W. Salser, executive 
director of Educational Research Associates, a non-profit educational research corporation in 
Portland, Oregon. Mr. Salser is also the owner of Halcyon Press and is a long-time advocate 
of individualized instruction and mastery learning. 

Carl Salser is the author of a pamphlet entitled "The Carnegie Unit: An Administrative 
Convenience, but an Educational Catastrophe" and is a supporter of outcome-based education/ 
mastery learning. Full implementation of OBE/ML calls for the removal of the Carnegie Unit — the 
"seat time" measure of subject exposure for students which determines graduation and col- 
lege entry eligibility. Salser was a member during 1981-1982 of the presidentially appointed 
National Council on Educational Research which had oversight of the activities at the former 
National Institute of Education of the U.S. Department of Education. 

In 1971 THE Secretariat of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and CuLtural Orga- 
nization [UNESCO) called upon George W. Parkyn of New Zealand to outline a possible model 
for an education system based on the ideal of a continuous education process throughout the 
Ufetime of the learner — a means of bringing an existing national school system into line with 
lifelong learning. The result of this effort was a book entitled Towards a Conceptual Model of 
Life-Long Education, pubhshed in 1973 by UNESCO [Enghsh Edition ISBN 92-3-101117-0). 
The preface of the book contained the following interesting biographical sketch of the little- 
known Dr. Parkyn: 

The Secretariat called on George W. Parkyn of New Zealand to prepare this first study. Dr. 
Parkyn has rendered extensive service to education in many parts of the world: in New Zea- 
land, as a teacher in primary and secondary schools, as a senior lecturer at the University 
of Otago, and as director of the New Zealand Council for Educational Research, 1954-1967; 
at UNESCO, where he made substantial contributions to the World Survey of Education; at 
Stanford University, California, as a visiting professor; in New Zealand again, as a visiting 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1971 99 

lecturer in Comparative Education at the University of Auckland; and as Professor of Com- 
parative Education at the University of London, Institute of Education.... Dr. Parkyn was 
asked to review the available literature in this field and to involve several of his colleagues 
at Stanford University, CaHfornia, in discussions on the basic concept. Psychologists, soci- 
ologists, and anthropologists, as well as professional educators took part in the conceptual 
stage, contributing a rich variety of views. Among those who helped the author in the 
preparation of the study were his research assistants, Mr. Alejandro Toledo and Mr. Hei-tak 
Wu, and his colleagues, Dr John C. Bock, Dr. Martin Carnoy, Dr. Henry M. Levin and Dr. 
Frank J. Moore. 

[Ed. Note: The Dr. Henry M. Levin mentioned above is the same Henry Levin whose K-8 
Accelerated Schools Project is one of the seventeen reform models that schools may adopt to 
qualify for their share of nearly $150 million in federal grants, according to the January 20, 
1999 edition of Education Week [p. 1). The article "Who's In, Who's Out" listed Accelerated 
Learning as being used in urban schools. It is based on a constructivist philosophy which has 
echoes of and references to Maria Montessori's and John Dewey's philosophies of education 
and incorporates the controversial Lozanov method of Superlearning.] 

Psychology Applied to Teaching by Robert F. Bienter (Houghton Mifflin Co.: Boston, 
1971) was published. This popular psychology text was recommended for use in Introduction 
to Educational Psychology courses in universities in the early 1970s. Chapter 5, under the sub- 
heading of "S-R Associationism and Programmed Learning," is excerpted here: 

Watson [John B.] (who did the most to popularize Pavlovian theory in the United States) 
based one of his most famous experiments [Watson and Rayner, 1920) on the observation 
that young children have a "natural" fear of sudden loud sounds. He set up a situation in 
which a two-year-old boy named Albert was encouraged to play with a white rat. After this 
preliminary period, Watson suddenly hit a steel bar with a hammer just as Albert reached 
for the rat, and the noise frightened the child so much that he came to respond to the rat 
with fear. He had been conditioned to associate the rat with the loud sound. The success 
of this experiment led Watson to believe that he could control behavior in almost limitless 
ways, by arranging sequences of conditioned responses. He trumpeted his claim in this 
famous statement: 

Give me a dozen healthy infants, well formed, and my own special world to bring them 
up in, and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of 
specialist I might select — doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and yes, even beggarman 
and thief — regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race 
of his ancestry, [pp. 152-3) 

Later on in the chapter. Skinner's contributions are discussed: 

An even more striking example of Skinner's overwhelming enthusiasm for programmed 
learning is his claim that mere manipulation of the teaching machine should be "reinforcing 
enough to keep a pupil at work for suitable periods every day."... Thus it is apparent that 
Skinner's enthusiasm has prevented him from seeing some of the deficiencies of programmed 
instruction. Many critics have been especially dissatisfied with his attempt to refute the 
charge that programs limit creativity. Clearly when the person composing a program decides 
in advance what is to be learned and how it is to be learned, a student has no opportunity 


to develop in his own way. He is limited by what the programmer knows and by how the 
programmer learned.... 

It is true that the student might use the material in an original way after he had finished 
the program, but there is the possibility that programmed instruction interferes with this 
process. For example, some students who have completed programs report that although 
they have progressed quickly and satisfactorily and feel that they have learned something, 
they aren't sure where to go from here. Typically, the next step is to take an exam, usually 
of the multiple-choice type, which is highly similar to the program in which that stimuU 
are presented and responses are chosen. But what happens after the exam? If the student 
cannot respond unless he is stimulated in the same way he was in the program or exam, he 
will rarely be able to apply what he has learned to real life situations. 

What we are dealing with here is the subject of transfer. . . which is basic to education. 
Ellis has pointed out that little research has been done on the transferability of programmed 
learning; in almost all studies the experimenter determines the degree of learning solely on 
the basis of each child's performance on a test given immediately after the completion of the 
program. Skinner maintains that the student can be taught to transfer ideas through separate 
programs designed for this purpose and that a properly written program will wean the student 
from the machine, but there is little evidence to back up this contention. On logical grounds 
alone it seems reasonable to question the transfer value of programmed instruction. 

Markle notes that in order to ensure that approximately 95 percent of the answers will 
be correct, as Skinner suggests, programmers are forced to keep revising programs for the 
lowest common denominator — the slowest students in the group. This eventually leads to 
programs which most students can complete fairly easily, but it also leads to programs which 
are oversimplified and repetitious, (pp. 168-171) 

The Individualized Learning Letter (T.I.L.L.) ; Administrator 's Guide to Improve Learning; 
Individualized Instruction Methods; Flexible Scheduling; Behavioral Objectives; Study Units; 
Self-Directed Learning; Accountability, Vol. I [February 22, 1971: T.I.L.L., Huntington, N.Y.y 
was published and circulated. Excerpts follow: 

Opting to become a greater force in promoting I.I. (Individualized Instruction), The Northeast 
Association for Individualization of Instruction (Wyandanch, N.Y.) has gone national — by 
substituting the word "national" for "northeast.".... The enlarged 2-1/2 day convention is 
geared to give registrants more time to watch I.I. in action in live classrooms. Several of the 
nation's I.I. leaders already lined up to run workshops include: Dr. Lloyd Bishop, NYU; Dr. 
Sid Rollins, Rhode Island College; Dr. Robert Scanlon, Research for Better Schools [Research 
for Better Schools and University of Pittsburgh Learning Research and Development Center 
(Robert Glaser) were instrumental in development of IPI in the early 1960s, ed.]; Dr. Edward 
Pino, Superintendent of Cherry Creek Schools (Englewood, CO); Dr. Robert Anderson, Har- 
vard University; Dr. Leon Lessinger, Georgia State University; Dr. Robert Sinclair, University 
of Massachusetts; Jane Root, Stanford Research Associates; and Dr. Glen Ovard, Brigham 
Young University. Representatives of USOE, NEA, NY State Department of Education will be 
present. (The latter supports the conference with an annual grant.).... 

DOWN WITH BOOKS. "Textbooks not only encourage learning at the wrong level (imparting 
facts rather than telling how to gather facts, etc.), they also violate an important new con- 
cern in American education — individualized instruction.... Textbooks produce superficially 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1971 101 

knowledgeable students... who know virtually nothing in depth about anything.... A good 
start would be to... declare a moratorium on textbook use in all courses." Dwight D. Allen, 
Dean of Education, University of Massachusetts, writing on "The Decline of Textbooks, 

RECOMMENDED BOOKS: Behavioral Objectives: A Guide for Individualized Learning. Four- 
volume set covering more than 4000 objectives representing four years' work of more than 
200 teachers. Arranged by subject area. Covers language arts, social studies, math and sci- 
ence. A comprehensive collection. Westinghouse Learning Corp., 100 Park Avenue, New 
York, N.Y. 10017. 

grammed Instruction Convention, March 31-April 3, 1971 . University of Rochester, Rochester, 
N.Y. Heavy emphasis on applying principles and processes of individualized instruction. 
Session on redesigning schools of tomorrow. Contact Dr. Robert G. Pierleone, College of 
Education, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. First Educational Technology Conference. 
April 5-8, 1971. Americana Hotel, N.Y. City, N.Y. Conference seminars and workshops will 
cover curriculum design, use of computers, programmed instruction, simulation, innovation 
theory, etc. 

IN FORTHCOMING ISSUES: Update of 46 Case Studies of Individuahzed Instruction as origi- 
nally reported by Jack V. Edling, Oregon State System of Higher Education. 

"Revised Report of Population Subcommittee, Governor's Advisory Council on Environ- 
mental Quality" for the State of Michigan, to be used at the April 6, 1971 meeting of the sub- 
committee, was filed in the Library, Legislative Service Bureau in Lansing, Michigan. Excerpts 
from this disturbing report follow: 

I. Concept of a Population Goal 

In general, the Subcommittee was in agreement with U.S. Senate Resolution No. 214, as 

That it is the policy of the United States to develop, encourage, and implement at the earli- 
est possible time, the necessary policies, attitudes, social standards, and actions which will 
by voluntary means consistent with human rights and individual conscience, stabilize the 
population of the United States and thereby promote the future well-being of the citizens 
of this Nation and the entire world. 

It was the feeling of the Subcommittee that the intent of the above Resolution should be 
encouraged by voluntary means and due consideration given to human rights. However, in 
order to accomphsh the above goal, state and federal legislation must accompany this intent 
to provide disincentives. 

II. Optimum Goal 

An optimum goal is to be considered in preference to a maximum carrying capacity. As a 
starting point, zero population growth is the recommended goal for the citizens of Michi- 
gan.... That the human population on a finite "space ship" cannot increase indefinitely is 


obvious. What is not so obvious is what constitutes an "optimum" level of population and 
the methods by which it is to be limited.... 

III. How Does Society Obtain Population Control? 

Constraints on population size can be divided into two types, biological and social. Biological 
constraints include the hmitation of those energies and chemicals required to drive human 
society as a biological system.... Societal constraints are more appropriate since the human 
population explosion is basically a social problem. There are three classes of social institu- 
tions which can be utiHzed to obtain population control. These are the political, economic 
and education systems. Each of these represent powerful control systems which help to 
regulate the behavior of our society. 

A wide range of pubUc policies are available by which man can affect population size. 
Some policies can seek to change man's basic values and attitudes with respect to the issues 
of population size. Other policies can seek to directly affect man's behaviors which have 
consequences for population size. Some suggested policy goals are listed. 

General Pubhc Understanding 

Having children is a public interest as well as a private interest. Likewise, the use of the 
environment must be understood to be a collective responsibility rather than a private or 
individual responsibility, since the costs and the benefits of the use of the environment are 
indivisible to all members of the collectivity. This idea runs counter to the underlying ethic 
of individualism and privateness of our society, but is basic if we are to mobilize the col- 
lective will which is necessary for social action. To change such a basic set of attitudes and 
values requires cooperation from the full range of opinion leaders in the society. A program 
of education for leaders in all sectors of society, such as religious, economic, political, edu- 
cational, technical, etc., is therefore called for. 

Since basic attitudes and values are formed early in life, and since it is the youth of 
society who are yet capable of determining the size of future families, a program for all levels 
of formal education can be a powerful way to change society's attitudes and values on the 
question of population size as outlined above. 

The idea that family size is a collective, social responsibility rather than just an indi- 
vidual responsibility can be fostered both directly by exhortations by opinion leaders and in 
the schools, and indirectly by the actions that government and other institutions in society 
take. For example, the proposal to eliminate the income tax exemption for children in excess 
of the two-child family limit can be a powerful way for government to symbolize its deter- 
mination that family size is a collective responsibility. 

Public understanding of the interdependent nature of our natural and man-made envi- 
ronment is also important for enlightened public support for population control policies. 
A state-wide education program concerning ecology and population biology is needed for 
both student and adult segments of our society. This will require vigorous action to remove 
the topic of sex from the closets of obscurity in which conservative elements in our society 
have placed it.... 

Cultural Changes 

Two types of cultural changes are needed in order to reduce the population increase: reduce 

the desired size of families, and reduce the social pressure to marry and have a family. 

Large families can be changed from an economic asset to an economic hability if all 
members of society can be offered the prospect that through work, saving, and deferred 
spending they can achieve economic security for themselves and their children. For the 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1971 103 

already affluent middle class, larger families can be made an economic liability by increasing 
the incentives for and the costs of advanced education for their children.... 

Cultural changes to reduce the social pressure to marry and have a family can be pur- 
sued by changing educational materials which glorify married life and family life as the only 
"normal" life pattern, by granting greater pubhc recognition to non-married and non-family 
life styles, by facilitating careers for single women.... 

[Ed. Note: The above recommendation regarding reducing the social pressure to marry and 
have a family was successfully carried out over a period of 25 years according to an article 
entitled "Institution in Transition" by Michelle Boorstein which appeared in The Maine Sunday 
Telegram's August 30, 1998 issue, Home and Family Section, G-1. This Associated Press article 
said in part: 

They [Pam Hesse and Rob Lemar] share a home and a future but not a formal vow — just 
one couple caught up in the seismic shifts taking place in American attitudes toward mar- 
riage and childbearing. 

A soon-to-be-released Census Bureau report shows Hesse is far from an exception; 
in fact, she's in the majority. The report, the bureau's first compilation of all its 60 years 
of data on childbearing and marriage, finds that for the first time, the majority of "first 
births" — someone's first child — were either conceived by or born to an unmarried woman. 
That is up from 18 percent in the 1930s. 

This is connected to an erosion of the centrality of marriage, said Stephanie Coontz 
of Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington, who studies the family and its role in 

Returning to the Population Subcommittee's report: 

Direct Behavior Changes 

Two general types of public policies are distributive policies and regulative poHcies. Distribu- 
tive policies involve the distribution of resources and opportunities to people who choose 
to modify their behavior to conform with the socially desired patterns. They thus operate 
as incentives rather than as official constraints. Examples include the elimination of tax 
incentives for larger families, monetary incentives for sterilization or adopted families, and 
removing the income tax discrimination against single citizens.... 

Regulative policies involve direct constraints on behavior and necessarily generate 
greater political conflict than distributive policies. This is because regulative policies elimi- 
nate the element of voluntary choice and apply automatically and categorically to a whole 
class of people or of behaviors. Examples of such regulative policies designed to control 
population growth include forced sterilization and restrictive licensing procedures to marry 
and to have children. However, it does not seem necessary, desirable, or feasible to involve 
regulative policies for population control at this time. One regulative type policy which is now 
in effect and which allows population increase is the law forbidding abortion. Restrictions 
against abortions should be removed to allow individual choice in the use of this back-up 
method of birth control.... 

A general acceptance of birth control to obtain population stability will create a more 
static ethnic, cultural and racial structure in society. Minority groups will continue to stay 
at a numerical minority. Minority problems are basically social and should be solved in that 
manner. An equilibrium condition will also alter the structure of our economic relationship 
both within our society (a shift from an expanding economy to a competitive displacement 
economy] and between other countries that will still be experiencing increasing popula- 



Immediate consideration must be given to (1) the development of an integrated social 
control of our population size and growth, and (2) the impact of a steady stable condition 
on our society. The scope and complexity of this task requires the attention of a highly pro- 
fessional team whose talents and professional training are equal to the challenge. It is the 
recommendation of the Council that such a team be brought together and charged with the 
prompt development of the details of this program and reporting back to the Council. 

Approved by the Population Subcommittee, March 30, 1971. 

Present: Dr. C.T. Black, Mr. Robert Boatman, Professor William Cooper, Dr. Ralph MacMul- 
lan, and M.S. Reisen, M.D., Chairman 

Surely it is no coincidence that the above-mentioned Michigan and U.S. Senate recom- 
mended poUcies on population control were being discussed at the same time (1971) that the 
United States was engaged in "Ping Pong" diplomacy with Communist China, the international 
leader in mandatory population control. Some excerpts follow from "The Ping Heard Round 
the World" which appeared in the April 26, 1971 issue of Time magazine: 

Dressed in an austere gray tunic. Premier Chou En-Lai moved along a line of respectfully 
silent visitors in Peking's massive Great Hall of the People.... Finally he stopped to chat with 
the 15-member U.S. team and three accompanying American reporters, the first group of U.S. 
citizens and journahsts to visit China in nearly a quarter of a century. "We have opened a 
new page in the relations of the Chinese and American people," he told the U.S. visitors. 

...Yet in last week's gestures to the United States table tennis team, the Chinese were 
clearly indicating that a new era could begin. They carefully made their approaches through 
private U.S. citizens, but they were responding to earUer signals that had been sent by the 
Nixon Administration over the past two years. 

...Probably never before in history has a sport been used so effectively as a tool of 
international diplomacy. 

[Ed. Note: Back to family planning, Michigan- style. Population and Family Planning in the 
People's Republic of China, 1971, a book published by the Victor-Bostrom Fund and the Popula- 
tion Crisis Committee, has a table of contents that includes: "A Letter from Peking" by Edgar 
Snow, author of Red Star Over China; "Family Planning in China" by Han Suyin, M.D.; and 
"Why Not Adopt China's Population Goals?" In other words, it looks like Ping Pong Diplomacy 
may have been used to open up the dialogue between Communist China and "private" Ameri- 
can groups supporting population control. These would, in turn, lobby in Congress for more 
liberal family planning policies and for the legahzation of abortion as recommended in the 
U.S. Senate Journal Resolution #214 and the Michigan paper. Here again, as was the case with 
the 1985 Carnegie Corporation-Soviet Academy of Sciences education agreement, diplomacy 
is being conducted by private parties: table tennis teams and groups such as the non-profit 
Victor-Bostrom Fimd and the Population Crisis Committee.] 

Performance-Based J^iacher Education: What Is the State of the Art? by Stanley Elam, 
editor of Phi Delta Kappa Publications [AACTE Committee on Performance-Based Teacher 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1971 105 

Education, American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education: Washington, D.C., 1971), 
was published. This paper was originally prepared in 1971 pursuant to a contract with the U.S. 
Office of Education through the Texas Education Agency, Austin, Texas. Excerpts follow: 

The Association is pleased to offer to the teacher education community the Committee's 
first state of the art paper. ... In performance-based programs. . . he [the teacher] is held account- 
able, not for passing grades, but for attaining a given level of competency in performing the 
essential tasks of teaching.... Acceptance of this basic principle has program implications 
that are truly revolutionary. 

The claim that teacher education programs were not producing people equipped to teach 
minority group children and youth effectively has pointed directly to the need for reform 
in teacher education.... Moreover, the claim of minority group youth that there should be 
alternative routes to professional status has raised serious questions about the suitability of 
generally recognized teacher education programs. 

[Ed. Note: The above paper was one of the first — and perhaps the most influential — profes- 
sional papers setting the stage for full-blown implementation of Skinnerian outcome-based/ 
performance-based education. The definitions, criteria, assessment, etc., are identical to those 
found in present professional OBE literature. [See Appendix VII for fuller excerpts from this 

Concern regarding the deliberate dumbing down of America is not confined to this author 
according to an article entitled "Young People Are Getting Dumber," by David Hawkins, edito- 
rial staff writer, in the August 26, 1971 issue of The Dallas Morning News. Excerpts from this 
interesting article, which discusses the importance of acquiring a large vocabulary, follow: 

John Gaston, who bosses the Fort Worth branch of the Human Engineering Laboratory 
(half his clients are from Dallas], dropped a bomb on me as we discussed aptitude testing. 

"Do you know," he said, "that the present generation knows less than its parents?" 

"You mean to say that young people aren't smarter than we are — that all we've heard 
about this generation being the last and best isn't so?" 

Gaston nodded solemnly: "Young people know fewer words than their fathers. That 
makes them know less." He fixed me with a foreboding eye: "Can you imagine what a drop 
in knowledge of 1 per cent a year for 30 years could do to our civilization?" 

The question answered itself. And though I could hardly believe what Gaston was 
saying, I knew it wasn't instant sociology. 

What he says is based on hundreds of thousands of tests given in several parts of the 
country since 1922 by what is probably the most prestigious non-profit outfit in the field of 
vocational research. The Human Engineers don't even advertise. 

But Gaston wasn't through: "We also believe," he was saying, "that the recent rise in 
violence correlates with the drop in vocabulary. Long [range] testing has convinced us that 
crime and violence predominate among people who score low in vocabulary. If they can't 
express themselves with their tongues, they'll use their fists." 

"We test many gifted people who are low in vocabulary and we tell them all — we tell 
the world — to learn the words. Swallow the dictionary. Brilliant aptitudes aren't worth much 
without words to give them wings." 

Gaston paused and then dropped another bomb. "The one thing successful people have 
in common isn't high aptitudes — it's high vocabulary, and it's within everybody's reach. 


Success actually correlates more with vocabulary than with the gifts we're born with." 

"Aptitudes will only show them which road to take. Vocabulary will determine how 
high they climb. Right now, the present generation is headed downwards." 

Some important statements by Professor John I. Goodlad, president of EoucAtional Inquiry, 
Incorporated, appeared in A Report to the President's Commission on School Finance (School- 
ing for the Future: Toward Quality and Equality in American Precollegiate Education) October 
15, 1971. Goodlad makes the following comments under "Issue #9 — Educational Innovation: 
What changes in purposes, procedures or institutional arrangements are needed to improve 
the quality of American elementary and secondary education?": 

The literature on how we socialize or develop normative behavior in our children and 
the populace in general is fairly dismal.... [T]he majority of our youth stiU hold the same 
values as their parents.... 

In the second paradigm... the suggestion is made that there are different targets for the 
change agent. For example, in a social system such as a school probably five to fifteen percent 
of the people are open to change. They are the "early majority" and can be counted on to 
be supportive. A second group, sixty to ninety percent, are the resisters. They need special 
attention and careful strategies need to be employed with them. Also, there are the leaders, 
formal and informal, and their support is critical. In his research, for example, Demeter noted 
some time ago the special role of the school principal in innovation: 

Building principals are key figures in the [innovation) process. Where they are both aware 
of and sympathetic to an innovation, it tends to prosper. Where they are ignorant of its 
existence, or apathetic if not hostile, it tends to remain outside the bloodstream of the 

Few people think in these ways today. Rather, as a people, we tend to rely upon common 
sense or what might be caUed conventional wisdom as we make significant decisions which, 
in turn, seriously affect our lives.... More often than not, school board members, parents and 
the pubhc make important decisions about what should happen in their schools based upon 
these past experiences or other conventional wisdom.... The use of conventional wisdom as 
a basis for decision-making is a major impediment to educational improvement.... 

The child of suburbia is likely to be a materialist and somewhat of a hypocrite. He tends 
to be a striver in school, a conformist, and above all a believer in being "nice," polite, clean 
and tidy. He divides Humanity into the black and white, the Jew and the Christian, the rich 
and the poor, the "smart" and the "dumb." He is often conspicuously self-centered. In all 
these respects, the suburban child patterns his attitudes after those of his parents.... If we 
do not aher this pattern, if we do not resocialize ourselves to accept and plan for change, 
our society may decay. What may be left in the not too distant future is what other formerly 
great societies have had, reflections on past glories.... 

In the social interaction model of change, the assumption is made that the change 
agent is the decision-maker about the innovation. That is, it is assumed that he decides 
what the adopter will change to. This is a serious problem for two very good reasons. First, 
as we have shown, people cannot be forced to change until they are psychologically ready. 
Thus, at every stage, each individual is, in fact, deciding how far he is ready or wilhng to 
move, if at all. 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1972 107 

[Ed. Note: As a former school board member, this writer can relate to the above quote. Princi- 
pals who resisted innovation eventually ended up being forced out of the system undergoing 
radical change. Their trials and tribulations were known only to them, and what they under- 
went during the change agents' activities in their schools could be described as inhumane 

The "nii-CouNTY K-12 Course Goal Project, the results of which were later PUBlished by 
the Northwest Regional Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Education and used extensively 
throughout the nation as the formulaic sample for "goals setting," was initiated in 1971. In 
the appendix entitled "Classification System for the School Curriculum" for her Practitioner's 
Implementation Handbook [series]; The Outcome-Based Curriculum [Outcome Associates: 
Princeton, N.J., 1992), Charlotte Danielson, M.A., a prominent educator and proponent of 
outcome-based education, said: "The knowledge and inquiry and problem-solving skills sections 
of this taxonomy were first developed by the Tri-County Goal Development Project, Portland, 
Oregon."^ Assistant superintendent Victor W. Doherty, Evaluation Department of the Portland 
Public Schools in Portland, Oregon, in a November 2, 1981 letter to Mrs. Opal Moore, described 
this Goal Development Project as follows: 

The Tri-County Goal Development Project was initiated by me in 1971 in an effort to develop 
a resource for arriving at well-defined learning outcome statements for use in curriculum 
planning and evaluation. At that time the only language available was the behavioral objec- 
tive, a statement which combined a performance specification with a learning outcome often 
in such a way as to conceal the real learning that was being sought. By freeing the learning 
outcome statements from performance specification and by defining learning outcomes of 
three distinctly different types (information, process skills, and values), we were able to 
produce outcome statements that served both the planning and evaluation functions. The 
project was organized to include 55 school districts in Multnomah, Clackamas, and Wash- 
ington Counties and writing was done initially by teachers whose time was donated to the 
project by member districts. 

[Ed. Note: The writer believes that this very controversial project which provided the goals 
framework for OBE was illegal — in clear violation of the 1970 GEPA prohibition against federal 
government involvement in curriculum development.] 


The Newport Harbor Ensign of Corona del Mar, California carried an article entitled 
"Teachers Are Recycled" in its January 20, 1972 issue. The following are excerpts from this 
important article: 

Education in California is finally going to catch up with the "innovative" Newport-Mesa 
Unified School District. With the passage of the Stull Bill, AB 293, all school districts are 
mandated to evaluate their classroom teachers and certificated personnel through new 
guidelines. Another portion of the bill will allow a district to dismiss a teacher with tenure, 
without going to court. 

A teacher will no longer have the prerogative of having his own "style" of teaching. 


because he will be held "accountable" to uniform expected student progress. His job will 
depend on how well he can produce "intended" behavioral changes in students. 

"School districts just haven't had time to tool up for it," explained Dr. Wilham Cun- 
ningham, Executive Director of the Association of California School Administrators (ACSA] . 
Until recently, he was superintendent of the Newport-Mesa district. 

The Newport-Mesa district, under the guidance of Dr. Cunningham, accomplished 
this task years ago. In fact we have warned of this appraisal plan in many of our columns 
throughout the past 2 years. Its formal name is "staff performance appraisal plan," at least 
in this district, and was formulated as early as 1967. 

In 1968 five elementary schools in our district [California, Mariners, Presidio, Victoria, 
Monte Vista) and one high school (Estancia) were selected from schools that volunteered for 
the project. They were accepted on the basis that at least 60% of the teachers were willing 
to participate in the "in-service training sessions" and to "apply" the assessment processes 
learned at these sessions in their own classroom situations. A total of 88 teachers participated 
in all aspects of the pilot study.... 

FORMAL TRAINING SESSIONS: participants attended two 2-1/2 hour sessions to acquire 
the prerequisite tools. Evidence was collected to show that by the end of the final train- 
ing session, 80 % of the participants had acquired a minimal level of ability to apply these 

PREREQUISITE TOOLS: Teachers learning how to identify or diagnose strengths and weak- 
nesses, learning to write and use behavioral objectives, learning new teaching techniques 
and procedures, etc. Teachers learn these through workshops and in-service training, having 
acquired these skills, teachers had to go through the "appraisal" technique. 
APPRAISAL TECHNIQUE: During the observation phase, observation teams composed of 
teacher colleagues and a resource person from UCLA or the District collected data regard- 
ing the execution of the previously planned lessons. The observation team recorded both 
the verbal behavior of pupils and teacher [e.g., teacher questions and pupil responses) and 
non-verbal behavior which could be objectively described.... 

What all this amounts to is "peer group" analysis. Group dynamics would be the term 
used in other circles. To be more blunt, others would call it sensitivity training in its purest 
form — role-playing, to say the least.... 

The teacher must cooperate and learn the new methods of teaching, writing behavioral 
objectives, playing psychologist. 

The New York Times carried a lengthy front page article on April 30, 1972 by William 
K. Stevens entitled "The Social Studies: A Revolution Is on — New Approach Is Questioning, 
Skeptical — Students Examine Various Cultures." This article explained the early history of the 
twenty-six-year controversy which has raged across the United States between those desiring 
education for a global society versus those desiring education in American History and West- 
ern Civilization; i.e., the question of "social studies" versus traditional history, and "process" 
education versus fact-based education. Excerpts follow: 

When C. Frederick Risinger started teaching American History at Lake Park High School near 
Chicago, he operated just about as teachers had for generations. He drilled students on names 
and dates. He talked a lot about kings and presidents. And he worked from a standard text 
whose patriotic theme held that the United States was "founded on the highest principles 
that men of good will and common sense have been able to put into practice." 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1972 109 

That was ten years ago, but it might as well be 50. For the social studies curriculum at 
Lake Park has changed almost beyond recognition. The 32-year-old Mr. Risinger, now head 
of the department, has abandoned the traditional text and set his students to analyzing all 
revolutions, not just the American, and from all points of view, including the British one 
that George Washington was both a traitor and an inept general. 

An article entitled "People Control Blueprint" by Carol Denton was published in the 

May, 1972 issue [Vol. 3, No. 12) of The National Educator [FuUerton, CA). Recommendations 
made in the top secret paper discussed in this article echo those mentioned in the April 6, 1971 
Michigan Governor's Advisory Council on Population paper. Excerpts follow: 

A "Top Secret" paper from the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, now in the 
hands of The National Educator, reveals a plan for total control of the people of the United 
States through behavioral modification techniques of B.F. Skinner, the controversial behav- 
iorist author of Beyond Freedom and Dignity.... 

According to the "Dialogue Discussion Paper," marked "Top Secret" across the bottom of 
the cover page, a conference was held at the Center on January IZthrough 19, 1972, at which 
time a discussion on "The Social and Philosophical Imphcations of Behavior Modification" 
was held. The paper in question is the one prepared [by] four individuals for presentation at 
that conference entitled "Controlled Environment for Social Change." The authors are Vitah 
Rozynko, Kenneth Swift, Josephine Swift and Larney J. Boggs.... 

The second page of the paper carries the inscription, "To B.F. Skinner and James G. 
Holland."... Page 3 of the paper states that the "Top Secret" document was prepared on 
December 31, 1971.... 

The authors of this tome are senior staff members of the Operant Behavior Modifica- 
tion Project located at Mendocino State Hospital in California and the project is partially 
supported by a grant from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse.... 

On page 5 of this blueprint for totalitarianism, the authors state that "we are presently 
concerned with controhing upheavals and anarchic behavior associated with social change 
and discontent."... The authors go on to say that they beheve an "Orwellian world" is more 
likely under presently developing society than under the kind of rigorous controls of a society 
envisioned by Skinner.... 

On page 6, the authors deplore the growing demands for "law and order," stating that 
the population is now more apt to support governmental repression than previously, in 
response to "their own fears."... 

They add that "with the rising population, depletion of natural resources, and the 
increase of pollution, repressive measures may have to be used to guarantee survival of our 
species. These measures may take the form of forced sterihzation, greatly restricted uses of 
energy and limits on population movement and living location. ". . . 

Skinner, on the other hand, they allege — "advocates more sophisticated controls over 
the population, since punishment [by the government] for the most part works only tempo- 
rarily and only while the punishing agent is present."... 

On the other hand, the authors allege, operant conditioning [sensitivity training) and 
other behavioral techniques can be used to control the population through "positive rein- 


Mary Thompson, secretary and member of the speakers' bureau of the Santa Clara, 

California Republican Women's Federation, gave a very important speech regarding Planning, 
Programming, Budgeting Systems [PPBS) on June 11, 1972. Following are key excerpts: 

When I was first asked to speak to you about PPBS (Planning, Programming, Budget- 
ing Systems), I inquired whether it was to be addressed to PPBS as applied to education. I 
shall deal with it at the education level today, however you should remember that PPBS is 
a tool for implementing the very restructuring of government at all levels in every area of 
governmental institutions. What is involved is the use of government agencies to accomplish 
mass behavioral change in every area.... 

PPBS is a plan being pushed by Federal and State governments to completely change 

The accountability involved in PPBS means accountability to the state's predetermined 
education goals.... 

One leader of education innovation (Shelly Umans — Management of Education] has 
called it "A systematic design for education revolution."... 

In a systems management of the education process, the child himself is the product. 
Note: the child... his feehngs, his values, his behavior, as well as his intellectual develop- 

PPBS is the culmination of the "people planners" dreams.... 

Then in 1965 the means for accomphshing the actual restructuring of education was 
provided in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) . President Johnson has 
said that he considered the ESEA the most significant single piece of legislation of his 
administration. Recall that it was also the same year of 1965 when the presidential order 
was given to introduce PPBS throughout the entire federal government. 1965 was the year 
which unleashed the actual restructuring of governmental processes and formally included 
education as a legitimate Federal government function.... 

PPBS is the systems management tool made possible by technology of computer hard- 
ware to affect the planned change.... 

In order to make an explanation of PPBS intelligible, you must also know that education 
itself has been redefined. Simply put, it has become the objective of education to measure 
and diagnose the child in order to prescribe a program to develop his feelings and emotions, 
values and loyalties toward predetermined behavioral objectives.... Drawing it right down to 
basics, we are talking about conditioned responses in human terms. Pavlov experimented 
on dogs!... 

Taking each element of PPBS wiU show how the process is accomphshed. PLAN- 
NING — Planning phase (please note that the process involved with a systems approach is 
always described in terms of "phases"] always includes the establishment of goals committees, 
citizens committees, needs assessment committees.... These are referred to as "community 
involvement." The committees are always either self appointed or chosen — never elected. 
They always include guidance from some trained "change agents" who may be administra- 
tors, curriculum personnel or local citizens. Questionnaires and surveys are used to gather 
data on how the community "feels" and to test community attitudes. The ingeniousness of 
the process is that everybody thinks he is having a voice in the direction of public schools. 
Not so... for Federal change agencies, specifically regional education centers established 
by ESEA, influence and essentially determine terminology used in the questionnaires and 
surveys. The change agents at the district level then function to "identify needs and prob- 
lems for change" as they have been programmed to identify them at the training sessions 
sponsored by Federal offices such as our Center for Planning and Evaluation in Santa Clara 
County. That is why the goals are essentially the same in school districts across the country. 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1972 111 

It also explains why three years ago every school district was confronted with the Family 
Life Education issue at the same time.... 

Unknowing citizens' committees are used by the process to generate acceptance of goals 
already determined. What they don't realize is that professional change agents are operating 
in the behaviorist's framework of thought and Mr. or Mrs. Citizen Parent is operating in his 
traditional education framework of thought. So, the local change agents are able to facilitate 
a group to a consensus in support of predetermined goals by using familiar, traditional terms 
which carry the new behaviorist meanings.... 

Another name for this process is Participatory Democracy, a term by the way, which 
was coined by Students for a Democratic Society in their Port Huron Manifesto to identify 
the process for citizen participation in destruction of their own political institutions.... 

Richard Farson of Western Behavioral Sciences Institute made a report to the Office of 
Education in Sacramento in 1967. He said it this way: 

The application of systems analysis is aided by several phenomena that would be of help 
in almost any situation of organizational change. First, it is relatively easier to make big 
changes than to make small ones — and systems changes are almost always big ones. 
Because they are big, it is difficult for people to mount resistance to them, for they go 
beyond the ordinary decision-making, policy-making activities of individual members of an 
organization. It is far easier to muster argument against a $100 expenditure for partitions 
than against a complete reorganization of the work flow.... 

Teachers, you have professional organizations to protect your professional interests. Use 
them to protect your personal privacy and professional integrity. Encourage organizations of 
teachers to take positions publicly in opposition to PPBS.... 

We beheve the time has come to estabhsh private schools to keep our children from 
faUing victim to the behaviorists while there is still opportunity to do so. BE AWARE OF THE 
SCHOOLS INTO THE NATIONAL CONTROL [emphasis in original]. 

The Ledger of Tallahassee Florida on July 27, 1972 in an article entitled "Schools to 

Try New Program" quoted Florida state education officials as saying that a new program being 
field-tested in Florida will tell teachers and parents not only why Johnny can't read, but why 
the school can't teach him and how much it's costing to try. Excerpts follow: 

"We're putting all the various components together now," said Associate Education 
Commissioner Cecil Golden. "What we're doing should soon become very visible. " However, 
he estimates it will take seven to ten years before the program is completely operational.... 

Golden says it may sound like a lot of gibberish at this point, but "when we bring it all 
together" it should produce a more flexible and relevant educational system.... 

He said many people in the State Department of Education are working independently 
on various facets and aspects of the program and, like those assembling the atom bomb, 
"very few of them understand exactly what they are building, and won't until we put all 
the parts together. " 

[Ed. Note: This article refers to PPBS/MBO— the early years. The Atlanta Constitution pub- 
lished an article entitled "Georgia Schools OK Tracking System" in its July 1, 1998 issue which 
describes later PPBS implementation and which is included in this book's entry of the same 



The Don Bell Report of September 8, 1972 reported on a White House CoNFERence on the 

Industrial World held February 7 of that year. The conference title was "A Look at Business 
in 1990." Excerpts follow: 

As one of the participants in that conference, Roy Ash, President of Litton Industries and 
Chairman of the President's Advisory Council on Executive Organization, later appeared before 
the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce to tell West Coast businessmen what was decided at 
the White House Conference. The biUing for this latter event is impressive reading: 

The Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce in cooperation with the U.S. Department of 
Commerce and the White House Staff, is presenting The White House Conference, The 
World Ahead: A Look at Business in 1990, Thursday, May 18, 1972. Los Angeles Hilton. 
3:00-6:30 p.m. 

Following is part of what Roy Ash told his Los Angeles audience: 

The answer is that increasing economic and business interdependence among nations 
is the keynote of the next two decades of world business — decades that will see major 
steps toward a single world economy. . . . 

Some aspects of individual sovereignty will be given over to international author- 

As importantly, international agreements between the socialist and the private prop- 
erty economies add a different dimension to the problems for which solutions need to 
be found over the years ahead. But as Jean Frere, Managing Partner of Banque Lambert, 
Brussels, forecasts, the socialist countries will take major steps toward joining the world 
economy by 1990. He goes so far as to see them becoming members of the International 
Monetary Fund, the sine qua non for effective participation in multilateral commerce. 
Then also, by 1990 an imaginative variety of contractual arrangements will have been 
devised and put into operation by which the socialist countries and the private capital 
countries will be doing considerable business together, neither being required to abandon 
its base idea.... 

These powerful factors of production — that is, capital, technology and manage- 
ment — will be fully mobile, neither contained nor containable within national borders.... 

As a framework for their [multinational corporations] development and applica- 
tion will be the establishment of more effective supranational institutions to deal with 
intergovernmental matters and matters between governments and world industry. A key 
intergovernmental institution that needs to work well in a world economy is the Interna- 
tional Monetary Fund. The IMF will become, in Robert Roosa's [Brown Bros. Harriman 
& Co.] words, the most advanced embodiment of the aspirations that so many have for a 
world society, a world economy. The IMF, he forecasts for 1990, is going to be the source 
of all of the primary reserves of all the banking systems of the world.... 

For, in the final analysis, we are commanded by the fact that the economies of the 
major countries of the world will be interlocked. And since major economic matters in 
all countries are also important political matters in and between countries, the inevitable 
consequence of these propositions is that the broader and total destinies — economic, politi- 
cal, and social — of all the world's nations are closely interlocked. We are clearly at that 
point where economic issues and their related effects can be considered only in terms of 
a total world destiny, not just separate national destinies, and certainly not just a separate 
go-it-alone destiny for the United States. 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1972 113 

"The Field of Educational ItcHNOLOGv: A Statement of Definition" by Donald P. Ely, editor 
and chairman of the Definition and Terminology Committee of the Association for Educational 
Computing and Technology [AECT, a spin-off of the National Education Association), was cir- 
culated in October, 1972. In this paper leading speciaUsts in the field of educational technology 
warn of the potential dangers of computers and the need for ethics in programming. One of 
the participants in the production of this position paper said: "If it is decided the work will 
bring about negative ends, the concerned professional refuses to perform it." [See Appendix 
VIII for fuller excerpts.) 

Dr. Chester M. Pierce, M.D. of Harvard University wrote an article entitled "Becoming 
Planetary Citizens: A Quest for Meaning" which appeared in the November 1972 issue of Child- 
hood Education. Excerpts follow which include alarming recommendations for "education": 

Creative Altruism 

In the past forty years social science experimentation has shown that by age five children 
already have a lot of political attitudes. Regardless of economic or social background, almost 
every kindergartner has a tenacious loyalty to his country and its leader. This phenomenon 
is understandable in the psychological terms of loyalty to a strong father-figure and of the 
need for security. But a child can enter kindergarten with the same kind of loyalty to the 
earth as to his homeland.... 

Systems Analysis 

Children can be taught to integrate knowledge of systems in ever-widening circles. I don't 
know how to tell you to do it, but as professionals you will be challenged to find ways. Just 
because no one yet knows how doesn't mean it can't be done.... 

New Views of Parenting 

Another essential curricular decision you will have to make is what to teach a young child 
about his future role as a man or a woman. A lot will depend on what you know and what 
your philosophy is about parenting.... Already we are hearing about experiments that are 
challenging our traditional views of monogamous marriage patterns.... 

Learning to Relinquish 

Finally — perhaps most difficult of all — you will have to teach children how to unlearn, how 

to re-learn and how to give up things.... 

Public Problem Number One 

If we truly accept that today's child must grow [up] to be a cosmopolite and "planetary 
citizen," we face major problems. How do you get a child to see that the whole world is 
his province when every day on television he sees people who can't live next door to their 
neighbors, who argue about things like busing?... Before the horizon I think the major 
problem to be solved in America if we are to enable people to grow as super-generalists and 
"planetary citizens" is the elimination of racism. Paradoxically, both the two chief deterrents 
and the two chief facilitators to this goal are the public school system and the mass media.... 
Early childhood specialists have a staggering responsibility but an unrivaled importance in 
producing "planetary citizens" whose geographic and intellectual provinces are as limitless 
as their all-embracing humanity. 


Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil of Columbia I^achers' College wrote Models of Teaching 
[Prentice Hall, Inc. : Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1972) . The book was the product of research 
funded by the U.S. Office of Education's Bureau of Research under a contract with Teachers' 
College, Columbia University, in 1968. Models of Teaching's importance lay not only in the 
fact that the book itself would be used extensively for in-service teacher training in behavior 
modification, but that the book would serve as the foundation from which Joyce would develop 
his "Models of Teacher Repertoire Training," which has been used extensively [since the 1970s 
to the present) in order to change the teacher from a transmitter of knowledge [content) to a 
facilitator of learning [behavior modifier). Several excerpts from Models of Teaching follow: 

Principles of teaching are not conceived as static tenets but as dynamically interactive with 
social and cognitive purpose, with the learning theory underlying procedures, with avail- 
able support technology, and with the personal and intellectual characteristics of learning 
groups. What is emphasized is the wide range of options the teacher may adopt and adapt 
to his unique situation. 

In the preface, which has a subtitle, "We Teach by Creating Environments for Children," Joyce 
and Weil explain: 

In this book we describe models which represent four different "famihes" of approaches to 
teaching. Some of the models focus on the individual and the development of his unique 
personahty. Some focus on the human group and represent ways of teaching which empha- 
size group energy, interpersonal skills, and social commitment. Others represent ways of 
teaching concepts, modes of inquiry from the disciplines, and methods for increasing intel- 
lectual capacity. Still others apply psychological models of operant conditioning to the teach- 
ing-learning process. For the teacher we provide some advice on how to learn the various 
models based on our experiences in the Preservice Teacher Education Program at Teachers 
College, Columbia University. For curriculum and materials designers we include chapters 
on systematic planning using a variety of models of teaching. For both, we present a system 
for deciding what approaches to teaching are appropriate for what ends and how models 
can be selected to match the learning styles of children, (pp. xiii-xiv) 

Excerpts from the table of contents of Models of Teaching include: 

(2) Group Investigation — Democratic Process as a Source. The school is considered as a 
model of an ideal society. This chapter explores a variety of democratic teaching designed 
by Herbert Thelen to bring about a new type of social relationship among men.... 

(5) The Laboratory Method — The T-Group Model. The National Training Laboratory has 
developed approaches to train people to cope with change through more effective social 
relationships. This model is the father of the encounter-group strategies. 

(6) Concept Attainment — A Model Developed from a Study of Thinking. This model was 
developed by the authors from a study of work by Jerome S. Bruner and his associates. 
[Bruner will be encountered in a later entry as a developer, along with B.F. Skinner, of the 
humanistic social studies curriculum, Man: A Course of Study, ed.] 

(7) An Inductive Model — A Model Drawn from Conceptions of Mental Processes and General 
Theory-Building. The late Hilda Taba developed a series of models to improve the inductive 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1972 115 

thinking ability of children and adults. Her strategies are presented in this chapter.... [In 
1957 a California State Senate investigative committee exposed the work of Hilda Taba as 
harmful to children, ed.] 

(12] Non-Directive Teaching — Rogerian Counsehng as a Source. From his studies of coun- 
seling and therapy, Carl Rogers has developed a flexible model of teaching emphasizing an 
environment which encourages students to create their own environments for learning. 

(13) Classroom Meeting Model — A Model Drawn from a Stance toward Mental Health. 
Another therapist, [William] Glasser, has also developed a stance toward teaching — one 
which emphasized methods easily apphcable to the classroom situation.... [In 1971 the 
Citizens Committee of California, Inc., presented "A Bill of Particulars" for the abolition of 
Dr. Wilham Glasser's theory from the Orange County Unified School District which stated 
in part: "Dr. Glasser has developed a method of education which negates a desire to achieve 
and compete; destroys respect for authority; expounds a 'situational ethics' philosophy; and 
develops group thinking." WiUiam Glasser's philosophy is a component of Outcome-Based 
Education, ed.] 

(15] Awareness Training — A Model to Increase Human Awareness. Gestalt therapists and 
other humanistic psychologists have focused on strategies for increasing the awareness and 
sense of possibilities of individuals. A number of models for sensitivity training have been 
developed by William Schutz. 

(16] Operant Conditioning — The pioneering work of B.F. Skinner has been followed by a 
mass of approaches to teaching and training based on the shaping of learning tasks and use 
of reinforcement schedules. Several such models are explored here. 

(17] A Model for Matching Environments to People — The psychologist David Hunt has gen- 
erated a "model of models" — an approach to teaching which suggests how we can match 
teaching styles to learning styles so as to increase growth toward personal flexibility. 

(18] The Models Way of Thinking — An Operational Language. The chapter explores the 
philosophical and practical implications of a stance toward education and includes a spec- 
trum of models which have different uses for different students. 

One finds the following information in chapter 16 under the title "Operant Conditioning": 

The person most responsible for applying behavioral principles to education is B.F. Skinner, 
whose Theory of Operant Conditioning provided the basis for programmed instruction. 

The Theory of Operant Conditioning represents the process by which human behav- 
ior becomes shaped into certain patterns by external forces. The theory assumes that any 
process or activity has observable manifestations and can be behaviorally defined, that is, 
defined in terms of observable behavior. Either or both of the theory's two major opera- 
tions, reinforcement and stimulus-control, are emphasized in the educational applications 
of operant conditioning theory. 

Conditioning refers to the process of increasing the probability of occurrence of existing 
or new behavior in an individual by means of reinforcement. In operant conditioning the 
response (behavior] operates upon the environment to generate consequences. 

The consequences are contingent upon the emission of a response, and they are rein- 
forcing. For example, the response "Pass the butter" operates upon the environment, another 


person, to obtain the butter. The response is reinforced by the receipt of the butter. In other 
words, the probability that a future desire for butter will elicit the same response is increased 
by its initial success.... The stimulus and reinforcement are independent variables upon which 
the response is dependent. As Skinner phrases it "the stimulus acting prior to the emission 
of the response, sets the occasion upon which the response is likely to be reinforced." [1] 
A stimulus is "any condition, event or change in the environment of an individual which 
produces a change in behavior. " (2) It may be verbal [oral, written) or physical. A response 
may be defined as a unit of behavior. . . . According to Skinner, reinforcement must immedi- 
ately follow a response if it is to be effective. Delayed reinforcement is much less effective 
in modifying behavior, (pp. 271-273) 

An official overview of the "Models of Teacher Repertoire Training" program, made avail- 
able to the author while working in the U.S. Department of Education, states under "Brief 
Description of Intervention" the following: 

The objective of the intervention is to prepare teachers who can choose from a number 
of available alternatives the most appropriate strategy to be used with a particular group 
of students in a particular situation at a particular time. "Most appropriate" refers to the 
effectiveness of the strategy selected vs. the alternatives in terms of the probability that the 
students will learn what the teacher has predicted for them. The feasibility of achieving 
this objective in a clinical, or controlled situation has been long established. This interven- 
tion establishes that feasibility in the real world of the elementary and secondary school 
settings and offers a rehable, cost effective plan to do so.... The models which have been 
selected for this system are ones for which there is empirical evidence and/or theoretical 
grounding which supports the probability that students will learn what is predicted from 
them. Teachers learn to select the models and match them to the objectives they seek.... The 
families include: (1) Behavior Modification and Cybernetic Models which have evolved from 
attempts to develop efficient systems for sequencing learning tasks and shaping behavior by 
manipulating reinforcement.... Clinical analysis guides are useful to provide feedback about 
performance and to support on-site coaching. In addition to print material there are more 
than thirty hours of video tapes to support the training system.... The principal criterion of 
effectiveness rests upon existing empirical evidence that pre-specified changes in teaching 
behavior will produce predictable changes in pupil performance. 

This information suggests that Skinner — and, evidently, Joyce and Weil — believe that man 
is truly only a response organism with no intrinsic soul or intellect, definitely a product of 
evolution. During a U.S. Department of Education Joint Dissemination Review Panel meet- 
ing at which Bruce Joyce and Jim Stefansen submitted application for funding, some of the 
participants made the following statements: 

JOYCE: "It has been difficult in the past to bring about curriculum change, behavior 
change. In California we are estabUshing a network of 100 school districts. New 
strategies for teaching and exporting programs." 

COULSON: "Couldn't agree more that what you are doing needs to be done. Maybe 
we are not ready yet to talk about selective use of repertoire. You must gather data 
supporting selective use of methods." 

STEFANSEN: "Primary claim is we do know how to train teachers to make ultimate 
choices so that when those behaviors take place students are affected. Question is, 
can you train teachers to accept strategies each of which we know are the better of 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1972 117 

two or more choices?" 

JACKSON: "No question in my mind that Joyce is onto something of great importance. 
Problem here has to do with claims of effectiveness rather than evidence of effective- 
ness. Relationship between teacher behavior and student achievement." 

(UNKNOWN PANEL MEMBER] "There are thousands of investigations to support 
Skinner strategies." 

The following excerpt from the "Models of Teacher Repertoire Training" — which includes 
most of the highly controversial behavior modification methods in existence — is taken from 
Models of Teaching by Joyce and was furnished to this writer by the Maine Facilitator Center 
in Auburn, Maine in 1985.* 

(1) Information Processing — how do students acquire and act on information? 

Concept Attainment — Jerome Bruner, Goodnow, Austin 

Inductive Thinking — Hilda Taba 

Direct Instruction — Benjamin Bloom, Madeline Hunter, James Block and 
Ethna Reid [How interesting that Joyce identifies the four most influential devel- 
opers and promoters of Skinnerian "Mastery Learning/Teaching" with "Direct 
Instruction," which is the method attributed to Siegfried Engelmann and called 
for in the Reading Excellence Act of 1998, ed.] 

(2) Personal Family — How does each person develop his/her unique possibilities? 

Nondirective Teaching — Carl Rogers 
Synectics — Thomas Gordon 
Classroom Meetings — William Glasser 

(3) Social Models — How does the individual relate to society or other people? 

Jurisprudential Inquiry — Oliver and Shaver 
Role Playing — Shaftel, Chesler and Fox 

(4) Behavioral Models — How is visible behavior changed? 

Training Model 

Stress Reduction — Decker 

Assertiveness Training — Wolpe, Lazarus 

[Ed. Note: The writer has given extensive coverage to Models of Teaching since these teacher 
behavior modification training programs have been in effect for thirty years and are probably 
the most inclusive. It includes many, if not all of the controversial methods about which parents 
complain, if they are lucky enough to find out they are being used. Most parents are unaware 
of these manipulative methods intended to change their children's behavior. Considering the 
prevalence of behavior modification in the schools it is a wonder our schools and our children 
are not in worse shape than they are. There has obviously been immense teacher and student 
resistance to this type of manipulation.] 

President Richard Nixon created the National Institute of Education (NIE) in 1972. 
Serving as a presidential assistant at that time, Chester Finn [who would later be appointed 
assistant secretary of education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement under 


Secretary William Bennett in the Reagan administration) was one of the principal authors of 
Nixon's proposal for NIE. The December 8, 1982 issue of Education Week contained an inter- 
esting article on the history and purpose of NIE entitled "Success Eludes 10-Year-Old Agency." 
An excerpt which pertains to the redefinition of education from academic/content-based to 
scientific, outcome-/performance-based follows: 

"The purpose of a National Institute of Education, " said Daniel P. Moynihan who was the 
agency's principal advocate in the Nixon Administration, "is to develop the art and science 
of education to the point that equality of educational opportunity results in a satisfactory 
equivalence of educational achievement." 

For those who have difficulty understanding Daniel Moynihan's education jargon, "develop 
the art and science of education to the point that equality of educational opportunity results in 
a satisfactory equivalence of educational achievement" means that education from that time 
on would be considered a "science." In other words, with education becoming a "science," 
behavioral psychology [Pavlov/Skinner) would be used in the classrooms of America in order 
to equalize results which would be predictable and could be scientifically measured. The 
teacher and student would be judged not on what they know, but on how they perform — like 
rats and pigeons — facilitating the "redistribution of brains. " Professor James Block, a leader 
in Skinnerian/mastery learning circles, discussed this redistribution of brains in an article 
pubhshed in Educational Leadership [November 1979) entitled "Mastery Learning: The Cur- 
rent State of the Craft. " Block explained that: 

One of the striking personal features of mastery learning, for example, is the degree to 
which it encourages cooperative individualism in student learning as opposed to selfish 
competition. Just how much room is there left in the world for individualists who are more 
concerned with their own performance than the performance of others? One of the striking 
societal features of mastery learning is the degree to which it presses for a society based on 
the excellence of all participants rather than one based on the excellence of a few. Can any 
society afford universal excellence, or must all societies make most people incompetent so 
that a few can be competent? 

Returning to the Education Week article referenced above, the story of NIE continued: 

Among the serious, continuing obstacles to the Institute's attainment of its goals, those inter- 
viewed for this article cited the following three; Understanding, Funding, and Leadership.... 
Under "Understanding" one reads: "Because educational research is a relatively young area of 
social science, it does not enjoy wide respect among scholars, and its relationship to teaching 
and learning is poorly understood by many of those who work in the schools." 

The first director chosen by the current [Reagan] Administration to head the institute, 
Edward A. Curran, articulated the conservatives' position in a memorandum to the Presi- 
dent last May that called for dismantling the institute. "NIE is based on the premise that 
education is a science whose progress depends on systematic 'research and development.' 
As a professional educator, I know that this premise is false," wrote Mr Curran, who was 
dismissed from the agency shortly thereafter 

[Ed. Note: Ed Curran was the first "shoe to drop"; he would be followed by some of the nation's 
finest academic teachers who also held Curran's view that education is not a science. 

Of interest to this writer is the extensive influence NIE's research has on local classroom 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1973 119 

practice considering its rather paltry budget. The reason for this lies in the fact that 90% of 
all education research is federally funded, thus guaranteeing that NIE controls 90% of the 
national research product — teaching and learning. When the National Institute of Education 
was finally abolished none of its functions were eliminated since it was subsumed by the Office 
of Educational Research and Improvement. 

"Equivalence of educational achievement," described by Patrick Moynihan, equals Per- 
formance-Based Education [PBE) and Outcome-Based Education [OBE), which in turn equal a 
deliberate dumbing down of American teachers and youth — necessary in order to implement the 
performance-based workforce training agenda planned since the early nineteen hundreds. 

Good academic- and content-oriented teachers understand that education is not social 
science. In 1999 efforts are being made to encourage these good teachers to get out of the way 
so that teachers trained in performance-based Skinnerian teaching and Total Quality Manage- 
ment can be hired to replace them.] 


Schooling in the United States by John Goodlad, M. Frances Klein, and Jerrold M. 

Novotney [Charles F. Kettering Foundation Program: McGraw-Hill Co., New York, 1973) was 
published. Excerpts follow: 


Several experimental preschool programs make extensive use of behaviorist theory (now 
called "operant conditioning" or "behavior modification") as a means of instruction in both 
the cognitive and socioemotional realms. [Professor Lawrence] Kohlberg notes: 

In general, such a program implies a play for shaping the child's behavior by successive 
approximation from responses. At every step, immediate feedback or reward is desirable 
and immediate repetition and elaboration of the correct response is used. A careful detailed 
programming of learning is required to make sure that (a) each response builds on the 
preceding, (b) incorrect responses are not made since once made they persist and interfere 
with correct responses, and (c] feedback and reward are immediate. 

The Liverpool Laboratory School at the Research and Development Center in Early 
Childhood Education at Syracuse University is a program based directly on reinforcement 
theory. . . . The school is to determine whether children can learn cognitive skills during the 
preschool years and to identify techniques which will be successful in bringing about such 
learning. The program is built around a highly detailed schedule of reinforcement. Skills to 
be taught are broken down into specific components, each of which is immediately reinforced 
when it appears correctly. Teachers reinforce in four steps: in the first, raisins or candies 
are awarded for each correct response; in the second, the candies are replaced by tokens 
which can be traded for a small prize; the third involves distributing tokens which can be 
exchanged for more valuable tokens. Two or more of the latter may be traded for a prize. In 
the fourth step, four valuable tokens are required to receive a prize.... 

Bereiter and Engelmann [Direct Instruction/DISTAR/Reading Mastery (SRA)] also use 
operant conditioning in their program. Their reinforcement program contains both verbal 
and tangible rewards. Weber describes a rapid-fire sequence in language training in which 
the teacher verbally reinforces each response of the students: 


Teacher: What is the same as beautiful? 

Children: Pretty. 

Teacher: Good. You are so good. If someone is beautiful they are pretty. What is the 

opposite of pretty? 
Children: Ugly. 
Teacher: I'll have to shake everyone's hand.... 

She also speaks of an arithmetic lesson in which the children were given a cracker for each 
correct response.... 

Teaching and managing behavior by means of operant conditioning does not appeal to 
all and raises several moral issues. In the first place, it postulates an image of the learner as 
passive and receptive and leaves little room for individuality and creative thinking. Accord- 
ing to William E. Martin in Rediscovering the Mind of the Child: 

A science of behavior emphasizes the importance of environmental manipulation and 
scheduling and thus the mechanization and routinization of experience. Similarly, it stresses 
performance in the individual. Doing something, doing it efficiently, doing it automati- 
cally — these are the goals. It is the mechanization of man as well as the mechanization 
of the environment. The result is the triumph of technology: a push button world with 
well-trained button-pushers, (pp. 40-43) 

[Ed. Note: Surely, if American parents understood this dehumanizing method being imple- 
mented in the nation's schools under whatever label — OBE, ML, DI in conjunction with com- 
puters — they would see the many dangers to their children. One of those dangers being that 
after twelve years of rewards for correct answers, will their children ever have the courage or 
be motivated to do anything on their own — to take a stand when what is left of their "prin- 
ciples" is challenged? If this method is implemented in all schools of the nation, and I mean 
ALL— public, private, religious and home school [in many cases due to the use of computers 
or "Skinner's box") as is happening right now — our nation will become a nation of robotic 
drones responding to whomever wishes to control them for whatever purpose.] 

Ronald G. Havelock's The Change Agent's Guide to Innovation in Education was pub- 
lished (Educational Technology Publishing: Englewood Chffs, New Jersey, 1973). This Guide, 
which contains authentic case studies on how to sneak in controversial curricula and teaching 
strategies, or get them adopted by naive school boards, is the educator's bible for bringing 
about change in our children's values. Havelock's Guide was funded by the U.S. Office of 
Education and the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and has continued to receive 
funding well into the 1980s. It has been repubUshed in a second edition in 1995 by the same 

[Ed. Note: Why is it that the change agents' plans and their tools to "transform" our educa- 
tional system never change, while parents and teachers are told, repeatedly, that they must 
be ready and willing to changel] 

Foundations of Behavioral Research, Second Edition by Fred N. Kerlinger of New York 
University (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.: New York, 1973) was published. Describing the 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1973 121 

purpose of writing this textbook, Dr. Kerlinger wrote in his preface: 

The writing of this book has been strongly influenced by the book's major purpose: to help 
students understand the fundamental nature of the scientific approach to problem solution.... 
All else is subordinate to this. Thus the book, as its name indicates, strongly emphasizes the 
fundamentals or foundations of behavioral research [emphasis in original]. 

To accomphsh the major purpose indicated above, the book... is a treatise on scientific 
research; it is hmited to what is generally accepted as the scientific approach. 

KerHnger's treatise on scientific research, from which the writer quotes, would have been 
strengthened considerably had he included the following description of Wilhelm Wundt's 

A thing made sense and was worth pursuing if it could be measured, quantified, and scientifi- 
cally demonstrated. Seeing there was no way to do this with the human soul, he proposed 
that psychology concern itself solely with experience. 

Hence, behavioral psychology and scientific research were born. With such a heavy 
emphasis on quantifiable, measurable, and scientifically demonstrable performance as a base 
for psychological research, the writer felt it important to use an instructive text which would 
help the reader understand the complexities of what is known as "the scientific method," since 
it is being so widely proclaimed as the be-all and end-all of educational curriculum develop- 
ment and methodology today. Fred Kerhnger states in his Foundations of Behavioral Research 
textbook that: 

Scientific research is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of 
hypothetical propositions about... the presumed relations among natural phenomena.... If 
such and such occurs, then so-and-so-results.... 

The scientist... systematically builds his theoretical structures, tests them for internal 
consistency, and subjects aspects of them to empirical test. Second, the scientist systemati- 
cally and empirically tests his theories and hypotheses. 

These statements lead one to believe that the true scientific method so often employed 
by scientists dealing with experimental material which can be replicated and tested is being 
employed by behavioral psychologists. However, the following quotes from KerHnger's textbook 
will quickly dispel this misconception: 

Many people think that science is basically a fact-gathering activity, h is not. As M. Cohen 

There is... no genuine progress in scientific insight through the Baconian method of accumu- 
lating empirical facts without hypotheses or anticipation of nature. Without some guiding 
idea we do not know what facts to gather. . . we cannot determine what is relevant and what 
is irrelevant. [From A Preface to Logic (Meridian: New York, 1956] by M. Cohen.] 

The scientifically uninformed person often has the idea that the scientist is a highly 
objective individual who gathers data without preconceived ideas. Poincare pointed out how 
wrong this idea is. He said: 

It is often said that experiments should be made without preconceived ideas. That is 


impossible. Not only would it make every experiment fruitless, but even if we wished to 
do so, it could not be done. [From Science and Hypothesis [Dover: New York, N.Y., 1952) 
by H. Poincare.] [p. 16] 

In other words, if we as parents and citizens believe that the same "scientific, research- 
based" standards applied to research in education and psychology are those applied to medi- 
cine, geology, or engineering, we are sadly mistaken. If we believe that objective criteria are 
employed when evaluating educational curriculum or behavioral analysis, we are likewise 
mistaken. Therefore, when presented with proposals in academic curricula that purport to be 
founded in "scientific, research-based" evaluation, we should take them with a grain of salt! 
For instance, Kerlinger, as a psychological researcher, wrote about "Science and Common 

Common sense may often be a bad master for the evaluation of knowledge.... [One] view 
would say that science is a systematic and controlled extension of common sense, since 
common sense, as [J.] Conant points out, is a series of concepts and conceptual schemes 
satisfactory for the practical uses of mankind. But these concepts and conceptual schemes 
may be seriously misleading in modern science — and particularly in psychology and educa- 
tion. It was self-evident to many educators of the last century... to use punishment as a basic 
tool of pedagogy. Now we have evidence that this older common sense view of motivation 
may be quite erroneous. Reward seems more effective than punishment in aiding learning. 

The reader by now may recognize the fact that B.F. Skinner's behavioral theories have 
conclusively influenced psychological and educational theory, based on the last statement 
above — the fact that "rewards are more effective than punishment in aiding learning." This is 
vintage Skinner, who also did not believe in punishment. Skinner thought that a person could 
be controlled by the environment — psychologically facilitative "school climate" — to do what 
is best for him. Bad behavior should be ignored, according to Skinner. Good behavior should 
be rewarded. A very good method of dog training! 

Kerlinger went on to point out that: 

A final difference between common sense and science lies in explanations of observed phe- 
nomena. The scientist, when attempting to explain the relations among observed phenom- 
ena, carefully rules out what have been called "metaphysical explanations." A metaphysical 
explanation is simply a proposition that cannot be tested. To say, for example, that people are 
poor and starving because God wills it, that studying hard subjects improves the child's moral 
character, or that it is wrong to be authoritarian in the classroom is to talk metaphysics. 

The New World Dictionary [Merriam Webster: New York, 1979) defines "metaphysics" 
as follows: "the branch of philosophy that deals with first principles and seeks to explain the 
nature of knowledge, nature of being or reality; metaphysical; beyond the physical or mate- 
rial; incorporeal, supernatural, transcendental." Most parents and even teachers are very well 
acquainted with what behavioral scientists call "metaphysics" in this context. The fact that 
behavioral researchers discount this important aspect of man's personality and being is con- 
sistent with what this writer perceived when gathering the research for this book — particularly 
in the chapter entitled "The Fomentation of the Forties and Fifties" when Kinsey, Bloom and 
Skinner brought together the powerful tools for the deconstruction of the God-fearing, edu- 
cated man of the early twentieth century. There is no place for this brand of "science" when 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1974 123 

dealing with educational theories and methods which will influence forever the character and 
concept of man. 

The bottom line for understanding this conflict between science and psychology is that 
the application of statistical methods to human behavior in the name of science is misdi- 
rected and inappropriate. When we measure natural phenomena, we get results that will vary 
depending upon the environmental factors affecting the thing being measured. For example, 
we can measure the speed at which a rock falls from a certain height. Although the rock's 
speed may be affected by external factors, such as air resistance, there is nothing the rock 
can do, no decision it can make that will change the speed at which it falls. However, when 
we attempt to measure a person's attitudes or opinions, that person can change his or her 
attitude, opinion, or behef at any time— often because of a conscious, deliberate decision to 
do so, as an act of will. Such deliberate assertion of a person's will is extremely difficult, if 
not impossible to measure. 

The social "sciences" and psychology have long yearned for the respectability of scientific 
disciplines, and have touted themselves as science for many decades. However, both fields 
emerged from the same humanistic cesspools of the last century. In discussing the shift to 
modern "naturalistic" or "materialistic" science, the late Dr. Francis Schaeffer warned: 

When psychology and social science were made a part of a closed cause-and-effect system, 
along with physics, astronomy and chemistry, it was not only God who died. Man died. And 
within this framework love died. There is no place for love in a totally closed cause-and-effect 
system. There is no place for morals in a totally closed cause-and-effect system. There is no 
place for the freedom of people in a totally closed cause-and-effect system. Man becomes a 
zero. People and all they do become only a part of the machinery.*" 


The National Diffusion Network (NDN) , the transmission belt for federally funded and 

developed innovative and/or behavior modification programs, was established in 1974. This 
network, which bears much of the blame for the dilution of absolute values of those children 
and parents exposed to NDN programs from the mid-seventies to the present, was created to 
facilitate the adoption by local schools of innovative programs which had been approved by 
the Joint Dissemination Review Panel [JDRP), a federal panel of educators. 

Most, if not all, states received funding from the U.S. Department of Education to set up 
Facilitator Centers staffed by educators familiar with NDN programs. These individuals who 
had contacts in school districts throughout the individual states promoted the programs and 
arranged for the "developers," or other staff associated with the program, to visit the state to 
conduct in-service training at schools which had adopted the programs. 

Often these programs were described in benign NDN program terms and flew under the 
banner of "basic skills." Local school boards accepted them since they were subsidized and 
less expensive to implement than programs developed by private sector textbook companies. 
The NDN's penetration of the national educational landscape in the early 1980s is exemplified 
by the fact that Texas alone had approximately seventeen NDN offices which facilitated the 
adoption of programs. The State of Maine received some sort of "gold medal" for being the 


number one state in its number of program adoptions. 

There is no question that the National Diffusion Network programs have caused more 
controversy among parents than any other programs developed with federal funds. The regional 
hearings held by the U.S. Department of Education in 1984 to take testimony from citizens 
regarding the need for regulations to enforce the Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment [PPRA] 
consisted of emotional and angry testimony from teachers and parents regarding the value- 
destroying programs in the NDN. The two most destructive programs developed prior to 1984 
were Curriculum for Meeting Modern Problems, which contained The New Model Me for the 
high school level, and Positive Attitude toward Learning. Both of these curricula employed 
behavior modification techniques, values clarification, role playing and, specifically, such 
games as "The Survival Game" — sometimes known as "The Lifeboat Game" — where students 
were enlisted to decide who is worthy of survival in a shipwreck: the priest, the lawyer, the 
pregnant mother, angry teenager, etc. — pure humanistic curricula.^ 

[Ed. Note: Critiques of many of the most controversial NDN programs can be found in the 
testimonies given during the hearings for proposed regulations for the Hatch Amendment in 
1984 contained in Child Abuse in the Classroom edited by Phyllis Schlafly [Pere Marquette 
Press: Alton, Illinois, 1984).** Mrs. Schlafly took it upon herself to publish these important 
testimonies due to the U.S. Department of Education's unwillingness to do so. As late as 1994 
the NDN continued to list The New Model Me as an "exemplary program" in its Educational 
Programs that Work, the catalog of the National Diffusion Network.'' Such blatant continua- 
tion of programs designed to destroy children's values, no matter which administration is in 
office, is shocking.] 

A Performance Accountability System for School Administrators (Parker PuBlishing 
Co., Inc.: West Nyack, N.Y., 1974) by TH. Bell, Ph.D., was published. TH. Bell later served 
as secretary of education during President Ronald Reagan's first term in office, 1981-1985. 
Excerpts from Bell's book follow: 


The economic, sociological, psychological and physical aspects of students must be taken 
into account as we look at their educational needs and accomplishments, and fortunately 
there are a number of attitude and inventory scales that can be used to assess these admit- 
tedly difficult to measure outcomes, (pp. 33-34] 

Most of these efforts to manage education try to center in one place an information center 
that receives reports and makes available to all members of the management team various 
types of information useful to managers, (p. 45] 

[Ed. Note: There is no question in this writer's mind that this one man bears much of the 
responsibility for the deliberate dumbing down of our schools. He set the stage for out- 
come-based education through his early support for systems management — Management by 
Objectives and Planning, Programming, Budgeting Systems. These systems later evolved into 
full-blown Total Quality Management for education, having gone through the initial stage 
of Professor Benjamin Bloom's Mastery Learning and ending up in 1984 as William Spady's 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1974 125 

Transformational OBE. Outcome-Based or results/performance/competency-based education 
requires mastery learning, direct instruction, individualized instruction, systems management 
and computer technology. 

Bell's earlier activities in the 1970s as U.S. Commissioner of Education, including his 
role in promoting and supporting dumbed-down life role competencies for K-12 [see 1975 
Adult Performance Level Study and the 1983 Delker article) and his testimony before the U.S. 
Congress in favor of a U.S. Department of Education, should have kept his name off of any 
list of potential nominees presented to President Reagan. Concerns regarding this nomination 
expressed by Reagan supporters were proved well-founded when: Bell spearheaded the technol- 
ogy initiative in 1981 [see Project BEST, Better Education Skills Through Technology); funded 
in 1984 William Spady's infamous Far West Laboratory [Utah OBE) grant which promised to 
[and did!) put OBE "in all schools of the nation"; predicted that schools would be bookless 
by the year 2000; recommended that all students have computers; and fired Edward Curran, 
the director of the National Institute of Education, when Curran recommended to President 
Reagan that his office [the NIE) be abolished. 

According to a former member of the Utah Education Association who was a close friend 
of Bell's in the 1970s, had the Senate Committee that confirmed TH. Bell as secretary of edu- 
cation read Bell's book, A Performance Accountability System for School Administrators, it is 
unlikely he would have been confirmed. [See Appendix IX quotes from Bell's book.)] 

"Parents Fear 'Big Brother' Aspect of New Concept" by Monica Lanza was WRiTten for 

the Passaic, New Jersey The Herald News on March 20, 1974. Excerpts follow from the first 
of a two-part series: 

Questioning the purpose of modern educational goals by parents has brought to light 
the possibility that a new curriculum ultimately could force all school children to fit a pre- 
conceived mold or norm by computerized evaluation [emphasis in original] . And, students 
who don't could be branded misfits and sent to a school psychologist for therapy. The threat, 
they say, is in the form of a bill before the state legislature that would take effect July 1, 
if passed. This bill would provide for two new Educational Improvement Centers in New 
Jersey, bringing the total of such centers in the state to four. The centers are currently being 
used by the federal government to reach the grass-roots level through its Elementary and 
Secondary Education Act.... Under the stated aim of developing "critical thinking skills" in 
children, the centers, as agents for the Planning, Programming, Budgeting System (PPBS) , 
have been charged with using behavior modification and sensitivity training to develop 
those skills.... 

At the Cedar Knolls center in Morris County, Joseph T Pascarelli, program developer, 
recently conducted a workshop which was attended by a number of teachers who reviewed 
one method of sensitivity training, known as the "Who Shall Survive" game.' Participants in 
the game are given the sexes, backgrounds and capabilities of 15 people in a bomb shelter 
that supports only seven people, and are asked to decide which seven are the best equipped 
to re-populate the earth. The answer that none should be put to death is not accepted. This 
type of training, according to opponents, changes the values of the students who may have 
been taught at home that murder is wrong under all circumstances. 

From the second article in the series, "Teachers Taught to Be Agents of Social Change,'" the 
reader is informed that: 


Educational Improvement Centers (EICs] provide training to prepare teachers to become 
agents for social change.... 

A publication entitled Education: From the Acquisition of Knowledge to Programmed 
Conditioned Response states: "Teachers who are seemingly impervious to change will be 
sought out and trained on an individual basis, and forces which block the adoption of new 
ideas will be identified and ways to overcome these forces will be explored."... 

Behavior modification was the theme of a learning center at a workshop at the North- 
western New Jersey EIC recently. A teacher rattled off the three domains of behavior modi- 
fication as propounded by a Benjamin Bloom, who more than a dozen years ago, redefined 
the purpose of education as "behavior modification.".... 

The multitude of programs available is mind-boggling. Programs filter down from entities 
like the Educational Resource Information Center [ERIC] and are presented to local school 
systems with a flourish. They are praised by gullible administrators and put into action by 
unwitting teachers.... 

One of the reasons for their current success is that the language used in the presen- 
tation of new programs is almost unintelligible. There are teachers who will admit to not 
understanding the jargon, but not pubhcly — and those who do see underlying dangers say 
nothing for fear of losing their jobs.... 

The father of the myriad federally financed programs is "Projects to Advance Creativity 
in Education" [PACE). The PACE programs are described in a 584-page pubUcation entitled 
Pacesetters in Innovation which lists such "subjects" as psychotherapy, sensitivity training, 
behavior modification, and humanistic curriculum. . . . 

According to the Department of Health, Education and Welfare [HEW) Catalog of Assis- 
tance, the PACE program reached seven milhon children during 1971 and 1972 at a cost of 
$250 million. The Office of Education has more than 100 such programs, and HEW funded 
70,000 behavioral research programs — some among prison inmates which were soundly 
criticized and are being withdrawn from the prison system.... 

Mr. Thomas Hamill of the EIC Northwest, said that funds for "specific kinds of research 
and development" are channeled to 16 national laboratories attached to colleges and uni- 
versities, a dozen national laboratories studying "individually prescribed instruction," and 
a number of Educational Resource Information Centers, for delivery to the EICs. 

[Ed. Note: Whenever and wherever individualized education is mentioned in professional 
educational literature, parents should realize that Mastery Learning/OBE/DI is the required 
instructional method. Homegrown individualized instruction, non-programmed kitchen table 
type instruction, with a parent instructing his/her child using traditional textbooks and tests, 
is not the same thing as institutionalized individualized instruction with its programmed, 
computer-assisted instruction or programmed reading from a script, which often provides 
immediate reinforcement with tokens, candy — rewards. Also of interest is the fact that prison 
inmates are protected from subjection to behavior modification techniques and workers in 
government offices are protected from subjection to training programs which are violations 
of their religious liberties, but prohibition of the use of behavior modification techniques on 
normal, American school children is non-existent. [See 1988 Clarence Thomas, chairman of 
the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and present U.S. Supreme Court Justice, 
ruling concerning employment protection.)] 

In 1974 Individual Rights and the Federal Role in Behavior Modification: Report of the 

Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights from the Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate, 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1974 127 

Washington, D.C. was prepared under the chairmanship of North Carolina's late Senator Sam 
Ervin, who, unfortunately, was unable to continue his work on this important issue due to 
his being called to serve as a member of the Senate Judiciary Committee investigating the 
Watergate break-in. Ervin stated in the preface to the report: 

[TJechnology has begun to develop new methods of behavior control capable of altering not 
just an individual's actions but his very personality and manner of thinking as well. Because 
it affects the ability of the individual to think for himself, the behavioral technology being 
developed in the United States today touches upon the most basic sources of individuality, 
and the very core of personal freedom. To my mind, the most serious threat posed by the 
technology of behavior modification is the power this technology gives one man to impose 
his views and values on another. In our democratic society, values such as political and reli- 
gious preferences are expressly left to individual choice. If our society is to remain free, one 
man must not be empowered to change another man's personality and dictate the values, 
thoughts and feelings of another. 

In 1974 A Curriculum FOR Personalized Education by Robert Scanlon, former Pennsylvania 
Secretary of Education, was published by one of the U.S. Department of Education research 
laboratories. Research for Better Schools in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Predicting the future, 
Scanlon stated: 

The emphasis in schools in 1985 will be to free the individual from subject matter as bodies 
of knowledge and provide him or her with higher order skills.... One type is values clarifica- 

In a speech given to and recorded by the Association for Supervision and CuRriculum 
Development in 1974,'° Dr. Leon Lessinger, superintendent of schools in Beverly Hills, Cali- 
fornia and former associate commissioner of education in the U.S. Office of Education, called 
for the implementation of Skinnerian behavior modification and discussed environmental 
influence when he said: 

Would that we had such a system; a system of accountability. Do we have a hog cholera 
vaccine? Three ingredients of such a vaccine: 

1. Target the experience in terms of outcomes; 

2. Self-paced learning. We have the technology now. Modules. Small groups working 
on common learning targets. Free learner from having to be there always in front of 
teacher. If we know the target, we can do beautifully if we know the target. 

3. Use of contingency rewards. May make you feel uncomfortable. Does me, but he 
who shirks this responsibility does a disservice to the children of the United States. 
Behavior Modification is here. Better for us to master and use wisely. Powerful ... 
powerful... powerful. 

Carolina Inn exists right across from my school. In the restaurant, rug is red; in the bar, 
rug is orange. I know that because I happen to pass by!... Red in the restaurant — because 


you feel uncomfortable and it keeps you from dillydallying around dinner. Ah, but in the 
bar, it's [warm, comfortable] orange! 

Man, Education & Society in the Year 2000, written by Grant Venn, director of the Chief 
State School Officers Institute and professor of education at Georgia State University, was a 
report or summary of discussions which took place at the Fifth Annual Chief State School 
Officers Institute at Jackson Hole, Wyoming, July 25-August 2, 1974. The report of the Institute 
was sponsored by the U.S. Office of Education in cooperation with the Council of Chief State 
School Officers, funded by the Office of Education, U.S. Department of Health, Education and 
Welfare. There is a notation on the back cover which states: "The availability of this report 
is limited. A single copy may be obtained free on request to the U.S. Office of Education as 
long as the supply lasts. " Dr. Venn's best known pubUcations are Man, Education and Work 
(1963) and Man, Education and Manpower (1971). Excerpts from Dr. Venn's introduction to 
the Summary Report of the Institute follow: 

Seven days of intensive study and discussion with the top leadership of the U.S. Office 
of Education and speciahsts invited to speak to the Chiefs reached an apparent consensus 
regarding issues that are facing Man, Education and Society: The Year 2000.... 

The seven topics chosen for study by the Executive Committee of the Council of Chief 
State School Officers, the U.S. Office of Education and the Institute Director... follow: 

1 . The Role of the Future in Education — Alvin Toffler 

2. Education and Human Resource Development — Willard Wirtz 

3. The International Situation: The Role of Education — Frederick Champion Ward 

4. Economic Matters: Public Dollar Availability — Allan K.CampbeU 

5. The Shape of Democracy: The Citizen Role — Forbes Bottomly 

6. The Public and Private Life of the Individual — Harold Shane 

7. Energy, Natural Resources and Growth — Charles J. Ryan 

Excerpts from the body of Dr. Venn's summary follow: 

We have reached a point where society either educates everyone or supports them.... 

Technological change has, suddenly and dramatically, thrown up a challenge to our 
nation's political, economic, and education institutions. If it is to be solved, it is going to 
demand a massive response on the part of American education. Technology has, in effect, 
created a new relationship between man, his education and his society.... 

The home, the church, and the school cannot be effective maintainers since the future 
cannot be predicted.... 

The clearest overall approach to finding better ways seemed to be a new role for the 
state departments of education.... 

From the question of finances to the question of values that should be taught in the 
schools, the consensus was that leadership and priority changing by state departments was 
the most important step to be taken.... 

After all the questions had been asked and all the dialogue ended, it appeared that the 
most difficult matter would be one of instituting new approaches to education.... 

Toffler's belief that the schools have been a "maintaining" institution for a static predict- 
able society was not agreed to by all, but there was agreement that education for the future 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1974 129 

had to end its reliance on the past as predictor of the future.... 

The traditional cluster of knowledge, skills, values, and concepts will not help our 
young face the future in their private life, the international situation, their citizen role, their 
work role, nor in the area of energy, national resources or growth.... 

...Individuals need more learning about social process with a greater emphasis on 
participation in group decision making. Again we come face to face with the fact that many 
problems of the future must be solved based on values and priorities set by groups. Many 
of these values will have to be enforced by group action and will need the involvement of 
many individuals in order that hard decisions can be implemented. Many of the future prob- 
lems cannot be solved by individual decision or action. The heavy emphasis on individual 
achievement and competition may need to include learning about cooperation and group 

As learning becomes more tied to the future, personal and societal change "values" 
come to the foreground. It is doubtful that we shall ever return to the concept of values in 
the same way we saw them in the past.... Perhaps there is a need for the clarification of new 
values needed to solve future problems. They may become clear as we begin a deliberate 
search for values we wish to teach and provide experiences for our young in using these 
values in solving real problems.... 

It would appear that our young have become isolated from the "real work" of society 
and from the real decision making of society. Decision making [values clarification] may 
become the subject of the learning process if there are greater opportunities for "action learn- 
ing" and group learning by teachers and students.... 

The over emphasis on knowledge, information, and theories have caused our youth to be 
freed from the testing of their beliefs in a non-controlled environment — the real world.... 


In addition to the three R's, the basic skills would appear to include group participation, 
environmental relationships and planning for the future!... Organization, structure, role and 
purpose, methods, content, financing, relationships among school and society, leadership 
and time frames must all be evaluated and changed. The greatest danger seems to be that 
simple improvement rather than basic change might be attempted.... 

The following conclusions seem to be suggested as approaches which might bring 
about major change!... The states collectively should estabhsh specific minimal competen- 
cies in each of the basic tool skill areas and each state should make them the first priority 
for funding, staffing and organizing.... 

Annual state reports should be devised to replace the normative achievement test in 
the future with competency achievement.... The states should convene a task force to study 
and report the ways that are being tried and ways that might be used to provide alternatives 
to earning the high school diploma.... 

Students achieving minimal credits ought to be encouraged to develop their unique 
aptitudes and to test these in the community, workforce, and the school systems.... There 
should be a policy devised in each of the states that ends the long held basic of "time in 
place" [Carnegie Unit] as the evaluation of learning for credit. 

Regulations must be developed which encourage the use of the community, adults, 
students and other learning sites than the classroom and teachers.... Full-time attendance 
from grades one through twelve may have become a barrier to learning — what are the alterna- 
tives?... Educational credit should be available to students for activities related to their studies 
in work, volunteer action, community participation, school volunteer programs and other 
programs contributing to the betterment of the home, school, community and society.... The 


time traps of learning for tiie young, earning for the middle-aged and yearning for the retired 
must be changed to a concept of continuous learning [UNESCO's lifelong learning, ed.]. 

Greater use of adults and students from other countries and cultures should be empha- 
sized.... It is obvious that the schools alone cannot educate our youth. State Departments 
should encourage, through policies and financing, the use of other societal agencies and 
resources to be part of the planned educational program of high school and older youth.... 
Since the future indicates a smaller share of the public dollar for education, states should 
develop regulations and policies which use the entire year and the entire society as educa- 
tional resources.... 

The fifty states should organize a commission to establish the values that are significant 
in approaching problems that must be faced in the future.... Since change is so great and 
problem solving the necessity of the future, the state should establish a study which would 
define the essential skills, understandings and approaches that our young should learn in 
order to participate in the social decisions that must be made in the future.... 

Knowledge and information is not the only basis for solving problems; our schools 
need to help our youth gain experience in group decision making as a basis for future citi- 

Each state ought to look at the problem of the role of the school in making the entry 
job a means rather than an end.... Would a placement function for the schools help motivate 
youth?... Every high school student ought to devote a portion of their time to the develop- 
ment of a career related to the future and sensible pubUc and private life.... 

Most research in education has looked at parts and pieces rather than the total relation- 
ship of man, education and society. The CCSSO should estabhsh a long-range planning and 
policy group to look at societal issues and the implications for education. At present, there 
is no such body looking at this problem. Can the education Chiefs afford to let others do all 
the directing of the future? 

[Ed. Note: The reader cannot help but see that the above highly controversial recommenda- 
tions made in 1974 have been implemented with hardly a hitch.] 

Professor Lawrence Kohlberg's Moral Development Approach curriculum, "ETHical 

Issues in Decision Making," was developed in the early 1970s and was used extensively in 
law education courses in public and private schools. In 1974 Kohlberg was still developing his 
classifications of "Stages of Moral Development" to include a Seventh Stage— that of "Faith." 
Kohlberg's program was listed in the National Diffusion Network's catalog Programs that Work 
as an exemplary program. Kohlberg's Moral Development Approach includes education in the 
following "stages of moral development": 

Stage 1 — "Avoid punishment" orientation: decisions are based on a blind obedience to 

an external power in an attempt to avoid punishment or seek reward. 
Stage 2 — "Self-Benefit" orientation: decisions are based on premise of doing something 

for others if they reciprocate. 
Stage 3 — "Acceptance by others" orientation: decisions are based on whether or not 

their behaviors perceived as pleasing to others. 
Stage 4 — "Maintain the social order" orientation: decisions are based on fixed rules 

which are "necessary" to perpetuate the order of society as a whole. 
Stage 5 — "Contract fulfillment" orientation: decisions are based on the individual 

respecting impartial laws and agreeing to abide by them while society agrees to 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1975 131 

respect the rights of the individual. 
Stage 6 — "Ethical principle" orientation: decisions are based on "conscience" and 
respect for each person's individuality is paramount with the values believed to be 
valid for all humanity. 

After Stage 6, the individual experiences despair. He or she has developed principles of 
justice, yet is faced with an unjust world. Moral philosophy cannot solve the problem. 

Stage 7 — "Faith" orientation: decisions are concerned with "what is the ultimate mean- 
ing of life?" 

This "Faith" orientation stage does not conflict with the principles developed through the 
first six stages; rather, it integrates those stages and provides a perspective on life's ultimate 
meaning. In Stage Seven the individual advances from an essentially human to a cosmic 
point of view. With Stage Seven there is a modification to a wider view of life. Emphasis 
changes from the individual to the cosmos. 


Superintendent Ray I. Powell, Ph.D., of South St. Paul, Minnesota public schools spoke 
out regarding values clarification and sensitivity training in 1975, saying, "It's all brainwashing! " 
Excerpts follow from a memorandum to "All Administrators from Ray I. Powell" concerning 
Center Bulletin No. 39: 1974-1975, dated February 26, 1975: 

1. Parents have the prime responsibility for the inculcation of those moral and spiritual 
values desired for their children in the areas of abortion and birth control. Indeed, this is an 
inherent right of parents and must not be denied.... 

Effective immediately, the teaching, advising, directing, suggesting, or counseling of students 
in these two (2) areas cannot be/shaU not be the responsibility nor the task of the South St. 
Paul Pubhc Schools. 

Rather, the efforts of the pubUc schools, henceforth, shall be directed towards expand- 
ing those complimentary learning experiences in other areas of the total curriculum that will 
enhance these two [2] parental values, i.e.: 

• preservation of the family unit. 

• feminine role of the wife, mother, and homemaker. 

• masculine role of guide, protector, and provider. 

• advocacy of home and family values. 

• respect for family structure and authority. 

• enhancement of womanhood and femininity. 

• restoration of morality. 

2. There are more and more concerns and questions being registered today regarding the 
questionable results and the true intent of SENSITIVITY TRAINING, as well as its germaneness 
to the goals and objectives of pubhc education, the training of educators, and the learning 
experiences of students. 

Consider these two (2) definitions of SENSITIVITY TRAINING (sources furnished upon 


request) : 

Sensitivity training is defined as group meetings, large or small, to discuss publicly inti- 
mate and personal matters, and opinions, values or beliefs; and/or to act out emotions 
and feelings toward one another in the group, using the techniques of self-confession and 
mutual criticism. 

It is also "coercive persuasion in the form of thought reform or brainwashing." 

Is the prime concern in education today not to impart knowledge, but to change "atti- 
tudes, " so that children can/will willingly accept a controlled society? Are the public schools 
being unwittingly re-shaped to accomplish this and without realizing it? 

[Ed. Note: Dr. Powell then lists 54 terms which can all be included under Sensitivity Training, 
a few of which are: T-Group Training, Operant Conditioning, Management by Objectives, Sex 
Education, Self-Hypnosis, Role Playing, Values Clarification, Situation Ethics, Alternative Life 
Styles, etc. Had all our schools had superintendents with Dr. Powell's character and courage, 
most of the problems facing our children and families today would not exist.] 

Congressman John Conlan of Arizona issued a press release regarding the coNtroversial 
federally funded program for ten-year-old children called Man: A Course of Study [M:ACOS] 
[Education Development Center: Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1975). On April 9, 1975 Conlan 
said that the $7 million National Science Foundation-funded program was designed by a team 
of experimental psychologists under Jerome S. Bruner and B.F. Skinner's direction to mold 
children's social attitudes and beliefs along lines that set them apart and alienated them from 
the beliefs and moral values of their parents and local communities. As a matter of fact, fifty 
commercial publishers refused to pubhsh the course because of its objectionable content. The 
following gory story of cannibalism is excerpted from M:ACOS [Vol. 1): 

The wife knew that the spirits had said her husband should eat her, but she was so exhausted 
that it made no impression on her, she did not care. It was only when he began to feel her, 
when it occurred to him to stick his fingers in her side to feel if there was flesh on her, that 
she suddenly felt a terrible fear; so she, who had never been afraid of dying, now tried to 
escape. With her feeble strength she ran for her hfe, and then it was as if Tuneq saw her only 
as a quarry that was about to escape him; he ran after her and stabbed her to death. After 
that, he lived on her, and collected her bones in a heap over by the side of the platform for 
the purpose of fulfilling the taboo rule required of all who die. (p. 115) 

October 24, 1975 the World Affairs Council of Philadelphia issued "A DECLARAtion of 

Interdependence" written by well-known historian and liberal think tank Aspen Institute board 
member Henry Steele Commager. This alarming document, which called to mind President 
Kennedy's July 4, 1962 speech calling for a "Declaration of Interdependence," was written as 
a contribution to our nation's celebration of its 200th birthday, and signed by 125 members 
of the U.S. House and Senate. Excerpts follow: 

WHEN IN THE COURSE OF HISTORY the threat of extinction confronts mankind, it is neces- 
sary for the people of The United States to declare their interdependence with the people of 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1975 133 

all nations and to embrace those principles and build those institutions which will enable 
mankind to survive and civihzation to flourish.... 

Two centuries ago our forefathers brought forth a new nation; now we must join with 
others to bring forth a new world order. . . . 

WE AFFIRM that the economy of all nations is a seamless web, and that no one nation can 
any longer effectively maintain its processes of production and monetary systems without 
recognizing the necessity for collaborative regulation by international authorities. 

[Ed. Note: In 1976 the National Education Association produced a social studies curriculum 
entitled A Declaration of Interdependence: Education for a Global Community which Congress- 
woman Marjorie Holt [R.-MD) described as "an atrocious betrayal of American independence. " 
It wasn't until the 1980s and 1990s that the relationship between "interdependence" or "new 
world order" and America's education of children became prominent in outcomes in each 
state. Interdependence is also an undergirding concept in global education. 

In 1976 a coterie of internationahsts thought their plans would have smooth sailing, not 
the resistance they encountered at the grassroots level which set them back a good twenty 
years. What we are experiencing in 1999 [American soldiers being deployed world-wide as 
part of United Nations "peace-keeping" operations, and UN land confiscation through execu- 
tive orders, etc.) was delayed by the activism of courageous Americans to whom we all owe 
an enormous debt of gratitude.] 

U.S. Commissioner of Education T.H. Bell made the following statement in a U.S. Office 
of Education [HEW) press release on October 29, 1975, dealing with results of the University 
of Texas Adult Performance Level [APL) Study. The study, headed by Dr. Norvell Northcutt, 
was funded at approximately $1 million under Sec. 309 of the Adult Education Act. T.H. Bell's 
statement follows: 

One out of five American adults lacks the skills and knowledge needed to function effectively 
in the basic day-to-day struggle to make a living and maintain a home and family, according 
to a four-year investigation of adult functional competency released today by HEW's Office 
of Education. Referring to the results of the Adult Performance Level [APL) study as "rather 
startling," U.S. Commissioner of Education Terrell H. Bell said that they call for some major 
rethinking of education on several levels. "To begin with," Dr. Bell added, "adult education 
has to be reshaped so that students receive the kind of information that will make modern life 
easier for them. I also think that State and local education agencies will want to examine what 
they are teaching, even at the elementary levels, and perhaps reconsider their requirements 
for high school graduation. " APL research defines functional competency as "the ability to 
use skills and knowledge needed for meeting the requirements of adult living. " 

[Ed. Note: Secretary Bell's recommendations were adopted by Oregon and Pennsylvania one 
year later. In 1976 Pennsylvania commenced implementation of its controversial "Project '81" 
which, according to its 1976 State Department of Education informational materials, "restruc- 
tured Pennsylvania's Goals of Quality Education and developed a new program of basic skills 
and initiated studies designed to help in developing comprehensive programs in general and 
specialized education. " The same informational materials also stated that "Pennsylvania's Con- 
temporary Family Life Competencies were taken from an outline of a course being implemented 


at Parkrose High School in Oregon which focused on consumer economics competencies and 
makes use of both school and community resources." 

There is no question in this writer's mind that the "pre-determined" results of the Texas 
APL Study set the stage for all state education agencies to commence dumbed-down continuous 
progress competency-based education, which is just another label for Benjamin Bloom's and 
William Spady's outcome- /performance- /results-based, school-to-work "education" — all of 
which use Skinnerian pigeon-training methods [mastery learning and direct instruction) — and 
that the initial thrust for this type of "all children can learn/redistribution of brains" lifelong 
education came straight out of the United Nations.] 

The Daily World of November 8, 1975 carried a very interesting article entitled "Plan- 
ning Is Socialism's Trademark" by Morris Zeitlin. The Daily World [newspaper of the Com- 
munist Party USA) was formerly known as The Daily Worker and was founded in 1924. The 
importance of this article lies in its blatant admission that regionalism, which is gradually 
becoming the accepted method of unelected governance in the United States [unelected coun- 
cils and task forces, participatory democracy, public-private partnerships, etc.) is the form of 
government used in democratic socialist and communist countries. The following are excerpts 
from this article: 

Cities in industrially advanced countries develop complex economic, social and political 
interaction. In this process, major cities tend to consolidate neighboring smaller cities and 
settlements into metropolitan regions. Rationally, metropolitan regions should constitute 
governmental units having comprehensive planning and administrative powers within their 

In our country (the United States], rival capitalist groups, jealously guarding their 
special prerogatives, have rigidly maintained the traditional boundaries of states and coun- 
ties while national economic and social development has created metropolitan regions that 
overlap those boundaries. We have no regional government and no comprehensive regional 
planning to speak of. Regional government and planning remain concepts our urban scholars 
and planners have long advocated in vain. . . . 

In socialist countries, metropolitan regions enjoy metropolitan regional government 
and comprehensive planning. Of the many regions on the vast territory of the Soviet Union, 
the Moscow Region commands special attention, for it has been, since the 1917 Revolution, 
the country's economic and political center. 

The economic and functional efficiencies and the social benefits that comprehensive 
national, regional and city planning make possible in socialist society explain the Soviet 
Union's enormous and rapid economic and social progress. Conversely, our profit-oriented 
ruling capitaUst class makes comprehensive social and economic planning impossible, caus- 
ing waste and chaos and dragging the entire nation into misery and suffering as its rule 
deteriorates and declines. 

Project INSTRUCT another mastery learning program modeled along the lines of the 

Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction [ECRI), was approved for dissemination throughout 
the nation by the U.S. Office of Education's Joint Dissemination Review Panel [JDRP) May 14, 
1975. The final evaluation of Project INSTRUCT stated that: 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1976 135 

The intent and emphasis in 1970 was on behavioral indices and concrete ways of showing 
accountability; and the data would suggest that the reading of the students themselves may 
not have increased, but the impact of Project INSTRUCT in the Lincoln, Nebraska Public 
Schools seems to be very extensive and influential. 

[Ed. Note: According to the final evaluation of Project INSTRUCT, Ronald Brandt, former 
executive editor of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development's publication 
Educational Leadership, was involved in the project.] 


Childhood in China, a book edited by William Kessen (Yale University Press: New Haven, 
Connecticut, 1976), was reviewed by Kent Garland Burit of The Christian Science Monitor. 
The following excerpts from Burit's review provide insight into the similarities of education 
in Communist China in 1973 and Skinnerian Effective School Research used in American 
restructuring in the 1980s and 1990s: 

They were well-behaved, non aggressive with peers.... 

The immediate yielding to a teacher's request seemed remarkable to the Ameri- 

The strategies and communication style of the teachers is also described. They initiate, 
supervise closely, and terminate all activities. They teach by repetition and by formula. Their 
verbal and nonverbal indications of approval are in a high ratio to indications of disapproval. 
They disciphne through persuasion and moralistic reasoning rather than punishment. They 
exude a confident expectation of their pupils' compUance and cooperation.... 

The curriculum is saturated with ideological goals, the team reported. The child is 
exposed to repeated exhortations to serve the society. 

[Ed. Note: The foregoing quote with its behavioral terminology could come from an issue 
of The Effective School Report, from which this writer has repeatedly quoted throughout this 
book. Education in non-violence, tolerance, peer resolution, cooperative learning, and politi- 
cally-correct curriculum — all of which will modify the behavior of American children so that 
they will be like the above Communist Chinese children — is taking place in American schools 
in 1999. [See April 21, 1982 Spady quote calling for the above "compliance.")] 

The Los Angeles Times of May 21, 1976 (Part 1-B) carried an article entitled "Cuban 
Children Combine Studies, Work" which clearly explained the communist work-study system 
and the impact of community service, both of which are being implemented in the United 
States in the 1990s. Important excerpts follow: 

Havana (AP) — The door to the side room of an old cigar factory had been left ajar, and a 
small knot of children could be seen preparing boxes of cigars for export. "It's part of our 
education system," a Cuban tobacco official explained. "They are helping and learning." 
The children, elementary school pupils about 9 to 11 years old, were examples of the unique 
Cuban educational system of combining studies with physical work. The system, started in 
1967, applies to all schools, including the island's four universities.... 


The Cubans say the idea is to produce well-rounded citizens capable of manual labor. 
But the system also provides extra hands for an economy that urgently needs more produc- 
tion.... Says Prime Minister Fidel Castro, "This helps to temper them from early childhood 
in the habits of creative work, without running the risk of possible deformation through the 
exclusive exercise of intellectual activity."... 

One example of the system is found at Havana's 1,639 pupil U.S.S.R.-Cuba technical 
school, so named because the Soviet Union equipped the school and trained the instructors. 
The students, mainly boys 14 to 17, learn how to melt metal and to mold it into machine 
parts. They are taught how to cast, weld, grind and operate a lathe. Girls work in laboratories, 
learning to operate testing equipment for metals and machine parts. The parts, produced 
while learning, are sent to factories that make machinery. The students themselves spend 
part of their time working inside the factories. The school also teaches language, culture, 
sports, political philosophy and ordinary school subjects.... 

Those who study for two years become what are called general workers for the fac- 
tories, while four-year students become skilled technicians. All are guaranteed factory jobs 
upon graduation.... 

At the University of Havana, there are 54,000 students this year. Full-time students 
study four hours a day, six days a week and work another four hours daily in fields, factories 
or at jobs related to their future careers.... Many older students fill their work requirement 
by teaching, to offset the teacher shortage created when hundreds of thousands of Cubans 
emigrated after Castro's 1959 revolution.... This commitment to working for the good of the 
country remains after graduation. Graduates must serve anywhere in Cuba for three years, 
then are allowed to return home to continue their careers. 

Lawrence C. Pierce delivered a paper in 1976 entitled "School Site Management" to a 

meeting of the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies in which he referred to site-based man- 
agement as an "intermediate structure between centralized school management and education 
vouchers." An excerpt follows: 

On January 6, 1976, San Francisco School Superintendent Robert F. Alioto proposed 
an organizational redesign of the district that included a shift from school district to school 
site management. He said, in part: 

I recommend that we move toward a school site management model that values staff and a 
community involvement and stresses accountability. We must recognize the principal as the 
instructional leader of the school. We must expand the budgeting and fiscal control at each 
school site.... We must establish at each school site one active advisory committee which 
includes parents, students, and staff representatives of the school's ethnic population.... 

Further support for proposals to decentralize school management arises from the desire 
to increase pubhc participation in school governance policies. Local control of the schools, 
originally instituted to make them responsive to the people, nevertheless proved to be cum- 
bersome, and it frequently obscured the state's responsibihty for providing every child with 
a basic education. In pursuit of greater accountability and higher professional standards, 
the pendulum of school government, which in the early days of this country swung toward 
representativeness and local control, later swung back toward greater professional autonomy 
and stronger executive control.... 

...School site management is an intermediate structure between centralized school 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1976 137 

management and educational vouchers. 

[Ed. Note: Read that last statement again. Twenty-one years later the carefully laid plans of the 
internationalist Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies are being implemented under the guise 
of unaccountable choice/ charter schools, funded by the taxpayers. School-site management is 
an early term for site-based or school-based management promoted by the National Education 
Association in the 1980s and 1990s. Of extreme importance is the unambiguous call for the 
use of [need for) vouchers, which will supplant "choice," essential for the implementation of 
the international school-to-work agenda. The dollar amount of the voucher will depend on 
the school council's determination of how much it will cost to train your child to be a janitor 
[very little) or doctor [a lot).] 

Lawrence P. Grayson of the National Institute of Education, U.S. Department of Educa- 
tion, wrote "Education, Technology, and Individual Privacy" [ECTJ, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 195-208) 
in 1976. The following are some excerpts from this important paper which serves as a clear 
warning regarding the indiscriminate use of behaviorist methods and technology: 

The right to privacy is based on a belief in the essential dignity and worth of the indi- 
vidual. Modern technological devices, along with advances in the behavioral sciences, can 
threaten the privacy of students. Fortunately, invasions of privacy in education have not 
been widespread. However, sufficient violations have been noted to warrant specific legisla- 
tion and to promote a sharp increase in attention to procedures that will ensure protection 
of individual privacy. Technology that can reveal innermost thoughts and motives or can 
change basic values and behaviors, must be used judiciously and only by quahfied profes- 
sionals under strictly controUed conditions. Education includes individuals and educational 
experimentation is human experimentation. The educator must safeguard the privacy of 
students and their families.... 

Privacy has been defined as "the right to be let alone" (Cooley, 1888) and as the "right 
to the immunity of the person — the right to one's personality" (Warren and Brandeis, 1890). 
Individuals have the right to determine when, how, and to what extent they will share them- 
selves with others. It is their right to be free from unwarranted or undesired revelation of 
personal information to others, to participate or withdraw as they see fit, and to be free of 
unwarranted surveillance through physical, psychological, or technological means. 

Justice William O. Douglas expressed the concerns of many people when he stated: 

We are rapidly entering the age of no privacy; when everyone is open to surveillance at 
all times; when there are no secrets from the government.... [There is] an alarming trend 
whereby the privacy and dignity of our citizens is being whittled away by sometimes 
imperceptible steps. Taken individually, each step may be of little consequence. But when 
viewed as a whole, there begins to emerge a society quite unlike any we have seen — a 
society in which government may intrude into the secret regions of a man's life at will. 
[Osbom V. U.S., 1966, pp. 341-343) 

Behavioral science, which is assuming an increasing role in educational technology, 
promises to make educational techniques more effective by recognizing individual differences 
among students and by patterning instruction to meet individual needs. However, behavioral 
science is more than an unbiased means to an end. It has a basic value position (Skinner, 
1971) based on the premise that such "values as freedom and democracy, which imply that 
the individual ultimately has free will and is responsible for his own actions, are not only 


cultural inventions, but illusions" (Harman, 1970] . This position is contradictory to the basic 
premise of freedom and is demeaning to the dignity of the individual. Behavioral science 
inappropriately applied can impinge on individual values without allowing for personal dif- 
ferences and in education can violate the privacy of the student.... 

Reflecting on the ethical values of our civilization in 1958, Pope Pius XII com- 

There is a large portion of his inner world which the person discloses to a few confidential 
friends and shields against the intrusion of others. Certain [other] matters are kept secret 
at any price and in regard to anyone. Finally, there are other matters which the person is 
unable to consider.... And just as it is illicit to appropriate another's goods or to make an 
attempt on his bodily integrity without his consent, so it is not permissible to enter into 
his inner domain against his will, whatever is the technique or method used.... 

Whatever the motivations of the teacher or researcher, an individual's privacy must take 
precedence over effective teaching, unless good cause can be shown to do otherwise. Good 
cause, however, does not relieve the teacher or school administrator from the responsibility 
of safeguarding the privacy of the student and the family. Yet, many teachers and admin- 
istrators remain insensitive to the privacy implications of behavioral science and modern 
technology in education.... 

Intent on improving education, educators, scientists, and others concerned with the 
development and application of technology are often insensitive to the issues of privacy raised 
by the use of their techniques. For example, many psychological and behavioral practices 
have been introduced on the ground that they will make education more efficient or effec- 
tive. However, improvements in efficiency through technological applications can reinforce 
these practices without regard to their effects. What is now being done in education could be 
wrong, especially if carried out on a massive scale. As the use of technology becomes more 
widespread, we may reach the point where errors cannot be detected or corrected. This is 
especially important because technology interacts with society and culture to change estab- 
lished goals and virtues. Propagating an error on a national level could change the original 
goals to fit the erroneous situation. The error then becomes acceptable by default. 

In developing and applying technology to education, potential effects must be analyzed, 
so that negative possibilities can be identified and overcome before major resources are com- 
mitted to projects that could produce undesirable long-term social consequences. 

In matters affecting privacy it is better to err on the side of the individual, than on 
that of research or improved educational practice. Violations of privacy can never be fully 

Ftnt. No. 14. Privacy is a constitutionally protected right; education is not. The Supreme Court ruled 
in Griswold v. Connecticut (decided in 1965] that the right of privacy is guaranteed by the Constitu- 
tion. In Rodriguez v. San Antonio Independent School District (decided in 1973], the Court ruled that 
education is not a protected right under the Constitution. 

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in Paris, 
France published The International Standard Classification of Education [ISCED-COM.75/WS/ 
27] in 1976. This publication revealed efforts at the highest international level to set up a clas- 
sification system which will be available for use by planners assigned to the management of 
the global economy. Some quotes from the introduction to this 396-page document follow: 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1976 139 

The International Standard Classification of Education [ISCED] has been designed as 
an instrument suitable for assembling, compiling, and presenting statistics of education 
both within individual countries and internationally. It is expected to facilitate international 
compilation and comparison of education statistics as such, and also their use in conjunction 
with manpower and other economic statistics.... 

ISCED should facilitate the use of education statistics in manpower planning and 
encourage the use of manpower statistics in educational planning. For this purpose, the most 
closely associated classification system in the manpower field is the International Standard 
Classification of Occupations (ISCO), prepared by the International Labour Office. 

Catherine Barrett, president of the National Education Association (NEA), gave a speech 
at the 1976 NEA Annual Conference in which she made the following comments concerning 
the change in the role of the teacher: 

At this critical moment no one can say with certainty whether we are at the brink of 
a colossal disaster or whether this is indeed mankind's shining hour. But it is certain that 
dramatic changes in the way we raise our children in the year 2000 are indicated particu- 
larly in terms of schooling, and that these changes will require new ways of thinking. Let 
me propose three. 

First, we will help all of our people understand that school is a concept and not a place. 
We will not confuse "schooling" with "education." The school will be the community, the 
community, the school. Students, parents, and teachers will make certain that John Dewey's 
sound advice about schooling the whole child is not confused with nonsense about the 
school's providing the child's whole education.... 

We will need to recognize that the so-called "basic skills," which currently represent 
nearly the total effort in elementary schools, will be taught in one quarter of the present 
school day. The remaining time will be devoted to what is truly fundamental and basic — time 
for academic inquiry, time for students to develop their own interests, time for a dialogue 
between students and teachers. When this happens — and it is near — the teacher can rise 
to his true calling. More than a dispenser of information, the teacher will be a conveyor of 
values, a philosopher. Students will learn to write love letters and lab notes. We will help 
each child build his own rocket to his own moon.... 

Finally, if our children are to be human beings who think clearly, feel deeply, and act 
wisely, we will answer definitely the question "Who should make what decisions?" Teachers 
no longer will be victims of change; we will be the agents of change. 

[Ed. Note: Catherine Barrett's idea of "school is a concept, not a place" is an idea whose time 
may have come in the 1990s. Many educators, including Lewis Perelman [See 1995 Perelman's 
book School's Out], are of the same opinion. This seems to follow on the heels of the concept 
of "education as behavior change" instead of the acquisition of knowledge.] 

In the September 1976 issue of Phi Delta Kappan, "America's Next Twenty-Five Years: Some 
Implications for Education," Harold Shane described his version of the "new and additional 
basic skills" as follows: 

Certainly, cross-cultural understanding and empathy have become fundamental skills, as 
have the skills of human relations and intercultural rapport... the arts of compromise and 


reconciliation, of consensus building, and of planning for interdependence become basic. ... 
As young people mature we must help them develop. . . a service ethic which is geared toward 
the real world. . . the global servant concept in which we will educate our young for planetary 
service and eventually for some form of world citizenship.... Implicit within the "global 
servant" concept are the moral insights that will help us live with the regulated freedom we 
must eventually impose upon ourselves. 

[Ed. Note: The writer would like to contrast Harold Shane's comments with those of C.S. Lewis 
as compiled in an article "C.S. Lewis on Liberal Arts Education" by Gregory Dunn which was 
published in the newsletter On Principle from the John M. Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs 
[April 1999, Vol. VII, No. 2). Excerpts from Dunn's article follow: 

The first reason we study the liberal arts has to do with freedom. That freedom is an 
integral part of the liberal arts is borne out of [C.S.] Lewis's observation that "liberal comes of 
course from the Latin, liber, and means free."" Such an education makes one free, according 
to Lewis, because it transforms the pupil from "an unregenerate little bundle of appetites" into 
"the good man and the good citizen. "^^ We act most human when we are reasonable, both 
in thought and deed. Animals, on the other hand, act wholly out of appetite. When hungry, 
they eat; when tired, they rest. Man is different. Rather than follow our appetites blindly we 
can be deliberate about what we do and when we do it. The ability to rule ourselves frees 
us from the tyranny of our appetites, and the liberal arts disciplines this self-rule. In other 
words, this sort of education teaches us to be most fully human and thereby, to fulfill our 
human duties, both pubUc and private. 

Lewis contrasts liberal arts education with what he calls "vocational training," the sort 
that prepares one for employment. Such training, he writes, "aims at making not a good man 
but a good banker, a good electrician. . . or a good surgeon. " Lewis does admit the importance 
of such training — for we cannot do without bankers and electricians and surgeons — but the 
danger, as he sees it, is the pursuit of training at the expense of education. "If education is 
beaten by training, civilization dies," he writes, for the "lesson of history" is that "civilization 
is a rarity, attained with difficulty and easily lost."" It is the liberal arts, not vocational train- 
ing, that preserves civilization by producing reasonable men and responsible citizens.... 

A third reason we study the liberal arts is because it is simply our nature and duty. Man 
has a natural thirst for knowledge of the Good, the True, and the Beautiful, and men and 
women of the past have made great sacrifices to pursue it in spite of the fact that, as Lewis 
puts it, "human life has always been lived on the edge of a precipice." In his words, "they 
propound mathematical theorems in beleaguered cities, conduct metaphysical arguments 
in condemned cells, make jokes on scaffolds." So, finding in the soul an appetite for such 
things, and knowing no appetite is made by God in vain, Lewis concludes that the pursuit 
of the liberal arts is pleasing to God and is possibly, for some, a God-given vocation....'" 

. . .Truly, we ignore the liberal arts only at our peril. Without them we will find ourselves 
increasingly unable to preserve a civilized society, to escape from the errors and prejudices 
of our day, and to struggle in the arena of ideas to the glory of God.] 

TbDAY's Education, the journal of the National Education Association, carried an article 
in the September-October 1976 edition entitled "The Seven Cardinal Principles Revisited." On 
page 1 this article stated that: 

In 1972, the NEA established a Bicentennial Committee charged with developing a "living 
commemoration of the principles of the American Revolution. " This 200th anniversary eel- 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1976 141 

ebration of the Declaration of Independence was to focus on the next 100 years of education 
in an interdependent global community. The initial work of the Committee culminated in 
the NEA Bicentennial Idea Book. Among its ideas was that of developing a definitive volume 
to "contain a reframing of the Cardinal Principles of Education and recommendations for 
a global curriculum." After recognizing the importance of the original Cardinal Principles, 
which were pubUshed in 1918, the Committee made the point that "today, those policy 
statements about education are obsolete, education taken as a whole is not adequate to the 
times and too seldom anticipates the future." A report to be issued by the NEA, proposing 
cardinal premises for the twenty-first century is the direct and immediate outgrowth of the 
Bicentennial Committee's belief that "educators around the world are in a unique position 
to bring about a harmoniously interdependent global community based on the principles of 
peace and justice...." Early in September 1975, a 19-member Preplanning Committee began 
the task of recasting the seven Cardinal Principles of Education by developing 25 guidelines 
for the project. 

[Ed. Note: Members of the Preplanning Committee read like a "Who's Who of Leading Global- 
ists." It included: former Secretary of Education T.H. Bell, "Mr. Management-by-Objectives," 
who was responsible for the grant to William Spady of the Far West Laboratory to pilot QBE 
in Utah, with plans to "put QBE in all schools of the nation"; Professor Luvern Cunningham, 
Ohio State University, who subsequently served as advisor to the Kentucky Department of 
Education during its education restructuring in the 1990s; Willis Harman, Stanford Research 
Institute; Robert Havighurst, University of Chicago; Theodore Hesburgh, University of Notre 
Dame; Ralph Tyler, Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Science; Professor Theodore 
Sizer, Coalition for Essential Schools, which calls for a "less is more" curriculum and removal 
of graduation standards [the Carnegie Unit); David Rockefeller; Professor Benjamin Bloom, 
father of Mastery Learning [the international learning method); the late McGeorge Bundy of 
the Ford Foundation; and others.] 

Foundations of Lifelong Education was published by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, 
Scientific, and Cultural Organization) Institute for Education [Pergamon Press: Oxford, N.Y., 
Toronto, Sydney, Paris, Frankfurt, 1976). In chapter 4, "Theoretical Foundations of Lifelong 
Education: A Sociological Perspective," Henri Janne described accurately the how, what and 
why of decentralization [site-based management, charter schools, choice, unelected school 
councils, etc.) being sold to naive school boards and citizens as "local control": 

In education a monoHthic structure is completely unacceptable as it creates organizations 
that, owing to their homogeneity and their ineluctable [inevitable] bureaucratic nature, are 
averse to change and to individual or local adaptation.... 

Decentralization of the greatest possible number of decisions is indispensable in a 
system founded on... education defined as "learning" rather than "teaching." 

[Ed. Note: "Learning," as described and defined by the educational change agents, is the process 
by which students/children are allowed to acquire the knowledge which will be "beneficial" to 
them personally as they pursue the fulfillment of their particular life roles [jobs) . This process 
is the opposite of the traditional role of education as "teaching" students subject matter which 
can be used for diversified pursuits later in life. 

In the 1977 entry dealing with UNESCO's Development of Educational Technology in 


Central and Eastern Europe the reader will note that the socialist countries of Eastern Europe 
had centralized systems of education and had not yet adapted their system to accommodate 
Henri Janne's proposals for "lifelong learning. " Janne explained above how to take a central- 
ized system of pedagogy and ideas and "locahze" them in order to change their focus without 
ever changing the centralized control. This gives an interesting perspective on the oft-seen 
bumper sticker: "Think Globally — Act Locally. "] 


Essays in Economics: Theories, Facts, and Policies, Vol. II (Blackwell PuBUSHers: Maiden, 
Massachusetts, 1977) by the late Wassily Leontief was published. An excerpt follows: 

When I speak of national economic planning, the notion I have in mind is meant to encom- 
pass the entire complex of political, legislative, and administrative measures aimed at an 
explicit formulation and realization of a comprehensive national economic plan. Without a 
cohesive, internally consistent plan there can be, in this sense, no planning. But the prepa- 
ration of a script is not enough, the play has to be staged and acted out. It is incumbent on 
anyone who favors introduction of national economic planning in this country — and I am 
one of these — to propose a plan describing how this might be done. Several congressional 
committees and at least one commission appointed by the President, not to speak of groups 
outside of the government, are now engaged in this task. (p. 398) 

Who's Who in America includes the following reference to Leontief: "Economist, born 
Leningrad, Russia, August 5, 1906, et al." Current Biography in 1967 listed Leontief as : 

The creator of the input-output system revolutionizing economic research and national 
planning is the Russian-born Harvard professor Wassily W. Leontief. . . . Leontief has been a 
teacher at Harvard since 1931, and director of the Harvard Economic Research Project on 
the Structure of the American Economy since 1948.... [This project] was funded by an initial 
four-year grant of $100,000 from the Rockefeller Foundation. 

In a letter to American educator/researcher/writer Gene Malone dated September 9, 1993, 
Leontief, professor at the Institute for Economic Analysis of New York University, stated: "The 
use of the Input-Output method in educational planning was already discussed and has been 
practically employed in France." OBE is similar to PPBS [Planning, Programming, Budgeting 
System) and MBO [Management by Objective), both of which are based on input-output eco- 
nomic systems theory. 

Leontief died February 5, 1999 at the age of 93. The New York Times February 8, 1999 
eulogy steered clear of any mention of Leontief's work in the promotion of Five- Year Plans, 
widely associated with sociahst planning. However, the Times article provided some extremely 
interesting background information on Leontief: 

Dr. Leontief, with the help of ever-more powerful computers, continued to improve input- 
output analysis his entire life. 

With advances he made in the 1950s and 1960s, that analysis became a key part of 
the national accounting systems for both capitalist and communist states.... [H]e preached 
a doctrine of applied economics, saying that research should result in practical advances.... 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1977 143 

[H]e also found time to serve as president of the American Economic Society.... 

Partially through input-output analysis, he also became a leading authority on the 
economic effects of world disarmament and increased economic controls.... 

He was a 1925 economics graduate of the University of Leningrad, and he was impris- 
oned in that city for anti-Soviet activities. He was allowed to leave the Soviet Union and 
went to Germany where he received master's and doctoral degrees from the University of 

He served in 1929 and 1930 in Nanking, China, as an economics advisor to the Chi- 
nese Ministry of Railroads. He then came to this country and joined the National Bureau of 
Economic Research in New York in 1931. 

In 1932, he joined Harvard as an economics instructor. He became an assistant profes- 
sor in 1933, an associate professor in 1939 and a full professor in 1946. Two years later he 
founded the Harvard Economic Research Project, which became a center of input-output 

During World War II, he was a consultant to the Labor Department and the Office of 
Strategic Services [OSS, CIA, NTL]. 

He left Harvard in 1975 to join the faculty at New York University, where he was a full 
professor and also served as director of its Institute for Economic Analysis from 1975-1991. 
He continued to give classes at the university into his nineties. 

Dr. Leontief thus taught and ran research organizations at two great universities all 
the while doing all-but-revolutionary economic research that would lead to major advances 
in national planning.... Dr. Leontief... championed the central role of government in plan- 

"Competency-Based Education: A Bandwagon in Search of a Definition," an ARticle by 
William G. Spady of the National Institute of Education, was published in the January 1977 
edition of Educational Researcher. Excerpts follow: 

In September, 1972, the Oregon State Board of Education passed new minimum gradu- 
ation requirements for students entering ninth grade in the Fall of 1974 and new minimum 
standards for local school districts focused on the new requirements in 1974. The thrust 
of these new requirements and standards involved the introduction of three domains of 
"survival level" competencies as minimum conditions for high school graduation by 1978: 
personal development, social responsibility, and career development.... Although largely 
unintended and unanticipated by those involved, the 1972 Oregon regulations provided the 
first significant nudge that set in motion across the nation over the next four years a series 
of actions by state level policy makers and administrators to consider, formulate and imple- 
ment regulations and procedures that they now associate with the term Competency-Based 
Education (CBE).... 

It is likely, therefore, both that the outcome goals required for graduation in CBE 
systems wiU eventually emerge from a tense compromise among the many constituencies 
in a community regarding the necessary, the desirable, and the possible, and that C-Based 
diplomas will be viewed with initial if not undying skepticism by coUeges and universities.... 
In short, CBE programs require mechanisms that collect and use student performance data 
as the basis of diagnosing weaknesses and necessary remediation not only for students but 
for themselves as well.... 

According to information compiled by Clark and Thompson (1976), no states outside 
of Oregon appear to use language consistent with a life-role conception of competency in 


either their current or pending regulations pertaining to mandated student proficiencies. 
The possible exceptions refer to the need for occupational and consumer mathematics 
skills. However, within the next year New York and Pennsylvania may make more decisive 
moves toward implementing approaches to schoohng more fully resembling this concep- 
tion of CBE. Almost all other states are concerned with capacity-based outcomes in limited 
basic skill areas [e.g., Arizona, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Maryland, 
Nebraska and Tennessee), a slightly broader set of subject area proficiencies [e.g., Cahfor- 
nia, Texas, Virginia and Washington, D.C.] or as-yet-undefined or else locally determined 
options concerned with some kind of minimum proficiency requirements [e.g., Colorado, 
Kansas, Michigan and New Jersey]. As of October 1976, in only two cases — California and 
Florida — could students leave school in less than 12 years with a diploma once they passed a 
state-determined proficiency exam [the Oregon regulations allow local districts to determine 
whether early graduation will be allowed).... 

Aside from Oregon, five states — California, Maryland, Michigan, New York and Penn- 
sylvania — deserve particular attention over the next few years as sites where current thinking 
about substantial proficiencies or competency-based reforms suggest real promise.... 

Pennsylvania in a fourth case has been exploring a concept of system reform with a 
definite Competency-Based orientation. Originally called Community Learning and currently 
named "Project 81," this program would be centered around facilitating student capacities 
and competencies in five major areas of activity, with a stress on participation outside the 
school building where appropriate. The areas include a broad range of basic skills, the world 
of work and leisure, community governance and involvement, and a broad range of citizen 
and personal survival skills. 

"Conclave of the Change Agents" by Barbara M. Morris was published in the March 1977 
issue of The National Educator. Excerpts follow from this extremely important article which 
proves that the federal government has been deeply involved in the funding and implementa- 
tion of moral/ citizenship [values] education: 

Early in June 1976, 85 top level members of the educational elite and an assortment of 
influential change agents met at an invitation only conference in Philadelphia to draft recom- 
mendations on how to put "Moral/Citizenship Education" [MCE] programs in every school 
in the country — public, private and parochial. Conference participants included Humanist 
values educators Lawrence Kohlberg and Howard Kirschenbaum and representatives of the 
federal government, foundations, PTA, NEA and the National Council of Churches. The 
recommendations that resulted from that conference which was sponsored by a Pennsyl- 
vania organization called Research for Better Schools [RBS] [a federally funded education 
laboratory in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] have been submitted to the National Institute of 
Education, with whom RBS has a contract to research, develop and disseminate moral/citi- 
zenship education programs.... 

So shaky is the basis for MCE that much conference time was devoted to trying to 
decide what to call MCE programs so as to avoid public hostility. Here are some examples 
of the thinking of conference participants relating to this problem: 

• "'Moral/Citizenship Education' as a title can be sold; 'Moral Education' cannot. 
Avoid such red-flag slogans." 

• "We spent three conference days quibbling about the term 'Moral/Citizenship Edu- 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1977 145 

cation.' That is a major problem." [emphasis in original] 

"Tlie concept of self-development (which imphes moral development) is more sal- 
able and will engender less resistance than moral development." 

"It is important to hmit the parameters of what we're engaged in, if not to change 
the actual title, to avoid rehgious antagonisms and court action." 

The School Counselor, publication of the American Personnel and Guidance Associa- 
tion, published a special issue on the subject of "Death" in its May 1977 issue [Vol. 24, #5). 
In this issue a remarkable admission regarding the results of sex education was made which 
explains clearly the purpose of these controversial humanistic programs: to create the prob- 
lems sex ed, values ed, drug ed, and death ed were supposed to solve. An excerpt from The 
School Counselor iollows: 

Helping Students Clarify Values:... 

The last goal is to help students clarify their values on social and ethical issues. An under- 
lying, but seldom spoken, assumption of much of the death education movement is that 
Americans handle death and dying poorly and that we ought to be doing better at it. As 
in the case of many other problems, many Americans believe that education can initiate 
change. Change is evident, and death education will play as important a part in changing 
attitudes toward death as sex education played in changing attitudes toward sex information 
and wider acceptance of various sexual practices. 

[Ed. Note: In light of events in the 1990s, the question arises: What does "doing better at it" 
mean? The statement "Death education will play as important a part in changing attitudes 
toward death as sex education played in changing attitudes toward... wider acceptance of 
various sexual practices" implies that our children benefitted from exposure to "wider accep- 
tance of various sexual practices," when all one has to do is survey the moral landscape to 
see the devastating effect these programs have had on our children's lives. The same applies 
to death education and its effect on children's understanding of the value of life, reflected in 
the increased number of murders carried out by youth.] 

Joanne McAuley's National Council for Educational Excellence, a national ORganiza- 
tion of concerned parents and educators, was founded in the mid-1970s and, considering the 
potential it had for holding the line on innovations taking place in American education, its 
early demise represented a real setback for parents, children, and teachers. Ms. McAuley's 
May/June 1977 issue of her newsletter. The School Bell, is proof that the National School Boards 
Association was, at one time, a strong proponent of local control, not a "sell out the locals" 
organization that in the 1990s would support site- and school-based management [taxation 
without representation) and charter schools. Excerpts follow: 


On March 27, George W. Smith, immediate past president of the National School Boards 
Association, warned school board members attending the NSBA convention in Houston that 


"The Congress and the federal bureaucracy could become the country's master school board 
unless school board members stand up and be counted." He urged delegates to continue to 
forge a strong NSBA to convince Congress that local school board members are truly rep- 
resentative, most unselfish, and the best quahfied persons to represent the local viewpoint 
in education. 

Smith said local constituencies cannot be forgotten even while the new trust is being built 
with Congress. "We must not forget our own constituency," he noted. He also advised board 
members to be aware of — and leery of — proposals for public involvement in public school 
operations that would shift decision-making authority to "vaguely defined groups of citizens 
at the school site level. " The minister from San Diego cautioned that the power to make a 
decision must never be divorced from the responsibility for making that decision.... 

He said school boards must be strong for another reason — to counter the movements 
of the courts and federal regulatory agencies into the operation of schools. "If we want 
other governmental units to stop eroding our ability to provide educational governance, we 
must exercise that ability more often and more effectively." Smith said, "Where we can, 
we should work together with all segments of the public toward the improvement of the 
schools. But," he concluded, "our responsibility is to all the people and we must view only 
the 'big picture.'" 

[Ed. Note: Smith's ability to foresee the implementation of site-based management, the down- 
grading of the importance of elected board members, and the transfer of power to public-pri- 
vate partnerships, etc., is to be lauded! While serving in the U.S. Department of Education 
this writer attempted to stop federally funded programs to train local school board members 
in conflict resolution and in how to implement effective school research.] 

"Competency Itsxs Set in 26 Schools: New Curriculum Shifts I^aching Methods in Dis- 
trict" was the title of an article which appeared in The Washington Post on August 1, 1977. 
Excerpts follow: 

"The materials will be standardized, the lessons will be standardized," Guines said. 
"We're taking the play out. We're taking the guesswork out. We're putting in a precise pre- 
dicted treatment that leads to a predicted response. " Guines said that the new curriculum 
is based on the work in behavioral psychology of Harvard University's B.F. Skinner, who 
developed teaching machines and even trained pigeons during World War II to pilot and 
detonate bombs and torpedoes. The basic idea, Guines said, is to break down complicated 
learning into a sequence of clear simple skills that virtually everyone can master, although 
at different rates of speed. "If you can train a pigeon to fly up there and press a button and 
set off a bomb," Guines remarked, "why can't you teach human beings to behave in an 
effective and rational way? We know that we can modify human behavior. We're not scared 
of that. This is the biggest thing that's happening in education today."... 

According to Thomas B. Sticht, Associate Director for Basic Skills of the National Institute 
of Education, similar techniques, cahed competency education or mastery teaching, are now 
being used in many parts of the country. Since 1973, Sticht said, they have been adopted 
by the Army and Navy for basic training and to teach entry level job skills. They have been 
used successfully in college courses, he said, and also to teach mentally retarded children 
who previously had been classed as "uneducable." "There has to be a well-defined series 
of objectives," Sticht said, "and a step by step curriculum that gives some way [through 
Mastery Tests] to know you have met the objectives."... 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1977 147 

But the system also has detractors who criticize it as rigid and mechanistic. "We must 
be very careful," said Lawrence G. Derthick, a former U.S. Commissioner of Education, 
"about adopting any mechanical system of producing children hke objects. There are so 
many compUcating factors in each child — emotional, psychological, the home background, 
the sensitivity of teachers — there's danger in trying to turn out children like nuts and bolts 
or steel pins. Human beings are more complex."... 

[Ed. Note: William Spady, "father of outcome-based education," served as consultant to the 
D.C. schools at this exact time, working out of the U.S. Office of Education's National Institute 
of Education. His position at the time is listed in his curriculum vitae as "Senior Research 
Sociologist, 1973-1978." With Spady, Thomas Sticht, associate director for basic skills at NIE, 
also worked on the failed, Skinnerian D.C. school reform. In addition, the reader is urged to 
refer to the August 8, 1982 Washington Post entry which paraphrases Sticht as follows: "Ending 
discrimination and changing values are probably more important than reading in moving 
low income families into the middle class." Of further interest, the same Thomas Sticht was 
president of Applied Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences, Inc., San Diego, California, and has 
served on the U.S. Labor Department Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills 

Development of Educational Technology in Central and Eastern Europe Studies: Division 
of Structures, Content, Methods and Techniques of Education was published and distributed by 
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization [UNESCO: Paris: ED-77/WS/ 
133:English Edition) in November of 1977. The author is including excerpts from the "Section on 
Methods, Materials and Techniques" so that the reader will see how America 2000/Goals 2000 
restructuring is identical to education in the former Eastern European communist countries. 
The reader must also remember that American education is under the direction of UNESCO 
due to our membership in the United Nations. Excerpts follow: 

The development of educational technology in the Central and Eastern European countries, as 
commissioned by the UNESCO Secretariat, is summarised on the basis of the oral and written 
information supplied by the countries having attended the Budapest International Seminar 
on Educational Technology in 1976. The countries involved are as follows: People's Republic 
of Bulgaria, Socialist Republic of Czechoslovakia, RepubUc of Finland, RepubUc of Greece, 
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, People's RepubUc of Poland, People's Republic of 
Hungary, German Democratic RepubUc, Union of Soviet SociaUst RepubUcs. Data were also 
suppUed by the SociaUst RepubUc of Rumania which could not participate in the Seminar. 
The factors exercising a decisive influence on the present standards of the application 
of educational tecUnology and tUe strategies and rate of its further spread in the countries 
Usted above are as foUows: 

a. the overwhelming majority of the countries represented (8 out of 10) are socialist 

b. except for the Soviet Union and Finland, the nations concerned can be classified into 
the category of fairly developed countries from the technological point of view. 

On the basis of the above factors some of the specific characteristics of the develop- 
ment of educational technology wiU be underUned. It follows from tUe essence of the social- 


ist structure of the state in the countries concerned, except Finland and Greece, that their 
educational system is centralized. This creates an extremely favourable situation for central 
state measures designed to modernize education. The socialist state possesses the means 
necessary for education... for the widespread use of methodology based on solid technologi- 
cal foundations and of the media and means of educational technology.... In a situation in 
which miUions of students learn and hundreds of thousands of educationaUsts teach, on the 
basis of unified curricula, decisions involving the development of the method to be adopted 
in education and of the media and aids of educational technology call for very thorough 
preparatory work. . . . 

The socialist countries also have a substantial advantage from the aspect of the develop- 
ment of educational technology because the training and in-service training of teachers rest 
on a uniform basis. In addition, curricula are uniform in the individual countries and for the 
different types of schools harmony between the curricular activities and the development of 
educational technology can be therefore established comparatively easily. 

[Ed. Note: A flow chart on page 11 of the study includes under "Factors Influencing the Introduc- 
tion of Educational Technology" all the components found in American educational restructuring 
as follows: Adequate Curricula; System of Objectives; Systems of Means of Assessment; Media 
System; Ensuring Appropriate Facilities [school building, hardware, media); Adequately Trained 
Teachers (basic training, in-service/ further training/information); Research and Development; 
and International Cooperation.] 


Professor Benjamin Bloom, the "father" of Mastery Learning and developer of the 

Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, presented a paper entitled "New Views of the Learner: 
Implications for Instruction and Curriculum" at the 1978 Association for the Supervision and 
Curriculum Development [ASCD) Annual Conference. The paper was published in ASCD's 
Educational Leadership April 1978 issue [Vol. 35, #7). The following quote explains clearly 
the reasoning behind UNESCO's requirement that member states, including the United States, 
incorporate UNESCO's lifelong learning philosophy into their education policies: 

Continuing Learning 

Throughout the world, the instruction and curriculum in the schools is being studied 
to determine its long-term contribution to continuing learning throughout life. The Edgar 
Faure [UNESCO) report "Learning to Be" has had great influence on this thinking. The Faure 
report [Faure, 1972) stresses the many changes taking place in all societies and the difficulties 
individuals have in adjusting to rapid change in the society, in their work, and in their lives. 
Since, the report continues, it is virtually impossible to anticipate and plan for the changes 
that will take place, the only adaptive mechanism people have to adjust to and cope with 
these changes is their ability and interest in continuing learning throughout life.... 

We, who are responsible for the learning of our students for a ten-to-sixteen-year period, 
must extend our sights beyond the period that our students are in the schools or colleges. 
Until we do this and until it becomes a part of our curriculum planning, we will neglect those 
objectives of education that relate to the entire life of the individual, (pp. 574-575) 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1978 149 

[Ed. Note: It is important to recall Bloom's definition of education: "to change the thoughts, 
actions, and feelings of students." In other words, the above recommendation very simply 
calls for lifelong brainwashing.] 

In the August 1978 issue of The National Educator Barbara Morris, editor of The Bar- 
bara Morris Report and author of many books related to education including her most recent 
book. The Great American Con Game,^^ reported on a speech given at the University of Illinois 
by Mary F. Berry, assistant secretary in the U.S. Office of Education [1977), regarding Chinese 
education. The following excerpts from Morris's report are too important to leave out of this 

Indeed, what does the U.S.A. stand to learn? Let's take a look. 

Red China has eliminated testing and grades. The U.S. is rapidly going the same route. 
Testing is being downgraded and scoffed at, and grades, where they do exist are just about 

For the Red Chinese, according to Ms. Berry, truth is a relative concept. In the U.S. 
schools students are taught the same thing in "values clarification." It's called situation ethics 
and it means it's okay to lie or cheat or steal or kill when it suits your purpose. 

In Red China, according to Ms. Berry, education must serve the masses. Ditto the U.S. 
Only the semantics are different here. In the U.S. education is not designed for the benefit 
of individuals, but for society. "Society" or "masses" — what's the difference? 

In Red China, according to Ms. Berry, education must be combined with productive 
labor and starts at six years of age, with children working at least one hour a day producing 
voice boxes for dolls. At the middle school level, children make auto parts as part of the 
school day. We are not at this low level, but Secretary Berry frankly admits, "We will draw 
on the Chinese model...." We are fast approaching the Chinese model. We have work/study 
programs and the U.S. Office of Education is working on development of Lifelong Learning 
programs — another Chinese import. Such programs will enable people to work and study 
their entire lives for the benefit of the state. 

Ms. Berry admitted U.S. Lifelong Learning programs are indeed drawn on the Chinese 
experience, that such programs are expected to meet "needs for intellectual fulfillment and 
social growth. It is here that the Chinese have set the pattern for the world to follow, and it 
is here that American higher education may have its last, best opportunity for growth." 

Secretary Berry lamented that the U.S. is only slowly moving into Lifelong Learning, but 
that "The community college system with its nonconventional enrollment, is one harbinger 
of change. The traditional extension program is another.... But we have to go beyond them 
and bring four year institutions and secondary institutions, as well as private instructional 
facilities into the Lifelong Learning movement." 

Ms. Berry is not talking about the future when she recommends radical proposals for 
U.S. education. A meeting of the National Council for the Social Studies, held in Cincinnati 
last November, featured several presentations on Communist Chinese education as a model 
for U.S. education. In one such presentation, teachers learned how the Red Chinese educa- 
tional system "is related to achievement of national goals and citizenship preparation... how 
cultural activities and recreational pastimes provide a vehicle for transmitting new social 
values." Does this help you understand why U.S. schools usually list "worthy use of leisure" 
or "citizenship education" as a goal of education? 

[Ed. Note: Americans, involved in what would seem to be the worthy goal of implementing 


character, citizenship, or civic education in the government schools or in community groups, 
or in seeking "common ground" with groups who hold differing views on political, social, and 
religious issues, should think more than twice before becoming involved in this dangerous 
dialogue. The reason the dialogue is dangerous is evident when one studies the track record of 
nations whose citizens have allowed their governments to define morality or good citizenship; 
i.e., Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union and Red China, to name just a few.] 

Fifth Report OF theNational Council on Educational Research, funded by the U.S. Office 
of Education, was published in an issue spanning 1978-1979. The very clear connection drawn 
between mastery learning and direct instruction, enabling one to understand that they are 
essentially the same or at least fraternal twins, is the importance of the following excerpt: 

The Learning Research and Development Center (LRDC) at the University of Pittsburgh has 
developed instructional mastery of learning programs providing individualized instruction 
in math, science, reading, and early learning skills. These have been disseminated nation- 
ally through Project Follow Through [Direct Instruction/DISTAR] and by Research for Better 
Schools (RBS). (pp. 28-29) 


"Georgia Basic Life Process Skills, ESEA, Title II, Proposed Instructional Time in School 
Programs," prepared by Lucihe G. Jordan, associate state superintendent for Instructional 
Services of the Georgia Department of Education, was submitted to the U.S. Department of 
Education for a grant in 1979. The particular curricular programs which received funding under 
Title II were jointly funded by Exxon Corporation and the U.S. Department of Education. On 
page 34 of Georgia's grant proposal an extraordinary curriculum graph/ chart recommends the 
following percentages of time be spent at and between 5, 10, 15 and 18 years of age on the 
following subjects: 

Basic 3 R's: 90% at 5 yrs. Declining to 40% at 10 yrs. Declining to 30% at 15 yrs. 
Declining to 15% at 18 yrs. 

Life Process Skills: (Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making]: 5% at 
5 yrs. Increasing to 40% at 10 yrs. Increasing to 70% at 15 yrs. Increasing to 90% 
at 18 yrs. 

Citizenship and Humanities Studies: 30% at 5 yrs. Increasing to 40% at 10 yrs. Increas- 
ing to 70% at 15 yrs. Increasing to 90% at 18 yrs. 

Science and Technology: 25% at 5 yrs. Increasing to 28% at 10 yrs. Increasing to 30% 
at 15 yrs. Increasing to 55% at 18 yrs. 

Career Education: 20% at 5 yrs. Increasing to 22% at 10 yrs. Increasing to 30% at 15 
yrs. Increasing to 55%) at 18 yrs. 

Health and Physical Education: 10% for ages 5 through 18 yrs. 
[Ed. Note: Please note that the "Basic 3 R's" is the only curriculum area targeted for decrease 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1979 151 

in time spent on instruction. An official of tlie Georgia School Boards Association cited this 
graph as being representative of Bloom's Taxonomy. Also, why would Exxon, who was in 
the early 1980s one of the major corporations complaining about illiteracy and workers who 
are not educated in basic academics, have funded a program guaranteed to water down basic 
academics? [In a 1976 speech NEA President Catherine Barrett recommended teaching basic 
skills in only one fourth of the school day.)] 

The U.S. Congress fulfilled President Jimmy Carter's promise to the National Education 
Association by voting for a U.S. Department of Education in 1979. Now the United States which, 
heretofore, had been represented at international conferences as the unenlightened member 
of the crowd [no ministerial/socialist status), could join the "big boys" of the international 
community: the "big boys" being those countries who, since World War II, had been repre- 
sented at these poUcy-planning conferences by ministers of education. Interestingly enough, 
the majority of teacher members of the National Education Association were opposed to the 
creation of the U.S. Department of Education. 

The new Cabinet-level department allowed the former Bureau of Research under the 
National Institute of Education to become the Office of Educational Research and Improve- 
ment [OERI), which would be closely linked to the Paris, France-based Center for Educational 
Research and Innovation [CERI), part of the United Nations' Office of Economic Cooperation 
and Development [OECD) . OERI's assistant secretary would attend OECD/CERI meetings at 
which he would receive his "marching orders" related to international restructuring efforts 
and programs, all of which were either being implemented or would be implemented in the 
future in the United States— effective school research, site-based management, school-to-work, 
community education, Concerns-Based Adoption Model [CBAM), etc. 

A Study of Schooling in the United States by John Goodlad, Ph.D., dean of the Graduate 
School of Education, University of California, Los Angeles and associated with the Institute 
for Development of Educational Activities [I.D.E.A., funded by Kettering Foundation), was 
compiled in 1979 after being researched over a period of several years. Under Dr Goodlad's 
direction, trained investigators went into communities in most regions of the country. The 
sample of schools studied was enormously diverse in regard to size, family income, and racial 
composition of the student body. The result of the landmark report was A Place Called School: 
Prospects for the Future [McGraw-Hill: New York, 1984) by Goodlad. 

In A Place Called School, Goodlad proposed pushing high school graduation back to age 
16 and having all students take a core curriculum until then. A new "fourth phase of educa- 
tion" would combine work, study, and community service to help ease students' transition 
into careers, higher education, and adult responsibilities. The following three books were 
additionally commissioned to be written as a result of this project: 

[1) Schooling for a Global Age, James Becker, Editor [1979), in the preface for which Dr. 
Goodlad made the following statement which has contributed to the development of parent- 
school partnerships: 

Parents and the general public must be reached, also. Otherwise, children and youth enrolled 
in globally-oriented programs may find themselves in conflict with values assumed in the 
home. And then the education institution frequently comes under scrutiny and must pull 



[2) Communities and Their Schools, Don Davies, Editor [1981), in which the history of 
community education at the national and international levels [China, Tanzania, etc.) was 
covered and the participatory democratic operation of our schools and communities was rec- 
ommended [government by unelected councils) . 

[3) Arts and the Schools, Jerome J. Hausman, Editor [1980), in which the role of the arts 
in schools and in society was examined and then the focus shifted to the needs of the indi- 
vidual. Arts addressed curricular issues involved in designing and implementing school arts 
programs and, again, actual programs are discussed and analyzed. The policy imphcations 
of implementing the programs described in the book are then discussed along with change 
strategies for moving from rhetoric to reality. 

The four books were published by McGraw Hill. The study itself was funded by the National 
Institute of Education, U.S. Office of Education and the following foundations: Danforth; Ford; 
International Paper; The JDR 3rd Fund; Martha Holden Jennings Foundation; Charles Stewart 
Mott Foundation; Needmor Fund; Pedamorphosis, Inc.; Rockefeller Foundation; and Spencer 
Foundation. The Advisory Committee for A Study of Schooling included the following persons: 
Ralph W. Tyler, chairman; Gregory Anrig; Stephen K. Bailey; Lawrence A. Cremin; Robert K. 
Merton; and Arthur Jefferson. The study was conducted under the auspices of the Institute for 
Development of Educational Activities, Inc. [IDEA) and The Laboratory in School and Com- 
munity Education, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Los Angeles. 

[Ed. Note: In a telephone conversation with a representative of McGraw Hill Publishers in 
1982, this writer was informed that all four books were provided to the fifty state education 
commissioners/superintendents. These four books provide an accurate picture of the role 
played by the tax-exempt foundations and federal government in the restructuring/social 
engineering of American society and schools to accommodate the perceived "needs" of the 
21st century.] 

Senator Jacob Javits (NY) requested that Mr Arthur Lipper's address to the World 
Council on Gifted and Talented Children be printed in the Congressional Record, September 5, 
1979 [pp. 11904-11905). Senator Javits said in his introduction to the text of the speech: 

Mr. President, the gifted and talented children of our Nation have long been of continuing 
interest to me for they represent the future leadership of the United States. Last month, in 
Jerusalem, the World Council on Gifted and Talented Children held its Third Biennial Con- 
ference to discuss international cooperative efforts on behalf of the gifted, and to consider 
research and exchange programs to promote this most precious human resource.... At the 
Jerusalem conference, Arthur Lipper, IH, an investment banker. . . and great friend of the gifted 
and talented... forcefully presented the idea that the development of the gifted represents 
the best hope for future peace and stability in the international political realm.... I urge my 
colleagues to consider carefully his remarks, and I ask that the text of Mr. Lipper's address 
to the World Council on Gifted and Talented Children be printed in the Record. 

The following excerpts from Lipper's speech reflect a total disregard for the gifted and 
talented children as individuals who might be capable of deciding for themselves what they 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1979 153 

wish to do or become. It focuses instead on their "use" by the state to obtain predetermined 
global goals: 

Some years ago I read the following statement in a school publication: 

One of America's most tragic wastes of natural resources is tlie loss of potential for social 
contribution which is inherent in economically deprived, gifted children. 

Properly identified at a sufficiently early age, through culture-free, non-verbal testing, 
the very young child can be provided with the environment, economic and motivational 
support necessary for full development as a positive social contributor. 

Without such early identification, the socio-economic pressure imposed upon the eco- 
nomically deprived child who possesses superior cognitive ability is hkely to result in either 
a "dropping out" or only a desire to achieve improved personal life style. The chosen or 
available means of obtaining a better life style may not be socially desirable. Therefore their 
truly constructive potential, from the standpoint of society [the State], may be forever lost. 

These thoughts seem to me to be applicable to all societies and especially to those less 
fortunate than America's. Specifically analyzed they are: 

1) Identified early enough, poor but gifted children can be given medical, financial 
and emotional support which probably will lead to the development of positive social atti- 

2) Not identified and assisted the kids may either not achieve their potential or may 
use their talents solely for the purpose of bettering their own lives regardless of the means 
employed or the effects on others. 

It is interesting to note the number of proudly proclaimed programs for gifted child 
identification and development which many of the Sociahst and Communist countries have 
as a stated and de-facto matter of public poUcy. It is not strange that the capitalist countries, 
so quick to make use of all other "natural" resources — including the labor of their own and 
other countries — have been slower to recognize and secure the benefits accruing from the 
development of their own gifted children. 

Perhaps the wealthy nations have not yet sensed the compelling need for broad social 
progress, based upon the future contribution of the gifted, as have some of the non-capital- 
ist countries. 

In closing, Mr. Upper makes some recommendations, the most alarming of which fol- 

Estabhshment of boarding schools (publicly funded] to house those identified gifted children 
whose existing home Ufe is non-constructive in terms of their development. 

[Ed. Note: Mr. Upper, in his fervent desire to implement world socialism, seems to have forgot- 
ten that individuals, regardless of race, rehgion, talent, or income, should not be considered 
property of the State [human resources, human capital, etc.) to be molded and manipulated for 
the benefit of society as a whole [the State). Also, what and whose criteria will be employed 
to determine whether "home life is non-constructive"?] 

"K-12 Competency-Based Education Coivies to Pennsylvania" by John H. Sandberg, direc- 
tor of teacher education for Carnegie-Mellon University in Pittsburgh, was published in the 
October 1979 issue of Phi Delta Kappan. Excerpts from the article follow: 


It is too late to stop Project '81, which will run its course and probably will soon be 
forgotten, but one may hope that other states will think hard before embarking on similar 
projects.... While it is possible that I misunderstood the meaning or intent of this "major goal" 
["gain the skills and knowledge they will need as adults"], it strikes me as being unattainable 
on its face.... I would argue that we cannot "see that students acquire the competencies they 
need to be successful in the adult world" because we don't know what they are now much 
less what they will be ten years from now. . . . Exchanging courses, credits, and Carnegie Units 
for "newly defined competencies" will not ehminate this fundamental problem.... 

Finally, in the case of students who are known to be college bound and are locked into 
a curriculum that is dictated primarily by college requirements (not life-role expectancies] , 
what is going to give? Will physics give way to lawn mower repair? Chemistry to cooking? 
Trigonometry to tile setting? Will it really make any difference for these students what the 
state board requires for graduation as long as Harvard wants math through calculus and two 
years of a foreign language?... I would be happy to settle for a short list of competencies if 
I thought we could handle them: Teach children how to read, to write, to do arithmetic, to 
draw, make music, and to get along with each other. 

We are not doing these few things for enough kids now, so perhaps this is what we 
should be working on instead of making new lists of things we won't know how to do.... I 
applaud the emphasis that Project '81 gives to making better use of educational resources 
in the community. But as a Blueprint for structuring pubUc education and for measuring 
its products, the competency-based approach embodied in Project '81 strikes me as totally 
ridiculous. A true skeptic might argue that Project '81 may be safely ignored on the ground 
that the Pennsylvania Department of Education is incompetent to chew, much less swallow, 
what it has attempted to bite off. Like other grandiose efforts to reform the schools, the 
project may generate some wind and heat and several billion pieces of paper and then go 
away, leaving all but the 12 pilot school districts untouched. 

Nevertheless, the Pennsylvania Department of Education has already demonstrated, 
with competency-based teacher education, its competence to effect change— or at least the 
illusion of change — on a large scale. Project '81 is a much more extensive undertaking whose 
potential for mischief is incalculably greater. The mischief can occur if Pennsylvanians do 
not take a long, hard look at where Project '81 is taking them. 

Information regarding the preliminary planning for school-based clinics was revealed in 
the October 22, 1979 issue of Nation's Schools Report which, under the section "Schools Can 
Offer Health Services," stated the following: 

Schools with concentrations of Medicaid-ehgible students can qualify for federal money 
if they set up screening and referral programs. A joint effort by the Office of Education and 
the Health Care Financing Administration could make available to schools some of the $46 
million that will probably be spent on screening Medicaid children. 

Historically, schools have been excluded from such payments, said Robert Heneson- 
Walling, in the office of deputy commissioner of the Bureau of Education of the Handicapped. 
But regulations proposed jointly by the two agencies and published in the Federal Register 
October 4 would allow schools to do the screening and even provide treatment and get paid 
for it. 

"It's never been clear that schools might take this initiative," he told Nation's Schools 
Report. To help interested school officials get started, the two departments wiU pubhsh a 
manual in November which will cover rules-of-thumb for officials to decide whether to 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1979 155 

undertake the screening, how to do it, and how to get help from state and local agencies. 

"It's not an either/or situation for the school district," said Heneson- Walling. There are 
seven or eight degrees of involvement a school might undertake. Some schools are already 
involved in extensive health screening services, because of requirements of the Education 
for All Handicapped Children Act, so it would be a natural step for them to become primary 
health delivery centers, [p. 6) 

[Ed. Note: The United States model was given wide publicity at the United Nations/UNICEF- 
sponsored International Year of the Child Conference. The U.S. Department of Health, Education 
and Welfare served as co-sponsor of the International Year of the Child's program in the United 
States. For a glimpse into the future role of the schools in providing health care services turn 
to the 1999 entry for the "Little Red Riding Hood" version of the government/private sector 
initiatives outlined in the U.S. Department of Education/U.S. Department of Health and Human 
Services pubhcation Together We Can. The 1999 Congressional proposal to completely fund 
the Individuals with DisabiUties in Education Act would go a long way toward universalizing 
these activities. Increased school violence in the late 1990s is also leading to increases in the 
number of school psychologists who can be used for "early screening. "] 

"Big School Changes Proposed" was printed in the Bangor (ME) Daily News on November 
30, 1979. The article covered what could easily be described as futuristic plans for Vermont 
public education. It stated in part: 

MONTPELIER, VT — A blue ribbon commission has recommended a radical restructuring of 
education in Vermont with year-round, ungraded schools and a policy of allowing some 
students to drop out at age 13. In addition, the commission suggested creation of a 4,000- 
student, residential school for students ages 4 through 19. The state-run school would be a 
center for educational research and teacher training.... The commission recommends students 
should be permitted to drop out of formal schooling at age 13, as long as they get a job or 
enroll in an alternative training program. 

[Ed. Note: This extraordinary plan for radical restructuring seemed beyond the pale in 1979. 
However, it doesn't seem so out of reach in 1999 when most of its recommendations are being 
introduced nationwide. Year-round school has been proposed in many locales, being adopted 
in some in 1999. Boarding schools have been openly proposed by former Speaker of the House 
Newt Gingrich, but have not been widely embraced. However, the concept of allowing students 
to drop out at age 13 has its parallel in school-to-work efforts which force students to select 
a career emphasis by the end of eighth grade.] 

In the November 1979 issue of Educational Leadership, monthly publication of the Asso- 
ciation for Supervision and Curriculum Development, "Mastery Learning: The Current State 
of the Craft" by James Block was published. Excerpts follow: 

Indeed, with the help of dedicated practitioners and administrators, innovative teacher train- 
ing institutions, progressive national and international educational organizations [ASCD, 
NEA, NASA, UNESCO, lEA), leading educational publishers (McGraw-Hill, SRA, Westing- 
house Learning Corp., Random House), and powerful news media [The New York Times, 
CBS] , Mastery Learning has helped reshape the face of contemporary educational practice. 


research, and theory.... Entire school districts throughout North America [Chicago, Denver, 
D.C., New Orleans, Vancouver] are actively testing the value of Mastery Learning for their 
particular educational situation. 

[Ed. Note: The above quote by James Block calls to mind the 1921 entry in this book which 
chronicles the estabUshment of the Council on Foreign Relations. In that entry a quotation 
from Propaganda by Edward Bernays, Sigmund Freuds's nephew, also remarks on the power 
of opinion to move an agenda forward: 

It remains a fact in almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or 
business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by. . . small number 
of persons... and technical means have been invented and developed by which opinion may 
be regimented.] 

Super-Learning by Sheila Ostrander and Lynn Schroeder, with Nancy Ostrander, [Dell 
PubUshing Co., Inc.: New York, 1979) was published. Beneath the title on the cover is an 
explanation of Super-Learning as "New stress-free, fast learning methods you can use to 
develop supermemory and improve business and sports performance." In reality this "learning 
technique" is an updated version of ancient practices drawn from many religions and a grab- 
bag of philosophies, most presented to the chosen rhythms of certain music. The following 
are excerpts from the book: 

Georgi Lozanov [Lo-san-ov], a Bulgarian doctor and psychiatrist, who didn't set out 
to be an educator . . did set out, following the old adage, to study the nature of man, of the 
human being in all its potential. Like just about everybody else, he concluded that we're only 
using a fraction of our capabilities. Lozanov devised ways to open the reserves of the mind 
and, as a doctor, put them to work to improve the body, to heal mental and physical disease. 
But in investigating what the whole human being can do, he couldn't help being drawn into 
creative and intuitive areas. Then still investigating, almost by necessity, he became one of 
the leading parapsychologists in the communist world. At the same time, Lozanov realized 
that with his new techniques, the average person could develop supermemory, could learn 
factual information with unheard-of-ease. [p. 9) 

...Among others, we were going to talk to a Bulgarian scientist, Dr Georgi Lozanov, 
who had investigated a number of people with extraordinary mental abilities like Keuni's. 
Lozanov had come to claim that supermemory was a natural human ability. Not only can 
anyone develop it, he said, but one can do it with ease. To prove his point there were sup- 
posedly thousands of people in Bulgaria and the Soviet Union who were well on their way 
to acquiring supermemory of their own. [p. 14) 

...Dr. Lozanov greeted us in his office. Like the brilliant flowers in the garden outside, 
the room was awash with bright, vivid colors. As we'd already discovered at the conference 
in Moscow, Lozanov had a "holistic" sense of humor and a "cosmic" laugh like the Maha- 
rishi of TM fame. A lithe, compact man with warm brown eyes and a great cloud of curly, 
graying hair, he could be as kinetic as a handball one minute and deeply serene the next. 
"Suggestology can revolutionize teaching," he asserted. "Once people get over preconceived 
ideas about hmitations, they can be much more. No longer is a person limited by beheving 
that learning is unpleasant; that what he learns today he will forget tomorrow; that learning 
deteriorates with age. ". . . 

The Serious Seventies : c. 1979 157 

He grew philosophical, "Education is the most important thing in the world. The whole 
of life is learning — not only in school. I beheve that developing this high motivation — which 
comes through the technique — can be of the greatest importance to humanity. ". . . 

"What exactly is the technique of suggestology?" we asked. To create this new "ology," 
Lozanov and his co-workers had drawn from an almost dizzying array of specialties: mental 
yoga, music, sleep-learning, physiology, hypnosis, autogenics, parapsychology, drama, to 
name some. Suggestology's deepest roots lay in the system of Raja Yoga. "There is really noth- 
ing new about suggestology," Lozanov explained. "The apphcation is the new thing."... 

Lozanov's suggestology is basically "applied" altered states of consciousness for learn- 
ing, healing, and intuitive development, [p. 17) 

[Ed. Note: Lozanov's methodology has been implemented in school systems across the coun- 
try — including Henry M. Levin's Accelerated Schools Project participants — and promoted as 
being physically healthful and psychically helpful. Its roots, as pointed out in the quotes above, 
are in techniques associated with religion and mind control. In the appendix to Super-Learn- 
ing a "Recap" is written, part of which this writer wishes to leave with the reader so that 
its connection to what is being presented to teachers and parents in 1999 under the guise of 
"research-based" theory and practice can be more readily understood: 

How does it work? A very specific kind of music has a psychophysicial effect and cre- 
ates a relaxed, meditative state in the body. Physiological research showed this particular 
music slows body rhythms to more efficient levels. This music-induced relaxation brings 
health benefits. It overcomes fatigue and enhances physical and emotional well-being. It's 
a bit like mantra meditation for it is a mind/body link that helps open up inner awareness. 
Physiological research also shows this calmed state of the body facilitates mental functioning 
and learning. The body uses less energy, so there's more for the mind, [emphasis in original] 
This particular music induces alert relaxation — alert mind, relaxed body. 

How can you, at will, retrieve what you perceive? The answer is rhythm. The connection 
is made through synchronizing rhythms. Data to be learned is chanted with intonations in 
rhythm in time to the music. The person learning breathes along rhythmically in a relaxed 
state. So data, intonations, music, breathing, and body rhythms are all synchronized to a 
specific rhythmic cycle. The rhythm, intonations, music, and breathing make links with the 
conscious mind. Harmonized rhythms strengthen the information signal. Conscious aware- 
ness of unconscious perceptions is opened up through this link so you become aware of 
what's in your memory bank. 

Finally, superlearning is about learning to learn. There is a snowballing effect once 
you begin to use the techniques. How do you go about doing superlearning on your own? 
The process is very simple. In advance, get the music, organize your material and tape it, 
reading it aloud at slow-paced intervals over the specified music. 

Then, just relax and hsten to your material as you breathe along to the music. 

The roots of the above "learning" process grow deep in the mire of the ancient practices 
that have come to be called "New Age." The reader is urged to remember the rhythmic chants 
and sing-song recitations being offered as direct instruction "learning." Again, some of the 
therapeutic benefits from music and what is called "music therapy" are most often observed 
among the mentally ill and, for a lack of another designation, the learning disabled. The same 
areas from which most of the "research-based" data — often called "scientific" — draw their 
reported "success."] 


Steps to Better Writing: A Systematic Approach to Expository Writing by Gene Stanford 
(Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.: New York, 1979] was published. An exercise from this book 
is an example of the humanistic influence exerted in a writing textbook format: 

EXERCISE C. In each of the introductory paragraphs below, underline the thesis sentence. 
Then indicate in the blank which construction (funnel or contrast) was used. Finally, number 
the factors in the preview of main supporting points.... 

[Sample paragraph] 2. Too often parents think the way to rear a child is to give him guidance 
in the proper way to think and act. This "guidance" too often becomes an actual molding 
of his personality to suit the parent, as is seen in parental lectures beginning with the old 
cHches, "If I were you I would..." or "When I was your age I...." These parents, while they 
may have the good of the child at heart, are nevertheless making a grave mistake by trying 
to compel him to act or think in certain ways. What the teen needs instead is a type of love 
which gives him the freedom and confidence to develop his own opinions in matters such 
as religion, morality, and choice of friends, (p. 87] 

[Ed. Note: The 1991 article entitled "Seniors' Church Attendance" from Education Week (June 
12, 1991] shows how successful this type of "academic" curriculum has been in changing our 
children's values.] 


1 T.I.L.L., 67 East Shore Road, Huntington, N.Y. 11743 

2 See 1998 entry concerning Newt Gingrich's statements about the future of textboolcs. Also, see 1974 entry for A Performance 
Accountability System for School Administrators by T.H. Bell. 

3 This quote is taken from Danielson's 67-page booklet, Practitioner's Implementation Handbook [Series]; The Outcome-Based 
Curriculum, 2nd Ed., by Charlotte Danielson (Outcome Associates, Princeton, NJ, 1992). Charlotte Danielson is presently 
employed by the Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey. 

4 The Maine Facilitator Center was funded by the U.S. Department of Education and its primary role was to disseminate feder- 
ally funded National Diffusion Network programs. Since 1994 the NDN has been defunded and its functions have been taken 
over by the U.S. Department of Education's regional laboratories. 

5 Excerpt taken from The Leipzig Connection mentioned and referenced earlier in this book. 

6 Another View of Philosophy and Culture: Back to Freedom and Dignity by Francis Schaeffer (Crossway Books: Wheaton, 111., 

7 This particular "who shall survive" activity is still in use in 1990s NDN programs. 

8 Child Abuse in the Classroom may be purchased for $10.00 by sending a check to: Eagle Forum, Pere Marquette Press, PO 
Box 495, Alton, IL 62002 

9 The National Diffusion Network catalog. Programs that Work, may be purchased for $16.95 by calling Sopris West at 1-303- 

10 Audiocassette of Lessinger's speech (#612-20129) can be ordered from: ASCD, 1703 North Beauregard St., Alexandria, VA 

11 Sayer, George. Jack: A Life ofC.S. Lewis (Crossway Books: Wheaton, 1994). 

12 Lewis, C.S. "Our Enghsh Syllabus" in Rehabilitations and Other Essays (Oxford University Press: London, 1939). 

13 Ibid. 

14 Hooper, Walter, Ed. "Learning in War-Time," in The Weight of Glory and Other Addresses (Macmillan Publishing Co., New 
York, 1980). 

15 See Resources page for ordering information for Barbara Morris's The Great American Con Game. 



A roducing a definite or desired result [emphasis added]," the first definition for the 
word "effective" found in Webster's Dictionary, is the appropriate definition for the word "effective" as 
it is used in the title Effective School Research (ESR) or Effective Schools (ES) — which will characterize 
much of "The Effective Eighties." This is particularly true as it relates to the Skinnerian "method," 
often referred to as "What Works" education, more commonly known as outcome/performance/results- 
based education and mastery learning/direct instruction. The evidence which links OBE to ESR is 
irrefutable: "Outcome-Based Education incorporates the findings of the Effective Schools Research, 
linking them together into a comprehensive and powerful model," stated Charlotte Danielson, M.A. 
in her Practitioner's Implementation Handbook [Series]; The Outcome-Based Curriculum.^ 

Whether Effective Schools Research applied to education has been truly "effective" lies in the eye of 
the beholder and in the beholder's definition of the purpose of education.^ Disturbing reports continue 
to surface regarding steep declines in academic test scores in schools which have restructured using the 
various components of Effective Schools Research. These scores are from schools which, while using 
ESR, have not yet shifted from norm-referenced (competitive) tests — which compare students' results 
amongst their peers and which use "A-B-C-D-F" grading — to performance-based (non-competitive) 
teach-to-the-test assessments. Examples are the "open book test" and "authentic assessment" — which 
have the students competing against no one but themselves, giving them as much time as necessary 
to "master" the competencies. 

Once the non-competitive, performance-based assessments are in place, the scores will naturally 
go up, thus allowing the social change agents to breathe a sigh of relief. The "low test score cat" will 
have been shoved back into his bag and the media will shout from the rooftops how well our chil- 



dren are doing on the new performance-based assessments! As usual, everyone will go back to sleep 
believing all is well — if they were ever awake to the problem in the first place. 

The pre-non-competitive, performance-based academic test score decline should come as no 
surprise to the change agents in charge of "effective" schools. The "father" of the Effective Schools 
Research method, or Skinnerian mastery learning, the late Prof. Benjamin Bloom, said in his 1981 
book All Our Children Learning: "The purpose of education and the schools is to change the thoughts, 
feelings and actions of students." An even more astonishing statement was made in The Effective School 
Report by one of the leading change agents, Thomas A. Kelly, Ph.D.: "The brain should be used for 
processing, not storage." With this educational emphasis, academic test scores could have done noth- 
ing but decline. If there is anyone reading this book who questions the validity of this writer's claim 
that America has been "deliberately dumbed down," I urge them to keep these quotes in mind. 

Let me pose the following question: How could the writer of this book have written this book 
had her brain not been used for storage? Could the answer to that question be the reason why the 
social change agents do not want the brain to be used for storage? 

The educationists understand full well what they are doing, since the use of Skinnerian/Pav- 
lovian operant conditioning (mastery learning/direct instruction) does not allow for the transfer of 
information. All they need is a brain which knows how to immediately process predetermined bits 
and pieces of information — often nothing more than symbols, simple words or paragraphs, the knowl- 
edge of which can be easily measured — as those pieces of information relate to workforce training or 
a menial job; i.e., pushing a button like a pigeon in Skinner's experiments was trained to push the 
lever to get its kernel of corn. 

That is not learning; that is training to the point of automaticity, brought about by the above- 
mentioned animal training. Neither is this training the same as rote learning or memorization. Rote 
learning or memorization requires storage of information in a brain which has used some reflective 
thinking to devise a method to recall it. Reflective thinking is essential for learning, allowing the brain 
to spend time examining the essence of the material with which it is presented. 

If Bloom's and Kelly's quotes define what those in charge of educational restructuring are look- 
ing for in terms of "results," those same educationists should not be at all surprised or concerned 
about low test scores. All they have to do is wait for the new performance-based assessments to be 
put into place nationwide; after which the public — some of whom have been vociferously opposed to 
outcome-based education — will get off their backs. 

Activities related to education in "The Effective Eighties" were not geared to improving the ac- 
ademic standing of our children. Quite the contrary; every single major government- or foundation- 
funded activity had as its goal implementation of a global workforce training agenda. 

In 1984 Secretary T.H. Bell approved a grant in the amount of $152,530 to the Far West Labo- 
ratory for Educational Research and Development (now known as Ed West] at which William Spady 
was the director. This grant was to carry out a project entitled "Excellence in Instructional Delivery 
Systems." The cover letter from the Utah superintendent of schools to Secretary T.H. Bell to which 

The "Effective" Eighties 161 

the application for grant funding was attached said, "This [the research as a resuh of the grant] will 
make it possible to put Outcome-Based Education in place, not only in Utah, but in all schools of the 
nation." The final report (evaluation] to the U.S. Department of Education regarding the results of 
this project stated: 

The four models of instructional organization outlined in this casebook are difficult programs 
to implement. The practices of the ten schools described in the case studies are indeed 
commendable. Yet we do not offer these ten case studies as "exemplary schools" deserving 

So, what did the change agents do? They put OBE "into every school in the nation." 

Such misuse of taxpayer dollars is waste, fraud, and abuse which cries out for a Congressional 
investigation. Obviously, the intentions of those involved in this grant had nothing to do with the 
purpose of the project spelled out in the grant applicaton: "To make available to America's educators 
practical information about what really works well, why it works well, and how it can be made to work 
well in their local sites." (pp. 6-7) The real purpose of this project was to propose a radical redesign 
of the nation's education system from one based on inputs to one based on outputs; from one oriented 
toward the learning of academic content to one based on performance of selected skills, necessary for 
the implementation of school-to-work, a redesign thoroughly discussed in this book. 

Dr. Brian Rowan, a sociologist who served as co-principal investigator with the above Robert 
Burns on this most fraudulent of federal grants — Utah's "Excellence in Instructional Delivery Systems 
Project" — explained clearly how deceptive are the claims of those who promote OBE and effective 
school research in a paper entitled "Shamanistic Rituals in Effective Schools." (See Appendix XXVI.) In 
presenting his paper before the American Educational Research Association prior to his participation 
in the Utah grant evaluation. Rowan knew full well the project misrepresented itself even before he 
participated. But, to give credit where credit is due. Rowan at least put in writing the truth about OBE 
and Effective Schools Research; a truth, which, unfortunately, was made available to only a very small 
segment of the educational establishment and has remained hidden from the public. 

"The Effective Eighties" saw President Ronald Reagan, who had accused the Soviet Union of 
being an "Evil Empire," signing education agreements with the Soviet Union — agreements which are 
still in effect — and setting up a Task Force on Private Sector Initiatives in the White House which, 
in effect, started the ball rolling for public-private partnerships (corporate fascism) which are at the 
heart of the Carnegie Corporation/Marc Tucker/New American School Development Corporation's 
school-to-work agenda. It is Ironic that the U.S. Department of Education, under the stewardship of 
a Republican administration, effectively transformed the essential character of the nation's public 
schools from "teaching" — the most traditional and conservative role of schools — to "workforce train- 
ing" — perceived as liberal and "progressive." 

Secretary T.H. Bell fired Edward Curran, a traditional educator who headed up the National 
Institute of Education and who recommended to President Reagan that NIE — the heart of the "rot" in 


education — be abolished. Abolishing NIE required only that Secretary Bell give his approval, while 
abolishing the Department of Education — an election promise President Reagan had made which was 
incorporated into the Republican Party Platform — required the difficult to obtain approval of Congress. 
Once Ed Curran was gone, there was no further resistance to the plans of those members of the ad- 
ministration and their corporate cronies (school-business partnerships) who wished to transform the 
nation's schools from academics to the polytech education being implemented today. 

As a conservative Republican, it has not been easy to come to the above conclusion regarding the 
role of the Republican Party in the "deliberate dumbing down" of America. At the same time, I must 
add that it is very likely the Democratic Party would have been even more steadfast in implementing 
the same agenda, had it been in a position to do so. This march to destruction seems to join all forces 
under its banner. 


Schooling for a Global Age edited by James Becker (McGraw Hill: New York, 1980) was 
published. The preface by Professor John Goodlad is excerpted here: 

Parents and the general public must be reached also [taught a global perspective] . Otherwise, 
children and youth enrolled in globally-oriented programs may find themselves in conflict 
with values assumed in the home. And then the educational institution frequently comes 
under scrutiny and must pull back. 

Educational Goals: Studies and Surveys in Comparative Education was prepared for 

the International Bureau of Education, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural 
Organization [UNESCO: Courvoisier S.A.: La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, 1980). Charles 
Fitouri wrote the following introduction to this document which clearly reflects the influence 
of UNESCO on education: 

The crisis of education, about which so much has been written since the early 1960s, may 
be seen as the source of the need for change and innovation which has been felt and ex- 
pressed since the early seventies. But what kind of innovation? And for what purpose? For 
what blueprint of society and to train what kind of man? This book on educational goals is 
based on such questions as these. 

The following excerpts from Educational Goals identify the roots of American education re- 

The International Bureau of Education's interest in the problem of educational goals and 
theories does not arise from pure philosophical speculation or a simple academic exercise. It 
has been aroused, and even imposed, by a confrontation with certain realities which sprang 
up in this area when, in the early 1970's, the International Bureau of Education (IBE) set out 
to examine the process of educational innovation in order to attempt to analyse it and, so 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1980 163 

to speak, expose its inner meciianism. It was tiius tiiat tiie first studies undertaken made it 
possible to establish with a great degree of certainty that any innovation in education implies 
an orientation in the field of values and, by virtue of this fact, involves the basic problem 
of educational goals.... 

...All the pedagogical movements of the twentieth century which preach equality of 
educational opportunity, after having proclaimed it to be a right for everyone, are more or 
less founded on the various socialist schools of thought which began to emerge at the end 
of the eighteenth century and have since marked the course of the nineteenth century and 
a good part of the twentieth.... 

This interest led to the report of the International Commission on the Development 
of Education, entitled Learning to Be, commonly referred to as the "Faure Report." In his 
statement introducing this report, the president of the commission was anxious to point out 
that the latter had based its deliberative efforts on the following four principles: 

The existence of an international community which... is reflected in common aspirations, 
problems and trends, and in its movement towards one and the same destiny; "belief in 
democracy"; "the complete fulfillment of man" as the aim of development; and finally, 
the need for "over- all, life-long education." 

In so doing, the International Commission on the Development of Education was 
in danger of succumbing to the illusion — generous though it may be — of the existence of 
universal and universally accepted goals. Indeed, although the four principles were unable 
to win unanimous support from the international community, one of them, at least, did 
not raise opposition of any sort, even if it happens to be the one which is most commonly 
violated in practice. Referred to here is the behef in democracy.... The report places special 
emphasis on this, stating that: 

Strong support must be given to democracy, as the only way for man to avoid becoming 
enslaved to machines, and the only condition compatible with the dignity which the intel- 
lectual achievements of the human race require; the concept of democracy itself must be 
developed, for it can no longer be limited to a minimum of judicial guarantees protecting 
citizens from the arbitrary exercise of power in a subsistence society. Furthermore, and in 
conjunction with this, more support must also be given to educational requirements, for 
there cannot — or will not — be a democratic and egalitarian relationship between classes 
divided by excessive inequality in education; and the aim and content of education must 
be re-created, to allow both for the new features of society and the new features of de- 

. . .This world solidarity has its prerequisites and conditions which have been described 
by UNESCO in the following terms: 

[T]here must first of all be agreement on a system of values and a willingness to embark 
on a joint examination of their implications: values of justice, equality, freedom and fel- 
lowship. These will be based on a new awareness in two respects, namely: recognition of 
the unity of mankind, with all its diverse peoples, races and cultures, and the assertion 
of a desire to live together, actually experienced not simply as a necessity for survival or 
coexistence but as the deliberate choice of fashioning a common destiny together, with 
joint responsibility for the future of the human race. 

In such circumstances, the consciousness of the world's solidarity, which is so much 
needed, can only be the fruit of an active and continuous process of education, which must 
be put in hand without delay and to which UNESCO must make its full contribution. 

...The participants, having agreed to develop and stimulate reflection on educational 


goals, considered that: 

1. UNESCO should give particular attention to the developments at regional and in- 
ternational levels, of comparative studies on educational goals, from the point of 
view both of their influence on the development of educational theories [historical 
dimension) and of their impact on educational realities (sociological dimension); 

2. multidisciphnary teams, comprising philosophers, historians, teachers, sociologists, 
economists, psychologists, planners, etc., should be involved in this work of re- 
flection and research; 

3. the themes listed below should be regarded as priority themes: 

3.1 Determination of the goals underlying education for international understanding 
and peace. 

3.2 UNESCO's contribution to the formulation and development of an international 
dimension of education based on a certain conception of modern man. 

3.3 Implicit goals and explicit goals of education. 

3.4 Role of goals in the emergence of a new type of relationship between school 
and society. 

3.5 Formal education and non- formal education as they relate to the explicit goals 
and implicit goals of education. 

3.6 Elucidation of a dialectic of educational goals and cultural and educational policy: 
philosophy of education and ideology. 

3.7 Ways of determining educational goals in certain contexts where there is a clash 
between tradition and innovation. 

3.8 Elucidation of educational goals on the basis of the child's real needs taking 
account of the economic, social and cultural environment. 

"Policy about Policy: Some Thoughts and Projections" by Luvern L. Cunningham was 

published in the November 1980 issue of The Executive Review [Institute for School Execu- 
tives: The University of Iowa, Vol. 1., No. 2). A footnote on page 1 stated, "The paper was the 
Walter D. Cocking Lecture presented at the 34th Annual National Convention of Professors 
of Educational Administration in August, 1980, at Old Dominion University." Some excerpts 
from Cunningham's "Policy about Policy" follow: 

Local school officials and their constituencies will be facing several critical policy matters 
in this decade (some new, some enduring) . These issues will test severely the structures and 
processes of pohcy making within local districts.... Local and state authorities will soon have 
to develop fresh policies in regard to: the first four years of life; life-long learning; secondary 
education; equity; classroom control and disciphne; global education; languages; human 
resource development; incentives; testing; and resource acquisition and allocation. I would 
hope, therefore, that a good many boards would develop pohcy about policy.... 

The object of my concern is the improvement of practice within the local units of gov- 
ernment (local school districts) where educational pohcy is developed.... 

The structure and processes of local district governance and management have changed 
little over the past century. In many places they appear to be creaking and groaning at the 
seams and at least warrant inspection if not reform.... 

Additional steps must be taken to permit better integration of experts into policymak- 
ing.... The new professions of civil strategist and systems analyst demonstrate rather weU 
what I have in mind on a broader scale. 

The several proposals for changing the governance and management of local school 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1980 165 

districts which follow are intended to achieve practical objectives. 

(1) Pursue policy development processes which are open to, indeed, require the partici- 
pation of citizens and professionals. 

(2) Extend and intensify the citizen role in education policy development and poUcy 

[Ed. Note: The writer has selected the two proposals above in order to emphasize Dr. Cun- 
ningham's influence on the dilution and diminution of the role of elected school board mem- 
bers. This is the philosophy which Dr. Cunningham took into Kentucky when he served as a 
consultant during that state's education reform. 

Implementation of the above two pohcies has been responsible for a subtle, gradual, and 
unhealthy trend towards the council form of government found in undemocratic, socialist 
countries. Before we know it, if Americans do not vociferously object to this gradual erosion 
of the elective process, their towns and cities will be run by unelected citizens who are ac- 
countable to absolutely no one, since unelected people cannot be removed from [voted out 
of) office. This writer has always wondered: If members of our communities want so much to 
serve the community, why don't they run for office? Why do we see so many people signing 
up to be members of unelected task forces and councils? Is it because they don't want to run 
the risk of not winning, or is it that an appointed position is one which requires little or no 
accountability and they won't have to answer for their mistakes?] 

Cunningham continues: 

Periodically, in the history of American education leaders have suggested that boards 
of education have become anachronisms, have fulfiUed their mission, should be reformed, 
or quietly fade away. There was a period at the turn of the century when the notion of abol- 
ishing school boards attracted support from the then-emerging professions of educational 
administration joined by elites from the business and higher education communities. The 
theme was revised and revitalized in the late 1920's, principally by Charles Judd, then chair- 
man of the Department of Education at the University of Chicago.... 

These proposed changes are based essentially on the recognition that the complexity of 
today's pubhc institutions is such that they are often not governable or manageable within 
present approaches to their governance and management and are likely to be less so in the 
future. . . . My proposals therefore retain the principles of local control and policy determination 
by citizens but change the conditions under which policy is determined and administration 
is performed.... It is expected that the present pattern of school board behavior and ideol- 
ogy be altered in favor of practices which will allow sounder, more rationally determined 
school district policy. 

The following proposals are amongst those included under "Synopsis of the Pohcy about 
Policy Proposals": 

(1) That local boards of education develop discrete and definitive policy about policy, 
some of which are implied by the subsequent proposals for change in the governance 
and management of local school districts. 

(2) That educational policy become the primary and continuing pohcy focus of local 
school officials as distinct from personnel, business, and physical facilities.... 

(4) That pohcy making agenda be prepared two to three years in advance to frame the 
work of the board, administrative staff, professional organization leaders, student 


leaders, and citizen groups.... 

(7) That employee salary and wage determination prerogative now retained by boards 
of education of local school districts be moved to the state level. 

(8) That representatives of professional groups (teachers and administrators organiz- 
ations) for local school districts become members of the local boards of education 
and assume policy and accountability responsibilities equivalent to that office.... 

(11) That one or more states pass special legislation allowing school districts to suspend 
(for a period of time) current statutes, rules and regulations for their governance 
and management; and 

(12) That processes of policy development and their enunciation as well as the processes 
of management be designed to include genuine, sustained student, parent, citizen, 
and professional educator involvement. 

Yehezkel Dror suggests that for purposes of current policy making, the following ele- 
ments should be standard features of a preferable policy-making method: 

(1) There should be some clarification of values, objectives, and criteria for decision 

(2) ExpUcit techniques, such as simulation and the Delphi method, should be used 
as far as they are appropriate, and knowledge from various disciplines should be 
brought to bear on the issues involved.... 

The weight of proposal one is not to locate ways to reduce the interference or meddling 
on the part of school board members in the everyday administration of the school system. The 
everyday meddling (or involvement if you prefer) of school board members in administrative 
matters that occurs across the country is understandable. In fact, board members believe 
deeply that they are serving their constituents when they interfere and meddle. Administrators 
often have little understanding of or patience for this sense of responsiveness that board 
members possess. As a consequence considerable institutional energy goes into disputes over 
the boundaries of board member and superintendent authority and responsibility. 

Thus proposal one is based on the premise that both policy and administrative activity 
can be more efficient and effective if there is a substantial alteration in the ground rules for 
those activities.... 

There are constitutional, statutory, and other legal problems associated with the pro- 
posals. If taken seriously they may lead to rather general re-examination of the constitutional 
and statutory provisions for the governance and management of local districts. For example, 
many current school board responsibilities may need to be managed in other ways. Deter- 
mining salaries and wages of school personnel, constructing (even naming) school buildings, 
authorizing the issuance of bonds, setting school tax elections or referenda of other sorts, 
the approval of federal appUcations for funding, and other such decisions may be designated 
as responsibilities of other governments. 

The removal of the collective bargaining function from local districts and placing it at 
the state level would clear out underbrush and permit boards of education and top school 
officials to focus more directly upon pedagogical and learning pohcy. 

The work of Dr. Cunningham seems to have laid the groundwork for school site-based 
management which has reduced the role of elected school board members to rubber stampers of 
decisions made primarily by school personnel and carefully selected politically correct members 
of the community. Dr. Cunningham served as a consultant to the State of Kentucky's Educa- 
tion Reform Commission in 1989. The following quotes are taken from a memorandum dated 
November 2, 1989 from Luvern L. Cunningham and Lila N. Carol of Leadership Development 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1980 167 

Associates regarding Preliminary Models of Governance for Kentucky. The recommendations 
should come as no surprise to those who have read the above excerpts from Cunningham's 
1980 paper. 

Each governance model is designed to facilitate the achievement of equal educational op- 
portunity for every learner enrolled in the public schools of the State of Kentucky. 

Model One, "Total Educational Governance System for Lifetime Learning, Structural 
Features and Highlights" — 

Pohcymaking responsibility for a total educational system including higher education 
is concentrated in a single Board of Regents. A Chancellor would be selected as the adminis- 
trative head of a newly integrated system encompassing provisions for lifetime learning. Local 
school districts would be dissolved and site-based control and management instituted. 

This model is a complete system of governance for a state system of education.... h is 
comprehensive and all inclusive, allowing for a thorough approach to accountability. 

The governance structure is designed to meet each individual's hfetime public learning 
needs beginning with the early years of life through the retirement period. Persons would 
be expected to continue a hfetime of learning consistent with the requirements of the 21st 
century, as portrayed so clearly in business and industry sponsored studies as well as those 
produced through citizens groups and public sponsorship. Lifetime educational counseling 
and lifetime curriculum development would be challenging new responsibilities of the inte- 
grated system. 

This bureau is the central administrative center for lifetime learning. Lifetime learning 
is a much larger expectation for each citizen than we have acknowledged through policy in 
the past. Compulsory education statutes usually bracketed the ages of five through sixteen as 
our expectation for free public schooling in the United States. Lifetime learning on the other 
hand suggests a reconsideration of the compulsory education requirements pushing taxpayer 
responsibility both downward and upward through the age ranges. Obviously lifetime learning 
has tremendous implications for educational finance moving away from traditional concepts 
of funding toward new ideas such as individual entitlements to be expended throughout the 
lifetime. Each citizen would have a lifetime learning account to draw on as needed. 

[Ed. Note: For a broad view of what this last paragraph could imply, please see "When Is As- 
sessment Really Assessment?" in Appendix XI. Many of Luvern Cunningham's proposals were 
incorporated into Georgia's apphcation to the New American School Development Corporation 
entitled "The Next Generation School Project." In the 1999 entry dealing with a letter to the 
editor in Athens, Georgia, some of the details of Georgia's application— which later became a 
design which was offered by the Georgia 2000 Partnership for school system status leading to 
grant receiving and education/business partnering under Goals 2000— are stated. The reader 
should compare that letter's contents to Cunningham's proposals.] 

Course Goals Collection was completed in 1980-81 by the U.S. Department of Education's 
Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory in Portland, Oregon, having been initiated in 1971 
as the Tri-County Course Goal Project. According to the price list for the cohection, 70,000 cop- 
ies were in use throughout the United States in 1981. Descriptors within the Collection state: 
"The collection consists of fourteen volumes with 15,000 goals covering every major subject 
taught in the public schools from K-12." 

Course Goals Collection, based on "the theoretical work of Bloom, Tyler, Gagne, Piaget, 
Krathwohl, Walbesser, Mager, and others," blatantly recommends the use of Mastery Learning 


when it states: "The K-12 Goals Collection provides a resource for developing diagnostic-pre- 
scriptive Mastery Learning approaches, both programmed and teacher managed." 

This collection also advocates the use of Management by Objectives and Planning, Pro- 
gramming and Budgeting Systems when it asserts: 

Perhaps the greatest need addressed by the project is for a sound basis for accountability 
in education... assistance such as Planning, Program, Budget and Management systems or 
even general concepts such as Management by Objectives. 

The use of values clarification and behavior modification is also encouraged when the Goals 
Collection points out that: 

Value goals of two types are included: those related to processes of values clarification; 
secondly, those representing values, choices that might be fostered in the context of the 

Goals states under "Content" that there is to be none because 

[E] stablished facts change, causing many fact-bound curricula to become obsolete during 
the approximately five-year lag between their inception and their widespread dissemination, 
and social mobility and cultural pluralism make it increasingly difficult to identify the im- 
portant facts. 

The Course Goals Collection is evidence of illegal federal involvement in curriculum devel- 
opment. The extent of its use nationwide in 1981 is obvious since 70,000 copies were distributed 
and there were only approximately 16,000 school districts in the nation. Is it any wonder all 
states now have the same goals? 

Charlotte Danielson, M.A., in the appendix to her Practitioners Implementation Hand- 
book [series]; The Outcome-Based Curriculum, 2nd Ed. (Outcomes Associates; Princeton, N.J., 
1992] entitled, "Classification System for the School Curriculum" acknowledged her use of the 
Course Goals Collection developed by the Tri-County Development Project. In the "Introduction 
to Outcome-Based Education" to Danielson's Handbook she inextricably connects Outcome- 
Based Education to Effective Schools Research when she says: 

Outcome-Based Education is a system for the organization and delivery of the instructional 
program in elementary and secondary schools which assures success for every student 
[emphasis in original]. It incorporates the findings of the Effective Schools Research, link- 
ing them together into a comprehensive and powerful model. Educators in outcome-based 
schools know that if they organize their schools properly, and offer high-quality instruction, 
all students will succeed with no change in standards, [p. 1) 

[Ed. Note: Probably the most important quote involving the above Goals Project— at least as 
it relates to the definition of scientific, research-based instruction — is one found in Indiana 
Senator Joan Gubbins's excellent report entitled "Goals and Objectives: Towards a National 
Curriculum?" prepared for the National Council on Educational Research, September 26, 1986 
as part of an investigation of the NWREL Goals Project. On page 16 of her report is the fol- 
lowing statement: 

I beUeve the personal valuing goals (included in the Goals Project] would be more properly 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1981 169 

classified as behavior modification procedures. Therefore, the Project's definition of behavior 
modification is illuminating: 

[P]rocedures used in programs of behavior modification or behavioral management 
are based on principles derived from scientific research (e.g., stimulus-response-rein- 
forcement] . 

Americans supporting the use of mastery learning, outcome-based education, and direct 
instruction to teach reading, take heed! When advised that such instruction is "scientific, 
research-based," remember the above U.S. Department of Education definition!] 


"A Broad-Gauged Research/Reform Plan for Secondary Education — in the "RiADition of 

the Eight- Year Study," proposed by The Project on Alternatives in Education (PAE) in 1981, was 
submitted for consideration and received funding from the U.S. Department of Education and 
the National Education Association. The project was conducted by leading American change 
agents, including Mario D. Fantini, John Goodlad, Ralph Tyler, Ronald S. Brandt, Herbert J. 
Walberg and Mary Ann Raywid. Explanatory cover sheet of the grant proposal was submitted 
on "The John Dewey Society" letterhead. PAE called for publicly funded choice schools using 
"effective school [outcome-based education] research" and principles of the Eight-Year Study. 
These called for "inculcation of social attitudes, development of effective methods of think- 
ing, social sensitivity, better personal-social adjustment, acquisition of important information, 
consistent philosophy of life," etc. 

In 1981 Office of Educational Research and Improvement: An Overview was PREpared by 
staff members of the U.S. Department of Education for Assistant Secretary Donald Senese's 
use at Congressional budget hearings. Excerpts from the paper follow: 

Federal funds account for approximately 10 percent of national expenditures on education. 
The Federal share of educational research and related activities, however, is 90 percent of 
the total national investment. 

The Committee on Coordinating Educational Information and Research [CCEIR), Council 
of Chief State School Officers [CCSSO), in its 1980 Mission Statement defined "research" as: 

For purposes of brevity, the term "educational information and research" will be used to 
include basic and applied research, development, improvement, evaluation, policy study, 
information systems development, data reporting and analysis, and the dissemination of 
knowledge and information gained from such inquiry. 

[Ed. Note: In other words, just about everything that goes on in the classrooms of American 
pubhc schools, with the exception of salaries, school buildings, buses and the purchase of 
equipment, is either a direct or indirect result of funding by the U.S. Department of Edu- 
cation — as research! 

Congress has recognized the federal government's supposed limited authority in edu- 
cation. In 1970 ESEA: General Education Provisions Act was amended to include a "Prohibition 


against Federal Control of Education." This section prohibits the federal government from 
exercising any "direction, supervision, or control over the curriculum, program of instruction, 
administration or personnel of any education institution, school, or school system, or over 
the selection of library resources, textbooks, or other printed or published instructional ma- 
terials by any educational institution or school system." The Education Amendments of 1976 
extended this provision to all programs in the Education Division of the U.S. Department of 
Health, Education and Welfare. 

Although such a prohibition sounds like a restriction against federal control, in effect 
it leaves out more than it includes; the most important component of federal control being 
"research" and "development." Who cares whether the federal government is not allowed to 
extend its long arm down into the choice of curriculum or the selection of resources? The point 
is that the federal government itself was involved in the development of that curriculum or 
those resources, teacher training, test development, etc., at one of its research labs or centers, 
or paid to have it developed by school systems across the nation.] 

Association for Educational Computing and ItcHNOLOCY (AECT — a spin-off of the National 
Education Association) received an $855,282 federal contract for "Project BEST" [Better Edu- 
cation Skills through Technology) in 1981. An explanatory brochure states: 

WHAT IS PROJECT BEST? Project BEST is a cooperative effort involving both the federal, 
state, and local government and the private sector in the planning and use of modern infor- 
mation technologies to improve the effectiveness of basic skills, teaching and learning. 

On a sheet circulated within the U.S. Department of Education as an internal document 
entitled "Project BEST Dissemination Design Considerations," there appeared the following 


What We Can Control or Manipulate? = State participation/selection process 

Role of advisors 
Content of program 
Training of state leaders 
Resource people utilized 
Basic skills content areas emphasized 
Perception of need to use technology 

BEST'S promotional flyer blatantly discussed how the project would serve not just in 
education, but for other program areas as well, to implement the national/international man- 
agement system [MBO, PPBS, TQM): 

In addition, the State Team approach and the communications network with profes- 
sional associations and other groups estabUshed by the project will serve as a model for the 
states in implementing similar efforts in other areas of education, or in such program areas 
as health, human services, housing, transportation, etc. 

William Spady, at that time serving as executive director of the Association of School Ad- 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1981 171 

ministrators, and Dr. Shirley McCune, serving as head of the State Services Division, Denver, 
Colorado, were listed as members of the advisory board for Project BEST. 

[Ed. Note: Project BEST was used as a vehicle to assist in "State Capacity Building"— a process 
to better enable school oficials, administrators, legislators and others to provide supportive 
documentation and "research" for school reform efforts. State Capacity Building grants have 
been funded by the U.S. Department of Education and are usually matched with state budget 

All Our Children Learning by Professor Benjamin Bloom (McGraw Hill PuBLisHing Co.: 
New York, N.Y., 1981) was published. Excerpts follow: 

In an attempt to maximize curriculum effectiveness... curriculum centers throughout the 
world have begun to incorporate learning-for-mastery instructional strategies into the redesign 
of curriculum, (p. 123) 

According to Bloom: 

[T]he International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement [lAEEA) is an 
organization of 22 national research centers which are engaged in the study of education.... 
This group has been concerned with the use of international tests, questionnaires, and other 
methods to relate student achievement and attitudes to instruction, social and economic fac- 
tors in each nation. The evaluation instruments also represent an international consensus 
on the knowledge and objectives most worth learning, (pp. 33-35) 

Another extremely important statement by Bloom in All Our Children Learning is found 
on page 180: "The purpose of education and the schools is to change the thoughts, feelings 
and actions of students." 

Human Intelligence International Newsletter in its March/ April 1981 issue REported 
that critical thinking skills research was taking place within the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO), the Office of Economic Cooperation and Devel- 
opment [OECD), and the World Bank which planned on "increasing the bank's international 
education and training budget to about $900 milhon a year."'' The newsletter related that the 
U.S. Department of Education's National Institute of Education "has awarded a three-year 
contract totaling approximately $780,000 to Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc., of Cambridge, 
Massachusetts to analyze current programs of instruction on cognitive skills. " The July/ August 
issue of the newsletter contained the following: 

The search for new referential systems and new values modifying existing beliefs should be 
based on modern microbiology. A scientific approach should be free from doctrinal bias, and 
its findings applicable to all man-kind. Ideological confrontations between East and West, 
Marxism and Liberalism, Arabs and Jews do have economic, historical, and political bases, 
but no biological basis. These antagonisms have been created by the human brain and could 
be solved by the wiser brains of future man. 


[Ed. Note: It should be noted that Marilyn Jager Adams — deeply involved in "scientific, re- 
search-based phonics instruction" through her service on the Committee on the Prevention of 
Reading Difficulties in Young Children for the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences 
and Education of the National Research Council — has been a long time associate with the 
above-mentioned Bolt, Beranek and Newman.] 

The April/May 1981 issue of Today's Education, the National Education Association's 
monthly journal, carried an article entitled "Effective Schools: What the Research Says" by 
Michael Cohen, senior associate and team leader of the Research on Instruction Team of the 
National Institute of Education, U.S. Department of Education. Some excerpts from the article 

According to Ronald Edmonds of the Harvard University Graduate School of Education, 
these [effective school] studies suggest that differences in effectiveness among schools can 
be accounted for by the following five factors: 

• Strong administrative leadership by the school principal, especially in regard to 
instructional matters. 

• School climate conducive to learning [i.e., positive, or "psychologically facilitative," 
school climate, ed.]; that is, a safe and orderly school relatively free of discipline 
and vandalism problems. 

• Schoolwide emphasis on basic skills instruction (which entails acceptance among 
the professional staff that instruction in the basic skills is the primary goal of the 
school) . 

• Teacher expectations that all students, regardless of family background, can reach 
appropriate levels of achievement. 

• A system for monitoring and assessing pupil performance which is tied to instruc- 
tional objectives.... 

...[T]he five factors identified as contributing to school effectiveness suggest the clas- 
sical model of a bureaucratic organization: a goal-oriented organization with a hierarchical 
authority structure and a central manager who monitors behavior and deliberately adjusts 
organizational performance on the basis of clear and agreed-upon goals and of feedback 
regarding goal attainment.... 

The principal must be willing to clearly set the direction for the school and to hold the 
staff accountable for following that direction. The staff, in turn, must be willing to view the 
principal's direction even if it involves giving up some claims to their own autonomy. 

[Ed. Note: The reader should keep in mind that Effective School Research has been used over 
the past twenty years in inner city schools and schools located in the South; that its track 
record, if judged by academic test scores, leaves much to be desired. In fact, Washington, 
D.C. and Secretary Riley's home state of South Carolina — both of which have used Effective 
School Research — had the lowest academic test scores in the nation, to be followed by many 
inner city schools, especially those in the southern part of the nation. In this regard, the reader 
should re-read the 1913 entry containing quotes from Frederick T Gates, director of charity 
for the Rockefeller Foundation.] 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1981 173 

In a 1981 Alaska Governor's Task Force Report on Effective Schooling to The Honorable 
Jay S. Hammond the following statements were made in regard to mastery learning and direct 
instruction [highly structured learning activities) : 

It has been determined that in the learning of specific skills and factual data that it is possible 
to enhance achievement by using the approach of mastery learning, wherein instructional 
objectives are clearly defined — and instructional activities are tied directly to objectives. It has 
been demonstrated that direct instruction — highly structured learning activity — is effective 
with certain groups of students. These approaches will assist students with low achievement 
to move closer to the current mean or average. Yet, a highly structured system of instruc- 
tion applied to everyone may in fact impede the progress of those students achieving at a 
level above the current mean or average. The result is that, while variance [or the spread 
of scores from the mean) is reduced, there is a reduction in both directions. Low achievers 
may move closer to the mean, but high achievers may well do likewise. The examples pre- 
sented above regarding achievement may well apply to the operation of schools. If effective 
schooling practices are too narrow and a rigid system results, variance among districts will 
be reduced, but the hmiting of creativity and the hmiting of schools in their ability to adapt 
to local circumstances will cause reduction in variance from both above and below the mean 
or average, [pp. 38-39) 

[Ed. Note: The introduction to this report which stated: "As part of the Task Force effort several 
studies were conducted by Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory under contract with the 
[Alaska) Department of Education," should explain to the reader that the U.S. Department of 
Education has funded — and continues to fund — mastery learning and direct instruction pro- 
grams even in the face of evaluative evidence that strongly suggests that average and above 
average students do not benefit from such educational approaches.] 


Regional Educational Laboratory [U.S. Department of Education) in 1981. They are described 

MEETING THE FUTURE: Improving Secondary Schools with Goal-Based Approaches to 
Instruction. Marriott Hotel, Portland, Oregon. Major addresses: "Alternative Futures for Our 
Society and Imphcations for Education" by Dr. Harold Pluimer, Futurist and Educational 
Consultant, Minneapohs, Minnesota and "School Effectiveness and Imphcations for Sec- 
ondary School Improvement" by Dr. Alan Cohen, Professor of Education, University of San 

Sessions on Innovative Practices: "Improving Goals, Objectives and Competencies; Making 
the Community a Resource for Learning" ; "Learning through Mastery Techniques; Organizing 
for Continuous Progress"; "Involving Teachers as Advisors to Students"; "Individualizing 
Programs for All Students"; "Managing Instruction with Computers"; "Developing Options 
for Student Assessment"; "Improving Record Keeping and Reporting Procedures"; "Increasing 
Staff Motivation through Group Planning and Decision-Making"; "Techniques for Managing 
School Improvement"; "Concerns-Based Adoption Model"; "Force Field Analysis"; "Cur- 
riculum Ahgnment Processes"; "Staff Development Models," and "Wisconsin R&D Center 
Model for School Improvement." 


MICROCOMPUTERS IN TODAY'S SCHOOLS: A Conference for Educational Leaders. Benson 
Hotel and NWREL Headquarters, Portland, Oregon. Major addresses: "Why We Went for 
Micros and What Our Community Had to Say about It" by Dr. Billy Reagan, Superintendent, 
Houston, Texas Public Schools; "Tomorrow's Technology in Today's Schools" by Dr. Dexter 
Fletcher, World Institute for Computer-Assisted Teaching, and others. 

The National Education Association published NEA Special Committee on iNSTRUctional 
Technology Report which was presented to their 60th Representative Assembly, held July 4-7, 
1981. An excerpt from the report related to the problems of programmed learning [computer- 
assisted instruction) follows: 

In its coming involvement with a technology of instruction, the profession will be faced 
again with the challenge of leadership — by example and by effective communication — the 
challenge of convincing the public that education is much more than treating students like 
so many Pavlovian dogs, to be conditioned and programmed into docile acceptance of a 
do-it-yourself blueprint of the Good Life. 

The problems associated with technology, in its final analysis, are problems of freedom 
and control. Whose freedom? Whose control? As a result of its study, the committee urges 
the Association to view the problems and promises of instructional technology not as a 
single issue but rather as a broad continuum of issues affecting all aspects of education and 
teaching — from purposes to products, from political pragmatism to professional practice. 
Most problems produced by technology have to do with the human use of human beings. 
In his book. The Illusion of Technique: A Search for Meaning in a Technological Civilization 
(Doubleday: New York, 1978), William Barrette observes that — 

Human creativity exceeds the mechanisms it invents, and is required even for their intel- 
ligent direction.... If we try to flee from our human condition into the computer we only 
meet ourselves there. 

"Families and Schools: A System of Mutual Support," a speech delivered in 1981 by 

Secretary of Education T.H. Bell before a Freeman Institute audience in Utah, included Bell's 
recommendation that schools should use Professor Lawrence Kohlberg's "Ethical Issues in 
Decision Making" to teach values. (A synopsis of Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development is 
contained in a 1975 entry on the topic.) 

In 1981 Maine's State Capacity Building Grant from the National Institute of Education 
[NIE), U.S. Department of Education, was examined and verbatim notes taken by this writer 
from the file at NIE. The same Capacity Building Grants were made to all fifty state depart- 
ments of education. The writer has selected this important grant as an example of federal 
control of local education through federal funding. The following verbatim notes will help 
the reader understand the farce of local control and why the U.S. Department of Education 
must be aboUshed. 

This particular grant was of extreme interest to the writer due to her involvement in the 
late seventies — along with Bettina Dobbs, the president of Guardians of Education for Maine 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1981 175 

[GEM)— in a statewide, grassroots effort to stop the very controversial State Health Educa- 
tion Program [SHEP) funded in part by the Kellogg Foundation. Believe it or not, as a word of 
encouragement, GEM was instrumental in stopping this education program in many school 
districts (a good example of David and Goliath in the twentieth century) . Evidently, the above- 
referenced NIE grant was used to further the implementation of this and other health education 
programs. Other states would use these grants for whatever programs they perceived to be 
of importance to them at that time. State budget requests for matching funds would be listed 
simply as "State Capacity Building." 

NIE Grant G-80-0025 was in the amount of $98,000 per year for four years. Maine's 
share towards total federal funding was to be $118,025 out of the four-year total of $392,000. 
Excerpts from the grant request follow: 

These systems will emphasize staff development as primary vehicle for promoting utilization 
of state and national information resources for purpose of school improvement.... 

Brief description of Project: This project is attempting to develop a means by which Maine 
educators can easily acquire and use information for problem solving and school improve- 


1. Develop computerized information resource base which includes national, state and 
local resources. 

2. Develop an information service that provides easy access to the information resource 

3. Refinement of computer program and initiation of revision of data coUection forms 
(upon recommendation of a Technical Assistance Team from the National Institute 
of Education) . 

4. Develop a system for coordinating, disseminating, and distributing school improve- 
ment efforts with the state education agency. . . . 

1/30/80... D wanted to know about a technical assistance team at NIE that works with 

projected content of private data banks.... Beheve B heads such a team and could help 

her with her file building activities.... 


Administration, coordination and facilitation of Development of a Statewide School Practice/ 
Improvement System.... A meeting was held with the Systems Analyst of the State Education 
Agency to explore private file development options available through the state government 
computer.... Model for staff development.... Training of State Health Education Program 
(SHEP) staff in completing and editing data collection forms.... SHEP wiU receive printouts 
for aU health education resources entered into Maine Resource Bank. 

Early in 1981 the President's Task Force on Private Sector Initiatives was iNstalled at 
734 Jackson Place, N.W., Washington, D.C. Membership listed on The White House letterhead 
read like a "Who's Who" of individuals in government agencies, universities, tax-exempt foun- 
dations, non-governmental organizations, business, media, labor unions, and religion. The 
names of some individuals on the task force follow: William Aramony, president. United Way; 


William J. Baroody, Jr., president, American Enterprise Institute; Helen G. Boosalis, mayor, 
City of Lincoln, Nebraska; Terence Cardinal Cooke, archbishop of New York; Governor Pierre S. 
Dupont, Delaware; Senator David Durenberger; Luis A. Ferre, former governor of Puerto Rico; 
John Gardner, chairman. Independent Sector; Edward Hill, pastor, Mt. Zion Baptist Church; 
Michael S. Joyce, executive director, John M. Olin Foundation; Edward H. Kiernan, president. 
International Association of Police; Arthur Levitt, Jr., chairman, American Stock Exchange; 
Richard W. Lyman, president. Rockefeller Foundation; Elder Thomas S. Monson, The Mormon 
Church; William C. Norris, chairman and CEO, Control Data Corporation; George Romney, 
chairman. National Center for Citizen Involvement; C. William Verity, Jr., chairman, Armco 
Steel, Inc.; Jeri J. Winger, first vice president. General Federation of Women's Clubs; Thomas 
H. Wyman, president, CBS, Inc.; and William S. White, president, C.S. Mott Foundation.^ 

This totally new and un-American concept of partnerships between public and private 
sector has been readily accepted by our elected officials who ignore its roots in socialism 
and its implications for the discontinuation of our representative form of government and 
accountability to the taxpayers. Under the "partnership" process, determining responsibility 
when something goes wrong is hke pinning jello to the wall. 

Such a change in government, if presented in clear language to citizens at the polls, would 
be rejected. However, when implemented gradually, using the Marxist-Hegelian Dialectic, 
citizens don't even notice what is happening. The shift is away from elected representatives. 
In time, after voters have become even more disenchanted with the candidates and election 
results, fewer and fewer citizens will vote. At that point a highly-respected member of the public 
will enter the picture to propose a solution to the problem: some sort of compromise toward 
parliamentary form of government found in socialist democracies which will be acceptable to 
Americans unfamiliar with the protections guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. 

One says to oneself, confidently, "This will never happen." Look around you. What do 
you see? Site-based management in your local schools, transferring decision-making, tradi- 
tionally exercised by elected school boards, to politically correct appointees and the creation 
of unelected task forces at all government levels; proposals to "separate school and state" 
which make no mention of governmental and social structure consequences — efforts to have 
government money [taxes) pay for services delivered by private religious or homeschools, etc., 
with no public representation. There can be no accountability to the taxpayers under a system 
so alien to the United States' form of representative government. 

How clean, neat and tidy. Wholesale destruction of an entire, wonderful system of gov- 
ernment without firing a shot. 

As a U.S. Department of Education liaison with The White House during the early days of 
this initiative this writer inquired of one of President Reagan's political appointees whether this 
initiative, was not corporate fascism; a politically incorrect question that resulted in someone 
else replacing me as Liaison with The White House. 

ley Stage, entitled Measuring the Quality of Education: Conclusions and Summary, was pro- 
vided to this writer in 1981, shedding light not only on the responsibility of major tax-exempt 
foundations in the development of a national curriculum, but also on the role of the federal 
government in setting standards/goals for American education. Excerpts follow from [1) a 
cover letter signed by Willard Wirtz, former secretary of labor, and Archie Lapointe, executive 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1981 177 

director of the NAEP, and [2) the report itself: 

In a different sense, this report is designed to meet the responsibilities imposed at least im- 
phcitly by the three foundations which initiated and have supported the project; the Carnegie 
Corporation, the Ford Foundation, and the Spencer Foundation have become critical and 
constructive forces in American education. 


Conclusions... Instead of determining "what is being taught" and basing the objectives on 
this present practice, the controlling question is "what ought to be taught."... It is specifically 
recommended that caution be exercised against putting the Assessment results in a form that 
could be misconstrued as constituting national — or "federal" — standards.... 

Summary. . . The report reflects most significantly the carefully considered conclusions of the 
Council of Seven which was estabhshed at the beginning of the project. Selected primarily 
for their recognized responsibility and good sense, they also reflect a variety of experiences 
and institutional interests: Gregory Anrig, then Massachusetts Commissioner of Education 
and now President of the Educational Testing Service; Stephen K. Bailey, who is the Francis 
Keppel Professor of Educational PoUcy and Administration of Harvard Graduate School of 
Education; Charles Bowen, Director of Plans and Program Administration for University 
Relations of the IBM Corporation; Clare Burstall, Deputy Director of the National Founda- 
tion for Educational Research in England and Wales; Elton Jolly, Executive Director for Op- 
portunities Industrialization Centers; Lauren Resnick, Co-Director of the Learning Research 
and Development Center of the University of Pittsburgh; and Dorothy Shields, Director of 
Education for the AFL-CIO.... 

...It was the Council's suggestion and eventually its decision to shape the entire report 
in terms of the Assessment's potential role in developing higher and more effective educa- 
tional standards. Where we had been timid about this the Council moved boldly. They were 

...Measuring student achievement is an entirely different business from measuring 
other aspects of the national condition.... They get to their answers without having to make 
value judgments. Not so of the measurers of "educational achievement." The key term isn't 
defined except as they develop its meaning. The rest of this is that once that definition is 
worked out, the measuring process depends at critical points on what are in significant part 
value judgments. Whether an educational standard is "better" or "higher" depends on how 
it consists with ultimate educational purposes... 

...Those in charge of the Assessment are in a position to guide their policies entirely 
by a determination of whatever "quality" means. They face no competition and are sub- 
ject to no political pressures. Innovation and experimentation are part of the Assessment's 
authentic tradition. It can provide not only competence but conscience and courage in the 
implementation of the new national purpose to improve educational standards. 

...A statement in the NAEP DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENT covering the 
1979-1980 Reading/Literature Assessment is succinctly descriptive: 

The first step in any assessment cycle is objectives development. The objectives identify the 
important knowledge, skills, and attitudes within an assessment area which are generally 
being taught or should be taught in schools. These objectives then become the framework 
for developing assessment exercises which measure the objectives. 

Although there is httle pubhc awareness of these steps in the process of setting educational 


standards, they affect that process vitally and give any standard its determinative char- 
acter. . . . 

...This new emphasis will mean that teaching will be increasingly oriented toward 
these objectives, which is good or bad depending on their quality. If these standards are to 
determine accountability, it is critical that their measurement reflect ultimate educational 
purposes rather than what might be dangerous expediencies.... The 1979-1980 Reading/ 
Literature Assessment, reported this year, appears to reflect a critical change in NAEP em- 
phasis. It embodies elements of objectives-setting that are essential to a quality concept of 
educational standards.... 

...Two phrases in the design and development passage quoted above are critical. Ob- 
jectives are to "identify the important knowledge, skills and attitudes." This is to include 
those "which are generally being taught or should be taught in the schools." The emphasis 
is added, but is consistent with the original context. This statement contrasts with the 1970 
NAEP description of the objectives set for the first Reading assessment. These were described 
as involving no "distinctly 'new' objectives," but as "restatements and summarizations of 
objectives which (have) appeared over the last quarter century."... 

...The 1969-1970 Citizenship Assessment included a group task exercise designed to 
determine, by observing students' group interaction, their ability to "apply democratic pro- 
cedures on a practical level."... This capacity for innovation and experimentation has been 
lost, largely as a consequence of budgetary constraints. 

Service Facility... In 1977-78, when the Texas legislature was considering the enactment 
of a minimum competency testing program, the Texas Education Agency made extensive 
use of NAEP materials in conducting a statewide survey [Texas Assessment Project — TAP) 
of student achievement in Reading, Writing, Mathematics, and Citizenship. The sampling 
plan was patterned after the National Assessment. Both the Writing and the Citizenship as- 
sessments were based largely on items and exercises selected by a Texas Education Agency 
staff panel from among those provided by NAEP offices. After the Texas assessment had 
been completed, extensive comparisons were made between the Texas results and available 
NAEP data, and reported to the legislative committee for consideration in connection with 
the adoption of the "Texas Assessment of Basic Skills." The circumstances under which the 
legislation was adopted preclude any clear identification of the effect of the comparisons. 
There is more evidence of substantial influence of the TAP initiative on the FRAMEWORK 
and on the STATE BOARD GOALS which have been set for 1983. 

Larger potential for National Assessment usefulness is suggested by the ten years or 
so of cooperation between NAEP offices and the Connecticut State Board of Education, in 
connection with the administration of the Connecticut Assessment of Educational Progress 
(CAEP). A 1980 State Board report notes that "The CAEP program is modeled after the 
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in its basic goals, design and imple- 
mentation." This is clearly reflected in the pattern of the twelve Connecticut assessments 
in seven subjects also covered by NAEP surveys. The CAEP sampling design is like NAEP's, 
except that students are assessed at grade rather than age levels. Goals and objectives used 
for the Connecticut assessments parallel clearly the objectives and subobjectives identified 
for the National Assessment. Many CAEP items are NAEP items; this was true of all items 
in the 1979-1980 Connecticut Science Assessment.... 

...Comparable uses of National Assessment materials have been made in a number of 
other states. A recent NAEP staff summary hsts twelve States as having closely repUcated 
the National Assessment model, and twelve others as having drawn on NAEP offices for 
technical and consultative advice. There is clear confirmation in this record of not only a 
substantial service potential, but also of a significant prospect for integrating state and na- 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1981 179 

tionwide assessment programs. 

[Ed. Note: As one reads the excerpts in part two of this report, it is important to bear in mind 
the denials of complicity emanating from the U.S. Department of Education and the respective 
state departments of education when confronted with charges that the state assessments use 
test items from the NAEP Test Item Bank. The resistance to such use results from the public's 
traditional aversion to national tests and national curriculum — with which all of the above 
entities have denied involvement. Clearly, denial is in vain in light of the evidence contained 
in this document.] 

The National Center for Citizen Involvement issued a report entitled The AMERican 

Volunteer, 1981: Statistics on Volunteers. One reveaUng statement from the report follows: 

Volunteer Population: 92 million, 44% of whom work alone in an informal, un- 
structured environment on projects of their own choice; the rest of whom work 
in structured activities. 

[Ed. Note: Obviously, the major effort related to volunteerism was — and is — to convince the 
44% who are, in effect, "doing their own thing," to join in the government-private sector 
"Points of Light" volunteerism partnership initiated by then-President George Bush, as well as 
President Bill Clinton's AmeriCorps. That way they will work only on politically correct and 
government-approved projects.] 

Malcolm Davis, the director of the Office of Libraries and Learning ItcHNOLogy, Office 
of Educational Research and Improvement at the U.S. Department of Education, in response 
to this writer's comment in 1981 that computer courseware could allow children to learn at 
home, responded, "In essence, in the future all education will take place in the home, but the 
school buildings will be used for socialization purposes." This quote is not exact; however, it 
represents this writer's recollection of it sixteen years later. I was so stunned by his comment 
that I recall it often when looking at the issue of "choice" and especially that of homeschool- 

This comment was echoed by Alvin Toffler, George Gilder and Lewis Perelman during 
a Progress and Freedom Foundation conference in Atlanta, Georgia in August of 1995. This 
conference preceded and dealt with issues molding the "Contract with America" which Newt 
Gingrich put forth for Republican candidates to adopt as their platforms in 1996. Lewis Perel- 
man's book. School's Out [Avon Books: New York, 1992), deals with this very concept and 
Perelman attended the conference as an expositor of "conservative" positions on education 
for Progress and Freedom Foundation. 

[Ed. Note: A 1992 proposal to the New American Schools Development Corporation [NASDC) 
from The Center for the New West of Denver, Colorado included a plan from its New West 
Learning Center Design Team which provided a clear picture of the community of the future. 
"Home School Famihes" would be linked to "Pubhc Schools, Communities, Private Schools, 
Businesses, Alternative Schools, and Higher Education" with the New West Learning Center 
serving as the "hub" of the wheel, or community. While this proposal was not selected as 


a recipient of NASDC funding, and, fortunately, has not been funded by any government 
entity — YET — its description of changes in local governance and relationships of community 
elements met the criteria established by NASDC. [See Appendix XI and XII.)] 


Profiles in Excellence: 1982-1983: Secondary School Recognition Program: A Resource 
Guide [Office of Educational Research and Improvement of the U.S. Department of Education: 
Washington, D.C., 1982) listed the Kennebunk, Maine High School as one which schools across 
the nation might wish to emulate. The Guide stated: 

The major goal of the school's curriculum is to individualize the learning process for the 
student. The district is in the process of developing a data bank for students and a testing 
program for determining expectancy instructional levels for each student. Once this is in place, 
staff will develop an Individual Education Plan [lEP) for each student to meet individual 
needs. The major difficulty the school is encountering in implementing this new process is 
the secondary staff who are trained as subject matter teachers. Teachers need to be retrained 
to focus on individual needs rather than on content areas. 

"From Schooling to Learning: Rethinking Preschool through University EoucAtion" by 
Don Glines was published in the January 1982 issue of the National Association of Secondary 
School Principals' Bulletin.^ The following are excerpts: 

The imphcations of these global concerns for schools, educators, and education, are mon- 
umental if the views of most future writers are correct. Early recognition of this came in 
the 1974 book. Learning for Tomorrow: The Role of the Future in Education by Alvin Toffler 
(Random House: New York, 1974), and The Third Wave (Wilham Morrow: New York, 1981) 
[by the same author] . 

One passage states: "American education is obsolete; it produces people to fit into a 
reasonably well-functioning industrial society and we no longer have one. The basic as- 
sumption driving American education, one both deceptive and dangerous, is that the future 
will be hke the present. Schools are preparing people for a society that no longer exists. As 
society shifts away from the industrial model, schools will have to turn out a different kind 
of person. Schools now need to produce people who can cope with change."... 

What do people who will be in their prime in the year 2050, assuming society makes 
it through the coming transitional decades, need to shape their futures? Is the current cur- 
riculum — history, mathematics, science, new versions of Dick and Jane, all taught as separate 
subjects, really appropriate for the concluding years of the twentieth century? The majority 
of futures writers have a clear answer: No. They illustrate that instant information retrieval 
not only ends jobs in the world of work, it ends subjects in the world of learning!... 

The potential technology exists to eliminate most current classrooms before the turn 
of the century, moving from a campus to a community-oriented learning system. A postliter- 
ate society is on the verge of arriving; reading will become a luxury, a leisure pastime, or a 
choice, but not an absolute essential. 

Yet, the seventh grade programs in junior high and middle schools continue with the 
bleakness of 50 years past. Most still require Enghsh, history, science, math, and physical 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1982 181 

education, along with a semester of art and a semester of music. They have period 1, 2, 3 
schedules; A, B, C report cards; tardies, notes from home; textbooks. Perhaps even worse is 
the fact that most colleges still prepare teachers for this antiquity; and administrators, who 
in spite of the goals professed in graduate courses, continue to perpetuate the system. Is it 
any wonder that Learning for Tomorrow labeled today's education obsolete? 

Ron Barnes, in Tomorrow's Educator: An Alternative to Today's School Person (Tran- 
sitions, Inc.: Phoenix, Arizona, 1977), has Usted his descriptors of a New Age educator — a 
person who thinks systematically; accepts and promotes diversity; demonstrates a hohstic 
perspective toward life; strives for self-awareness; promotes interdependence; is comfortable 
with the unknown; considers human values of highest priority; is experimental; works toward 
changing schools; has a more open approach to knowledge; and is a true futurist. 

Outcome-Based Instructional Management: A Sociological Perspective by WiLLiam Spady 
was published in 1982, supported by a contract from the National Institute of Education 
[NIE-P-80-0194) . This important paper, which provided a complete overview of the philosophy 
behind OBE, the organizational dimensions of outcome-based practice, the operational char- 
acter of outcome-based practice, etc., also carried some interesting comments regarding OBE's 
relationship to Project Follow Through. Excerpts follow: 

Implications for Follow Through... Despite the limitations of formal vahdation data sources, 
however, there is a strong case to be made for implementing fully developed OB [outcome- 
based] models in Follow Through sites. Philosophically, as well as empirically, this approach 
is inherently suited to the clientele served by Follow Through programs and possesses an 
operational character that is well suited for affecting positively both the cognitive and af- 
fective outcome agendas sought by a variety of current Follow Through models. 

Recognizing that OB practice resembles some of these models, its unique power ap- 
pears to be that it possesses a fine balance between focus and flexibility, and structure and 
responsiveness, and that it contains elements suitable to a variety of student motivational 
and learning styles without leaning heavily toward any one orientation. That is, it is as in- 
clusionary in its methodology as it is in the conditions for student learning success it tries 
to establish. 

A final point regarding the inherent appeal of OB practice for Follow Through imple- 
mentation is its basic openness. Public involvement in goal setting, public visibility of ob- 
jectives and standards, and performance records and reporting systems which describe the 
actual behavior being sought all help to "demystify" the educational process and facilitate 
clearer understanding and communication between parents and the school. 

The Network for Outcome-Based Schools itself represents a unique and powerful resource 
for technical assistance and implementation to any sites oriented toward OB practice. 

[Ed. Note: The above excerpts should be of interest to those promoting DISTAR/Reading Mastery, 
the Skinnerian "systematic, intensive, scientific research-based" phonics reading program which 
was one of the Follow Through models. How ironic that William Spady should say that the 
outcome-based practice which "conservatives" say they detest is similar to the Follow Through 
model which they have embraced. It is obvious Spady is not referring to the Open Classroom 
Follow Through model, since that model did not include "public visibility of objectives and 
standards, performance records and reporting systems which describe the actual behaviors 
being sought." In other words, Spady is making it clear that OB practice is a fraternal twin of 


the Follow Through's Direct Instruction model developed by Siegfried Engelmann, which has 
also been embraced by "conservatives"!] 

"Learning To Read the ECRI Way" by Dennis Bailey was published in The Maine Times on 
January 8, 1982. In the article Bailey points out that 

Patrick Groff, an education professor, wrote in a 1974 issue of Today's Education: "So far, 
mastery learning lias not presented tiie empirical evidence necessary to convince reasonable- 
minded teachers that all students have the same aptitude for learning every subject." 

[Ed. Note: That Professor Groff, professor emeritus, San Diego State University, would make 
the above comment is interesting in hght of recent events; namely, his co-founding with 
Robert Sweet of the Right to Read Foundation [RRF) which has taken a position in support 
of the Reading Excellence Act of 1998. In supporting this legislation Groff 's organization has 
indicated support for the "scientific, research-based" reading method used in ECRI, the very 
technique which he says "has not presented the empirical evidence necessary to convince rea- 
sonable-minded teachers that all students have the same aptitude for learning every subject." 
ECRI is the mirror image of Siegfried Engelmann's DISTAR direct instruction, the Skinnerian 
operant conditioning-based reading program promoted in Right to Read newsletters and on 
its website.] 

William (Bill) Spady, "the Father of OBE," made the following statement during a 

conference held at the U.S. Department of Education in 1982 [attended by this writer). This 
writer wrote down verbatim in shorthand Spady's following comment: 

Two of the four functions of Mastery Learning are: Extra: whole agenda of acculturation, 
social roles, social integration, get the kids to participate in social unit, affective; and Hid- 
den: a system of supervision and control which restrains behavior of kids; the outcome of 
the hidden agenda should be the fostering of social responsibility or compliance. 

"State of Precollege Education in Mathematics and Science" was prepared by Paul DeHart 
Hurd, professor emeritus, Stanford University, for the National Convocation on Pre-College 
Education in Math and Science, National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of En- 
gineering in Washington, D.C. in 1982. In this paper Prof. Hurd asserts that: 

In the Communist countries there are comprehensive examinations at the end of the pri- 
mary, middle, and secondary schools to assess a student's actual progress. Test results are 
not interpreted in a competitive sense as to who has done well or poorly compared to other 
students or a norm, but rather whether a student has mastered the prescribed subject mat- 
ter. If test results are below expectancy, the student is tutored by the teacher and students. 
The object is to avoid failures. 

[Ed. Note: This definition is striking in its similarity to the definition of OBE/mastery learning/ 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1982 183 

direct instruction, which uses non-competitive, criterion-referenced tests rather than traditional 
norm-referenced tests which compare students to one another. Another common feature among 
these techniques is continuous progress whereby students can have all the time and/or tu- 
toring they need in order to "master" the content. Continuous progress is necessary to carry 
out UNESCO's lifelong learning concept. This "exit exam" process is being legislated into an 
increasing number of states.] 

In a speech entitled "Regulated Competition in the United States" delivered BEfore the 
top 52 executives in Northern Telecom's Worldwide Corporation meeting, for which the edited 
proceedings were published in the February 1982 issue of the Innisbwok PapersJ Harvard 
Professor Anthony Oettinger of the Council on Foreign Relations made the following extremely 
elitist statements: 

Our idea of literacy, I am afraid, is obsolete because it rests on a frozen and classical definition. 
Literacy, as we know it today, is the product of the conditions of the industrial revolution, 
of organization, of the need for a work force that could, in effect, "write with a fine round 
hand." It has to do, in other words, with the Bob Cratchits of the world. 

But as much as we might think it is, literacy is not an eternal phenomenon. Today's 
literacy is a phenomenon [and Dickens satirized it] that has its roots in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and one does not have to reach much farther back to think of civilizations with different 
concepts of literacy based, for example, on oral, rather than written, traditions. 

The present "traditional" concept of literacy has to do with the ability to read and write. 
But the real question that confronts us today is: How do we help citizens function well in 
their society? How can they acquire the skills necessary to solve their problems? 

Do we, for example, really want to teach people to do a lot of sums or write in a "fine 
round hand" when they have a five-dollar, hand-held calculator or a word processor to work 
with? Or, do we really have to have everybody literate — writing and reading in the traditional 
sense — when we have the means through our technology to achieve a new flowering of oral 

What is speech recognition and speech synthesis all about if it does not lead to ways of 
reducing the burden on the individual of the imposed notions of literacy that were a product 
of nineteenth century economics and technology? 

Complexity— everybody is moaning about tasks becoming too complex for people to 
do. A Congressman who visited one of my classes recently said, "We have such low-grade 
soldiers in the U.S. that we have to train them with comic books." And an army captain in 
my class shot back: "What's wrong with comic books? My people function" [emphasis in 
original] . 

It is the traditional idea that says certain forms of communication, such as comic books, 
are "bad." But in the modern context of functionalism they may not be all that bad. 

[Ed. Note: Doesn't the above sound a lot like the Texas Study of Adult Functional Competency, 
the Adult Performance Level Study, and Secretary of Education TH. Bell's and William Spady's 
initiation of dumbed-down competency-based education? 

One can't help but wonder if Oettinger — and those social engineers with whom he as- 
sociates who call the shots in regard to our children's futures — would be happy to have their 
own children and grandchildren offered such a hmited education that they won't even know 
who Charles Dickens or Bob Cratchit were?] 


Chester Finn wrote "Public Service, Public Support, Public Accountability" for the March 
1982 issue of the National Association of Secondary School Principals' Bulletin. Finn became 
a high profile figure in education circles with his appointment as assistant secretary, Office of 
Educational Research and Improvement, by Secretary of Education William Bennett. Finn's 
article was quoted in Barbara Morris's book. Tuition Tax Credits: A Responsible Appraisal [The 
Barbara Morris Report: Upland, CaL, 1983): 

Short of scattering money in the streets or handing it out to everyone who wants some, the 
funding agency must define eligible recipients.... This means, in a word, "regulation," the 
inevitable concommitant of public financial support. 

Finn also beheved the government is obligated to recognize that the private schools it 
helps support are different from public schools — that it is this "differentness" that makes them 
supportable. The other side of the coin, he says, is the obligation of private schools 

to recognize certain limits to their differentness and certain ways they must conform to the 
norms and expectations of a society that values and supports them.... 

Some, to be sure, like to think they can have it both ways; i.e., can obtain aid without 
saddling themselves with unacceptable forms of regulation. But most acknowledge the general 
applicability of the old adage that he who pays the piper calls the tune, and are more or less 
resigned to amalgamating or choosing between assistance and autonomy. 

On March 29, 1982, at the "closed to the public" annual meeting of the Council of Chief 
State School Officers, Secretary of Education T.H. Bell's top assistant. Flam Herzler, told the 
assembled fifty state superintendents of education: 

One of the elements of an effective school is to monitor, assess, and feed back.... As little 
as 5 percent of a school budget K-12 would be needed over a period of 12 years to enable 
each student to have his own computer, and this is within our cost range. 

"Can Computers ItACH Values?" by Joseph A. Braun, Jr. and Kurt A. Slobodzian, assistant 
professors in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction of the Northern Illinois University 
School of Education in Dekalb, Illinois, was pubhshed in the April 1982 issue of Educational 
Leadership. The following are excerpts: 

In helping children learn how to inquire and examine their own emerging value systems, 
most educators agree that unintentional negative reactions by teachers are deleterious to 
youngsters' self-concept. Couple this with potential ridicule from student peers, and one 
can readily see why values education has been a delicate and controversial issue. However, 
a student using CAI [computer-assisted instruction] in the examination, evaluation, and 
acquisition of values would be able to do so with mature guidance in an environment free 
from potential rejection or scorn. 

Another pitfall for teachers of values education is the invasion of a child's right to 
privacy. Well-intentioned teachers often expect self-disclosure beyond a student's limit of 
psychological safety (Lockwood, 1977) by demanding deeply personal revelations from 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1982 185 

participants who are not prepared to discuss their more private thoughts. The computer, in 
contrast, has no misguided need to get to know "the real you." 

The computer, then, is ideally suited to the role of facilitator in values education. It 
inherently possesses the Rogerian [psychologist Carl Rogers] qualities of genuineness and 
congruence. It can even be programmed to positively regard anyone who uses it. A student 
using CAI gains a sense of protection as well as a constant source of appropriate feedback 
while exploring and integrating feehngs, beliefs, and behavior. 

Computers have also been programmed to pick out key words from a respondent's 
statements. The computer program then formulates open-ended questions from key words, 
which causes the respondent to focus and further clarify feehngs. In other words, using a 
program called "Doctor," Holden [1977] describes a conversation between a computer and 
a troubled young woman who began with a common complaint: 

Human: "Men are ah alike." 

Computer: "In what way?" 

Human: "They're always bugging us about something or another." 

Computer: "Can you think of a specific example?" 

Human: "WeU, my boy friend made me come here." 

Computer: "Your boyfriend made you come here?" 

Human: "He says that I'm depressed much of the time." 

Computer: "I am sorry to hear that you are depressed." 

Human: "It's true, I am unhappy." 

Computer: "Do you think coming here will help you not be unhappy?" 

Human: "I need some help. That much seems certain." 

Computer: "What would it mean if you got some help?" 

Human: "Perhaps I could learn to get along with my mother." 

Computer: "Tell me more about your family. " 

The Complete Works of Francis A. Schaeffer: A Christian Worldview, Volume One, a 
Christian View of Philosophy and Culture [Crossway Books: Westchester, 111., 1982) was pub- 
lished. In a treatise entitled "A Christian View of Philosophy and Culture: Back to Freedom 
and Dignity," noted Christian scholar and theologian Dr. Francis Schaeffer warned of B.F. 
Skinner and his methods: 

Skinner says that up until the present time all of humanity has considered man to be in some 
sense autonomous — that is, that there is in each individual an "ego" or mind or center of 
consciousness which can freely choose one or another course of action. But, Skinner says, 
autonomous man does not exist, and it is the task of behavioral psychology to abohsh the 
conception.... Skinner declares that everything man is, everything man makes, everything 
man thinks is completely, 100 percent, determined by his environment. 

After the pubhcation of Beyond Freedom and Dignity [1972], when he [Skinner] was at 
the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, he spoke at Westmont College in Santa 
Barbara, California. There he said, "The individual does not initiate anything." In fact, he 
said that any time man is freed from one kind of control, he merely comes under another 
kind of control. Christians consider that man is autonomous in that he is significant, he af- 
fects the environment. In behavioristic psychology, the situation is reversed. All behavior is 
determined not from within but from without. "You" don't exist. Man is not there. All that is 
there is a bundle of conditioning, a collection of what you have been in the past: your genetic 
makeup and your environment. But Skinner goes a step further, subordinates the genetic 


factor, and suggests that man's behavior can be almost totally controlled by controlling the 
environment.... Some behaviorists would differ with him on this last point. How is it that 
the environment controls behavior? 

Here Skinner brings up the concept of "operant conditioning." This notion is based on 
his work with pigeons and rats. The basic idea is that "when a bit of behavior is followed 
by a certain consequence, it is more likely to occur again, and a consequence having this 
effect is called a reinforcer." (p. 27) That is, for example, "anything the organism does that 
is followed by the receipt of food is more likely to be done again whenever the organism is 
hungry. " 

There are two kinds of reinforcers: negative reinforcers which have adverse effects, 
and positive reinforcers whose effect is positive. Skinner contends that only the positive 
reinforcers should be used. In other words, in order to reinforce a certain kind of behavior, 
one should not punish; he should reward. If a person is surrounded by an atmosphere in 
which he gets a sufficient reward for doing what society would like him to do, he will auto- 
matically do this without ever knowing why he is doing it.... Within the Skinnerian system 
there are no ethical controls. There is no boundary limit to what can be done by the elite in 
whose hands control resides. 

The reduction of man's value to zero is one of the important factors which triggered 
the student rebellion at Berkeley and elsewhere in the 1960s. Those students sensed that 
they were being turned into zeros and they revolted. Christians should have sensed it long 
before and said and exhibited that we have an alternative. . . . We are on the verge of the larg- 
est revolution the world has ever seen — the control and shaping of men through the abuse 
of genetic knowledge, and chemical and psychological conditioning. 

Will people accept it? I don't think they would accept it if (1) they had not already 
been taught to accept the presuppositions that lead to it, and (2) they were not in such 
hopelessness. Many of our secular schools have consistently taught these presuppositions, 
and unhappily many of our Christian lower schools and colleges have taught the crucial 
subjects no differently than the secular schools. 

Schaeffer's "Conclusion" follows: 

What do we and our children face? The biological bomb, the abuse of genetic knowledge, 
chemical engineering, the behavioristic manipulation of man. All these have come to popular 
attention only a few years ago. But they are not twenty years away. They are not five years 
away. They are here now in technological breakthroughs. This is where we live, and as true 
Christians we must be ready. This is no time for weakness in the Church of Christ. What 
has happened to man? We must see him as one who has torn himself away both from the 
infinite-personal God who created him as finite but in his image and from God's revelation 
to him. Made in God's image, he was made to be great, he was made to be beautiful, and 
he was made to be creative in life and art. But his rebelhon has led him into making himself 
into nothing but a machine, (pp. 374-384) 

An article entitled "Graduates Lack ItcHNicAL "Riaining, Study Warns — By 1990, 2 Million 
May Not Have Essential Skills Needed for Employment in 'Information Society'" was published 
in the May 12, 1982 issue of Education Week. This article clearly placed the responsibility for 
the transformation from traditional academic education to workforce training at the feet of the 
Carnegie Corporation-spawned Education Commission of the States [ECS) and the National 
Assessment of Educational Progress [NAEP) . This article fired one of the first shots across the 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1982 187 

bow of traditional academic education. It clearly defined the new "education" landscape when 
it described the need for Benjamin Bloom's Taxonomy [high level skills of critical thinking; i.e., 
evaluation, analysis, synthesis, apphcation, etc.) versus "low level basic skills," emphasizing 
the use of the brain for processing, not storage (explained by Thomas Kelly in the January 
1994 issue of The Effective School Report). The terminology in this article would, eleven years 
later, be reflected in the major Goals 2000 restructuring legislation, the Elementary and Sec- 
ondary Reauthorization Act of 1994 [H.R. 6) which referred to the learning of basic academic 
skills and the emphasis on repetitive drill and practice in elementary school as a "disproven 
theory. " Some excerpts from this enlightening article follow: 

"Unless the decline of high-order skills among high-school students is reversed," warns 
a new report from the Education Commission of the states, "as many as two million students 
may graduate [in 1990] without the essential skills required for employment in tomorrow's 
technically-oriented labor force. " 

"Information Society: Will Our High School Graduates Be Ready?" was prepared by 
Roy Forbes, director of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and Lynn 
Grover Gisi, a research assistant and writer with NAEP. Its intention, the authors say, is to 
"stimulate research and communication among the groups concerned with technology's 
impact on education." 

The Forbes-Gisi report reviews labor-force projections, summarizes recent National 
Assessment findings, and outlines "recent corporate, educational, and legislative actions" 
designed to address the problem. 

Arguing that the computer chip will replace oil in the U.S. economy, and will form the 
basis for a new information society, the authors say that the "basics" mastered by the high- 
school gaduates of the future will have to include more complex skills than minimal read- 
ing, writing, and computing. Among the higher-level skills the information age will require, 
they argue, will be "evaluation and analysis, critical thinking; problem-solving strategies, 
including mathematical problem-solving, organization and reference skills; synthesis; ap- 
phcation; creativity; decision-making given complete information; and communication skills 
through a variety of modes." ...The data from the National Assessment provide convincing 
evidence that by the time students reach the age of 17, many do not possess [the above 
Hsted]... higher-order skills. The "elements of the problem," says the report, are: 

• Foreign competition. The age of high technology is rapidly changing the roles of 
production and other countries are responding — faster than the U.S. — by upgrading 
their educational programs on a national level. The U.S. educational system, says 
the report, "poses unique problems by its inherent commitment to diversity and 
emphasis on local and state control."... 

• Students. Technology used for educahonal purposes has the potential to reshape in- 
structional delivery systems, the report says, and that may result in a decentralization 
of learning from traditional schools into homes, communities and industries.... 

• Responsibilities and relevance. Education must become more relevant to the world of 
work, the report contends, and this requires "informational feedback systems on the 
successes of students who have completed the required curriculum. Quality control 
has focused on the inputs into a system — teachers and textbooks, for example — and 
not the outcomes. Thus there has been no attempt to incorporate long-term informa- 
tion into the management system's program planning." The report's authors agree 
with a report of the Southern Regional Education Board that American schooling 
no longer lacks the basics rather the "complexities that make for mature learning, 
mature citizenship, or adult success."... 


Unless the U.S. can keep pace, the report contends, its "position as a leader of tech- 
nology and competitor for world markets will be severely threatened." 

Cooperative Efforts 

Only cooperative efforts involving all segments of society will solve the problem, the 
report states. In particular, it calls on American industry and labor to play a greater role.... 

..."Industries cannot afford to pass up these opportunities and others because their 
future existence will depend upon it. . .. Clearly we are not cultivating the raw materials, our 
future workers, who are vital not only for economic progress, but ultimately for economic 

[Ed. Note: There are many responses this writer could make to the above article, but the first 
of which is that the statement "Clearly we are not cultivating the raw materials, our future 
workers" — our children! — is the most offensive of all. The use of those words alone when 
referring to human beings should tell the reader that something is very, very wrong in the 
United States of America. One has more respect for their pet animals than to refer to them as 
"raw materials." 

Secondly, the report's agreement with the Southern Regional Education Board "that 
American schooling no longer lacks the basics" defies logic! From a region which consistently 
scores at the bottom of the heap, this is particularly repugnant. The idea that "higher order 
skills" should be the focus of our educational efforts can only be the product of the thinking 
of persons who are not concerned with whether or not students can read, write, or compute 
unless it is to perform a workforce function. Without a basic ability to read, write and com- 
pute on a broad base, it is impossible for anyone to have substance about which to "think 
critically"! Thinking critically — making choices and comparisons — requires a base knowledge 
that is either acquired through study [as in the case with most children who are students) or 
through Hfe experience [which adults, but not children, can claim) . 

Lastly, the use of technology to decentralize "learning" from traditional schools into 
homes, communities and industries should raise a tall, red flag for successful homeschoolers. 
These folks are talking about government control of this process.] 

The International Conference for Parent/Citizen Involvement in Schools was held July 
22-25, 1982 at the Hilton Hotel, Salt Lake City, Utah. A letter to Secretary Bell dated Febru- 
ary 25, 1982 requesting conference funding contained an impressive list of supporters on its 
letterhead, including: Scott Matheson, governor of Utah; Mrs. Barbara Bush, honorary chair- 
person. National School Volunteer Program; TH. Bell, U.S. secretary of education; Dr. Don 
Davies, Institute for Responsive Education; Dr. Carl Marer, National Committee for Citizens 
in Education; Dr. M. Donald Thomas, superintendent of schools. Salt Lake City, Utah, and 
education representatives from Canada and AustraUa. 

Dr. Donald Thomas, originally on the board of directors of The Effective School Report, and 
executive director of the Network for Effective Schools, is a well-known change agent. Thomas 
has traveled to Russia under the auspices of U.S. Secretary of Education Lamar Alexander 
and Dale Mann of Columbia University, to work with Russia on implementing international 
education restructuring. 

The above-mentioned letter to Bell also stated: 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1982 189 

The "think tank" session will be by invitation only to leaders in the movement. Its purpose 
will be to assess the current status of parent/citizen involvement in the schools; to identify 
trends and directions of the movement for the 80s; and finally to plan further positive action 
to support the continuation of the movement. 

One of the attachments to this conference correspondence included many pages related 
to Effective School Research and a listing of the components necessary for education restruc- 
turing. The list included: 

mastery learning/ direct instruction 




measurement diagnosis 


class management 


classroom organization 

pupil conditions/rewards 


parent involvement, etc. 

Those connected with such research are listed as follows: Michael Rutter, England, Ef- 
fective School Study; the late Harvard Professor Ron Edmonds; professors Benjamin Bloom 
and John Goodlad; Larry Lezotte; Donald Thomas; and others. 

A second attachment on National Coalition for Parent Involvement in Education [NCPIE — 
Alexandria, Virginia) letterhead stated that NCPIE was facilitated by the National School 
Volunteer Program and funded by Union Carbide Corporation. 


of Educational Research and Improvement, regarding "upcoming events for July 31 -August 
31" which listed: 

AUGUST 5 — President Reagan is scheduled to hold a press conference in which he will 
announce an initiative involving the National Diffusion Network and the National Health 
Screening Council for Volunteer Organizations, Inc. This collaboration, called PARTNERSHIP, 
links schools with the media, local businesses, government and hospitals in a school im- 
provement effort. 

[Ed. Note: This activity was cancelled due to prompt grassroots opposition in the D.C. area 
consisting of a memorandum to the White House informing the President of concern nationwide 
related to the process known as "community education" and public-private partnerships.] 

A U.S. Department of Education memorandum to Secretary Bell dated October 5, 1982 


President Reagan is scheduled to visit P.S. 48, an elementary school in the Bronx, New York 
City. During his visit the President will meet Dr. Ethna Reid, Director of the Exemplary Center 
for Reading Instruction, a program in the National Diffusion Network. Dr. Reid will be at P.S. 
48 to train staff members in the use of ECRI.' 

[Ed. Note: Whether the President, a very busy man, met with Dr. Reid or not, is insignificant. 
What IS highly significant, however, is WHY this extraordinary effort was made to introduce 
the President of the United States to Dr. Ethna Reid of Utah. In retrospect, scheduling President 
Reagan to meet with the developer of the "chosen" teaching method which incorporates Skin- 
nerian mastery learning and direct instruction makes sense.] 

U.S. Secretary of Education T.H. Bell's Commission on Excellence published A Nation 
at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform in 1982. This report laid the groundwork for 
the controversial restructuring Americans face today. Initially, the commission engaged in a 
slick, expensive propagandistic roadshow, intended to mobilize American opinion in favor 
of the umpteenth reform since the federal government seized control of education in 1965, 
causing steep declines in academic test scores. The recommendations were couched in terms 
Americans would accept; i.e., mastering basic skills, more homework, etc. Its hype was best 
illustrated by the following excerpt: 

If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational 
performance that exists today, we might well have viewed it as an act of war.... We have, in 
effect, been committing an act of unthinking, unilateral educational disarmament. 

[Ed. Note: The rhetoric worked. Spending increased. Ideas, which would never have been 
accepted had a crisis not been deliberately created, were embraced without question. These 
included doing away with the only valid criterion for measuring student academic achieve- 
ment — the Carnegie Unit — with its required four years of math, four years of English, four 
years of history, etc., in order to graduate from high school. Of interest was an informal com- 
ment made by Secretary Bell at the initial [closed to the pubhc) commission meeting in July 
of 1981. Secretary Bell commented that one had to "create conflict in order to obtain one's 

The conflict was indeed created between the conservatives [falsely represented by big 
business interests) and the liberals [the left-wing tax-exempt foundations and leadership of the 
teacher unions, etc.), in order to be able to come to a compromise [arrive at the consensus or 
common ground) which represented what the United Nations and its educational agencies had 
been promoting since 1945. The U.N. agenda included socialist hfelong learning and training 
for the global workforce. This consensus required — and succeeded in obtaining — partnerships/ 
mergers between individuals and groups that had formerly had nothing in common — especially 
the partnership between government schools and business. Such a partnership is required by 
socialist/fascist forms of government.] 

The Center for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI)/° which is attached to the 

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD) in Paris, France, held an 
International School Improvement Project [ISIP) conference in Palm Beach, Florida in 1982. 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1982 191 

Many of the key components of the United States' education reform movement [effective schools 
movement) were discussed by delegates from member countries. The main topic appeared 
to be a subject entitled "CBAM" about which absolutely nothing was said in the invitational 
papers sent to delegates planning to attend. 

The writer was bewildered by the term "CBAM" until it appeared in the U.S. Department 
of Education- funded project "Changing Teacher Practice, Final Report of an Experimental 
Study — Gary A. Griffin, Principal Investigator, Susan Barnes, Sharon O'Neal, Sara E. Edwards, 
Maria E. Defino, Hobart Hukill — Report No. 9052, Research and Development Center for 
Teacher Education, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712." Within the project report 
there is discussion of the application of "behavioral science for systems improvement." The 
"Changing Teacher Practice" project contained the "Concerns-Based Adoption Model" [CBAM), 
which illustrated the extent of psychological manipulation undergone by teachers who resist 
change. The following excerpt explains the purpose of "Concerns-Based Adoption Model" as 
a support tool to assist teachers through the painful process of "change": 

The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) provides a structure for staff development plan- 
ning which focuses on the process of change as a personal experience (Hall & Loucks, 1978, 
Note 19). The perceptions, feelings, motivations, frustrations, and satisfactions of teachers 
about an innovation are identified and classified according to a developmental scheme of 
stages. The process of change by which a person moves through these stages is attended to 
so that an innovation can be implemented. Concerns-based staff development recognizes 
and accepts as legitimate the concerns of the person involved in the change process. Change 
is regarded as long term and developmental, and individuals are perceived to need support 
as they experience change. In this model any process or product that the teacher has not 
previously encountered is regarded as an innovation for that teacher, (p. 37) 

[Ed. Note: The information regarding the ISIP conference in Palm Beach is taken from a July 
9,1982 letter from J.R. Gass of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 
of the Center for Educational Research and Innovation to Donald J. Senese, assistant secretary 
for the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education. Such 
international meetings at which international education/workforce training agenda items are 
discussed take place regularly. OERI and CERI are closely connected in the work they carry 
out for OECD, UNESCO and the Umted Nations.] 

"Between Classes — What Cost, Accountability?" by I^rry L. Forthum, teacher and editor 
of the state newspaper of the Arizona Federation of Teachers, was published in the October 
1982 issue of the The Arizona Forum. Excerpts follow from this thought-provoking article: 

If accountability becomes the uhimate goal of education and all areas of education 
are reduced to "components" measurable by standardized testing, education will no longer 
be a learning process but a cloning process for both the teacher and the student. The prior- 
ity questions for education in the future may well be: Why can't Johnny think? Why can't 
Johnny enjoy? Why can't Johnny feel? Why can't Carbon Unit J smile?... 

The panic caused by educational studies of the Why Can't Johnny Read variety has 
created a new educational priority — ACCOUNTABILITY. In its purest form, accountability 
aids the profession and the professional in maintaining standards of excellence. The results 
of any attempt to "monitor" the profession and therefore make it accountable can only be 


as valid, however, as the instrument or process which produces the results.... 

Accountability is the central election issue in the race for Superintendent of Public In- 
struction [Mr. Forthum is referring to reform opponent Ann Herzer's bid to unseat Carolyn 
Warner as superintendent of public instruction, ed.]. The present administration has estab- 
lished pilot programs throughout Arizona which can measure student progress as defined by 
the testing instrument, therefore making the school and instructor accountable. The evaluative 
program, developed nationally and piloted in other states before reaching Arizona, can in 
fact estabhsh a criteria for testing accountability. That it works is not the issue. The issue 
is how it works. The issue is not "should education be accountable" but should education 
make B.F. Skinner methodology the model for estabhshing educational accountability? 

Edward Curran, director of the National Institute of Education, was dismissed by 

Secretary T.H. Bell in 1982 due to Curran's recommendation to President Reagan that the 
National Institute of Education — the research and development arm of the U.S. Department 
of Education — be abolished. President Reagan was out of the country at the time of Curran's 
dismissal. When President Reagan was elected Dr. Curran left his position as headmaster of 
the Cathedral School for Girls in Washington, D.C., first to work on the education department 
transition team and later to assume the directorship of the National Institute of Education. 

Curran's courageous recommendation would not have required Congressional approval, as 
did the proposal to abolish the U.S. Department of Education; an executive order by Secretary 
Bell was all that was required. Abolishing NIE could have removed much of the controversial 
federal government influence in our local schools. In an article entitled "Success Eludes Old 
Research Agency," Education Week [December 9, 1982) quoted Dr. Curran as follows: 

NIE is based on the premise that education is a science whose progress depends on systematic 
"research and development." As a professional educator, I know that this premise is false. 


"A Religion for a New Age" by John Dunphy, written for the January/February 1983 
issue of The Humanist, the journal of the American Humanist Association, lifts the veil of 
respectability from humanism and humanistic ethics. Excerpts follow: 

I am convinced that the battle for humankind's future must be waged and won in the 
pubHc school classroom by teachers who correctly perceive their role as the proselytizers of a 
new faith: a religion of humanity that recognizes and respects the spark of what theologians 
call divinity in every human being. 

These teachers must embody the same selfless dedication as the most rabid fundamen- 
tahst preachers, for they will be ministers of another sort, utilizing a classroom instead of a 
pulpit to convey humanist values in whatever subjects they teach, regardless of the education 
level — preschool day care or a large university. 

The classroom must and wiU become an arena of conflict between the old and the 
new — the rotting corpse of Christianity, together with aU its adjacent evils and misery, and 
the new faith of Humanism, resplendent in its premise of a world in which the never-real- 
ized Christian idea of "love thy neighbor" wiU finally be achieved. 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1983 193 

Education for Results: In Response to A Nation at Risk, Vol. 1: Guaranteeing Effective 
Performance by Our Schools [SAFE Learning Systems, Inc.: Anaheim, Cal., 1983) by Robert 
Corrigan was published. In its 500-page how-to manual, Corrigan's S.A.F.E. [Systematic Ap- 
proach for Effectiveness] model was described. Corrigan explains: 

The following successive phases were performed to test out the theoretical concepts of 
increased mastery learning effectiveness: Phase 1. To design and to extensively field-test 
a group instructional learning-centered program applying those programmed instructional 
principles postulated by Skinner and Crowder to be combined with the techniques of System 
Analysis for instaUing required system-wide managing-for-results processes including the 
accountable performance by teachers, principals and support personnel. This program would 
be "packaged" for use by teachers to deliver predictable achievement of defined mastery- 
learning objectives, [p. 155] 

[Ed. Note: This program was endorsed by — among others — Bill Spady [Mr. QBE), the director of 
the controversial Far West Laboratory Outcome-Based Education Project [the Utah Grant) and 
Professor Homer Coker of the University of Georgia, who developed — with National Institute of 
Education funds — a controversial standardized teacher evaluation instrument with 420 teacher 
characteristics [competencies/behaviors) . This book's Appendix VI contains extensive quotes 
from this important trail-blazing project.] 

From the first newsletter. Outcomes, published by Bill Spady's Network for Outcome- 
Based Schools in 1983, came the article "Four Phases in Creating and Managing an Outcome- 
Based Program" by John Champlin of the Department of Educational Administration of Texas 
Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. The fact that mastery learning is outcome-based education 
is made clear in the following excerpts: 

"Outcome-Based" was conceived during discussions in 1979 when our attention centered 
around how Mastery Learning could be better managed and made more likely to survive, 
despite many ill-conceived design and implementation attempts. Those participating proposed 
that an advocacy network be estabhshed. This founding group of a dozen or so concluded 
that more support for Mastery Learning would be likely if this new network focused equally 
on outcomes as well as process. They argued that instructional delivery systems needed to 
be sufficiently flexible and responsive to produce a wide variety of outcomes, not just the 
existing limitations of basic skills programs. This decision was considered critical in view of 
limited success in efforts to operationalize competency-based concepts during the 1970s.... 
Out of these dialogues emerged the Network for Outcome-Based Schools, a loose configu- 
ration of researchers, teachers, principals, school superintendents and coUege professors 
whose goal was to advocate and implement Mastery Learning as a vehicle for producing the 
capabilities and responses necessary for students to attain varied outcomes. The Network 
has been a vigorous proponent of aU of the identified components of Outcome-Based [OB) 
programming since its inception.... 

development absolutely requires provisions to foster community understanding. Many weU- 
intended change efforts have fallen upon the rocks because the community didn't understand 
it, challenged it, and built up so much pressure that it was easiest for staff to revert to the safe 
harbor of the status quo. This community effort should be designed both to reeducate and to 


renorm parents and the general public. It is important that your community know what you 
intend to do, why it is happening, and exactly what they can expect as it progresses. I believe 
a district will win some degree of tolerance and patience if it involves the community in this 
way. To expect residents to passively accept any modification after the fact or by edict is a 
serious error. Think of renorming the community the same way you conduct similar efforts 
in the school environment. Don't challenge the community, co-opt them. [pp. 36-7] 

The U.S. Department of Education funded two important projects in 1983: 1) "Framing 
a Future for Education" for Kansas; and 2) "Strategic Planning and Furthering Excellence in 
Millard Public Schools" for Nebraska, both of which were assigned to Dr. Shirley McCune 
of the MidContinent Regional Educational Laboratory [McREL] as project director. These 
two projects, based on the work of the New Age Naisbitt Group founded by John Naisbitt 
who authored Megatrends, served as national pilots for QBE restructuring of America from a 
"representative democracy" to a "participatory democracy — moving from a left versus right 
politics to a politics of the radical center," in Dr. McCune's words. McCune became famous 
(or infamous) during the National Governors' Association conference in Wichita, Kansas in 
1989 when she said: 

What we're into is the total restructuring of society. What is happening in America today 
and what is happening in Kansas and the Great Plains is not simply a chance situation in 
the usual winds of change. What it amounts to is a total transformation of society.... Our 
total society is in a crisis of restructuring and you can't get away from it. You can't go into 
rural areas, you can't go into the churches, you can't go into government or into business 
and hide from the fact that what we are facing is the total restructuring of our society. 

[Ed. Note: In the 1996 entry regarding McCune's book. The Light Shall Set You Free [Athena 
Publishing, Alpha Connections: Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1996 ), McCune expressed her belief 
that "each individual is a co-creator with the Divine."! 

"A Call for a Radical Re-examination: Education Should Reflect a New iNTERNAtional 
Economic Order" by Michel Debeauvais was published in the March 1983 issue of The Edu- 
cation Digest. The article was a condensed version of the original which appeared in Prospects 
[Vol. XII, No. 2, pp. 135-145). Michel Debeauvais is co-founder and president. Francophone 
Association of Comparative Education, Sevres, France. The following excerpts relate to the 
transformation of the world's education systems from traditional academic emphasis to work- 
force training: 

The current of thought that seeks to abohsh the existing international economic order and 
replace it with a new order calls for reexamination of the relations between education and 
the economy.... 

Assuming growing importance everywhere, however, is the inadequacy of [the response] 
of school systems to social needs and to the needs of the economy. These shortcomings 
lie behind the educational reforms upon which nearly all countries have embarked. The 
chief criticisms are: primary schooling often tends to direct young people toward salaried 
employment in the modern urban sector, whereas only a minority among them can hope to 
obtain such jobs; general secondary education still channels pupils' aspirations toward higher 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1983 195 

education; technical and vocational education suffer from lack of prestige and high costs, 
and are often ill-suited to job market trends; higher education is often perceived as isolated 
from national hfe, from the demands of cultural and internal development.... 

There is growing realization of the role of education systems in the reproduction of 
inequalities — the social selection performed by the education system as it contributes to distri- 
bution of social roles and jobs in a hierarchized society. The hierarchy of school results tends 
to match the job hierarchy; situations where expansion of the education system is not matched 
by changes in the job structure are perceived as a dysfunction requiring correction. 

The goals of equity laid down by educational policy can be made effective only if they 
are an integral part of development policies pursuing this aim through diverse and mutually 
coordinated measures. This has led to... an integrated development poUcy, in which the aim 
of education would be... achieving the social and economic goals of development.... 

Nevertheless, we may advance the following proposition: A policy of endogenous 
development to accord priority to the struggle against inequality, and to the participation of 
the population in decisions concerning it, ought also to be accompanied by fairly far-reach- 
ing educational reforms, redefining the role and place of training in the overall system of 
socioeconomic objectives. 

Another important aspect of the New International Economic Order [NIEO)... will 
require substantial alterations in international relations and. . . pubUc opinion will have to 
be prepared in order to understand and reconcile itself to the measures to be taken.... The 
extent of the changes in attitude made necessary by a new world order based on the values 
of the survival of humanity and respect for the dignity of all cultures constitutes a theme for 
reflection that accords a central role to education in the context of an NIEO. 

A new international order can be devised and implemented only by stages which cor- 
respond... to those of a more deep-seated evolution in people's thinking. United Nations 
bodies play a role that is by no means negligible in shaping world opinion. 

...It now remains for us to find out where the children not attending school are in or- 
der to prepare educational programs capable of reaching them and answering their needs. 
In addition, the priority aim of reducing disparities between town and country should lead 
to the measurement of schooling (and nonformal education) in the countryside, something 
existing school statistics do not permit. 

...Data on the level of instruction of workers would permit more accurate evaluation 
of the relations between education and employment. 

Functional Literacy and the Workplace: The Proceedings of the May 6, 1983 National 
Invitational Conference was published [Education Services, American Council of Life Insurance: 
Washington, D.C., 1983). Excerpts which highlight now-familiar ideas follow: 

"Defining Functional Literacy" by Paul Delker, Director of the Division of Adult Education 
in the U.S. Department of Education who has been involved with the Federal Adult Basic 
Education Program since its beginnings in 1966... headed the U.S. delegation to a UNESCO 
meeting that drafted Recommendations on Adult Education adopted by the [UN] General 
Assembly in 1976.... You may be famihar with the Adult Performance Level Study [widely 
known as the APL Study), funded by the then U.S. Office of Education and reported in 1975. 
Its objectives were to describe adult functional literacy in pragmatic, behavioral, terms and 
to develop devices for the assessment of literacy which would be useful on a variety of op- 
erational levels. To date, the APL Study represents the most systematic and extensive effort 
to measure functional literacy. . . . 

"Some Responses to the Literacy Problem" by WiUard Daggett, Director of the Division 


of Occupational Education Instruction, New York State Education Department.... Education 
exists within the larger context of society as a whole. As society changes, education must also 
change, if it is to fulfill its mission of preparing people to thrive [emphasis in original] .... We 
have begun evolving into a technological society. Our educational system must also change 
to provide the highly trained personnel that technology requires. Five years ago, recognizing 
that basic changes were occurring, the New York State Education Department reviewed its 
system of vocational and practical arts education, to ensure that through the remaining years 
of this century we would be preparing our students for the society which would be, not for 
the society which was. In this review process, which we called "Futuring," we have relied 
upon both business and industry to determine what skills and knowledge will be needed in 
the next 15 years, and upon educators in the field and social scientists to recommend how 
these should be taught. 

Computers in Education: Realizing the Potential was published by the U.S. DEpartment 
of Education in June, 1983. Under the subtitle "Expert and Novice Thinking" the authors 

Recent studies in science education have revealed that students approach learning with many 
prior conceptions based on their life experiences, which can be obstacles to learning. These 
conceptions are very resistant to change. We need to understand why students' conceptions 
persevere so strongly and how best they can be modified. 

"There Has Been a Conspiracy of Silence about ItACHiNc: B.F. Skinner Argues that Pedagogy 
Is Key to School Reforms" by Susan Walton was published by Education Week in its August 
31, 1983 issue. Excerpts from this extremely enlightening article follow: 

Improving methods of teaching would do more to help public education than would length- 
ening the school day or any of the other reforms proposed by the National Commission on 
Excellence in Education and other groups that have recently issued reports on education. So 
argues B.F. Skinner, the Harvard University psychologist whose pioneering theories about and 
studies on the "conditioning" of behavior have had a substantial impact on education. Still a 
source of controversy 40-odd years after Mr. Skinner began his research, those theories have 
been instrumental in the development of mastery learning and the "teaching machines" of 
the 1960s. The behavioral scientist's work has also been an integral part of the debate over 
individualized instruction.... Central to Mr. Skinner's thinking on education are the notions 
that children should be allowed to learn at their own pace and that teachers should rely on 
"reinforcers" or rewards, to strengthen patterns of behavior that they want to encourage. 
Mr. Skinner argues that computers, as they are most commonly used, are essentially sophis- 
ticated versions of the "teaching machines" of the 1960s.... Pointing to recent articles and 
reports on how to improve education, Mr. Skinner argues that one central fallacy is that it is 
more important for teachers to know their subject matter than to know how to teach it. Mr. 
Skinner also advises that educators stop making all students advance at essentially the same 
rate.... No teacher can teach a class of 30 or 40 students and allow each to progress at an 
optimal speed. Tracking is too feeble a remedy. We must turn to INSTRUMENTS [emphasis 
in original] for a large part of the school curriculum. The psychologist also urges educators 
to "program" subject matter. "The heart of the teaching machine, call it what you will, is 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1983 197 

the programming of instruction — an advance not mentioned in any of the reports I have 
cited," he writes. He argues "the reinforcing consequences of being right" will eventually 
prompt students to do what they are supposed to do, but to elicit the behavior the first time, 
their behavior must be "primed" and "prompted." "Programmed instruction," Mr. Skinner 
contends, makes "very few demands on teachers." 

[Ed. Note: Had the above interview occurred a year later, Skinner would have known that A 
Nation at Risk's ultimate recommendations would be to implement Skinnerian mastery learn- 
ing [OBE) "in all the schools of the nation."] 

Maine Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development in-service training was 

attended by this author in 1983. Dr. S. Alan Cohen led the training. Cohen taught research 
and curriculum design in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of 
San Francisco, California, and was president of SAC Associates, a private consulting firm in 
systems analysis, evaluation and curriculum design. The following information was contained 
in a flyer handed out at the in-service training: 

His [Cohen's] curriculum research generated the concept of High Intensity Learning, an ap- 
plication of systems theory to classroom management. Today, thousands of schools around 
the world operate his High Intensity Learning Centers in reading and math. He co-authored 
the Random House series, the first commercially published basal program developed on the 
Mastery Learning model. A second Mastery Learning program, published in 1978, teaches 
pupils how to score high on standardized tests. In 1979 Dr. Cohen authored, designed and 
published a series of graduate textbooks under a SAC subsidiary. Mastery Learning Systems 
(MLS). Cohen was one of the architects of the Job Corps Curriculum System. Has been con- 
sultant to the Right to Read Office, U.S. Office of Education Office of Economic Opportunity.... 
His work as consultant and author to Random House and to 20th Century's B.F. Skinner's 
Reading Program reflects an unusual synthesis of radical behaviorism and humanistic ap- 
proach to curriculum design. . . . 

...[W]ith Harry Passow and Abe Tannebaum of Teachers College, Columbia University, 
Dr. Cohen formed the education task force in the first War on Poverty, Mobilization for Youth. 
Since that time, his training in learning psychology has been appUed to research, materials 
and systems development, writing and teaching in three major areas: systems applications 
to curriculum, teaching the disadvantaged and learning disabilities. 

During the in-service training, this writer recorded verbatim Cohen's following points: 

In 1976 Block and Burns pubUshed in the American Educational Research Association re- 
search, around the world on mastery learning. United Nations Educational, Scientific and 
Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is committed to Mastery Learning all over the world. We 
have evaluated data worldwide.... Loyola University is the information center for Mastery 
Learning. Amazing amount of data from all over the world that tells the obvious.... You can 
account for 97 out of 100 things you give in a test.... Teaching kids to discriminate between 
long and short "a" is bad... mundane.... Design assessments to fit what teachers are doing.... 
Avoid misalignment of conditions of instruction and conditions of assessment.... 

[Referring to the Iowa and California tests] Start teaching to them or stop using them. 
Find out what they truly measure.... Same issue as defining what you are teaching.... How 
do you get teachers to measure precisely what they teach? You must have an A and that bet- 


ter be different than B, C. and F because not everyone can get to Harvard. They can't buy 
the fact that every kid can get an A.... Way we guarantee no discrimination is to teach and 
test.... Between 1969 and 1971 Omaha, Nebraska implemented mastery learning curriculum 
citywide. Has best curriculum management I've seen anywhere.... New kind of report card... 
listed competencies describing what kids can do and described standardized test scores 
vs. norm-referenced.... Key components of mastery learning are: a] careful control of cues 
(stimuli), what you bring to student; b) careful control of reinforcers; c) kids on task; and 
d) recycling (correctives). 

The Coming Revolution in Education: Basic Education and the New Theory of Schooling 

(University Press of America, Inc.: Baton Rouge, 1983) by the late Eugene Maxwell Boyce, for- 
mer professor of educational administration. Bureau of Educational Studies and Field Services, 
College of Education at the University of Georgia, was published. An excerpt follows: 

In the communist ideology the function of universal education is clear, and easily under- 
stood. Universal education fits neatly into the authoritarian state. Education is tied directly 
to jobs — control of the job being the critical control point in an authoritarian state. Level of 
education, and consequently the level of employment, is determined first by level of achieve- 
ment in school. They do not educate people for jobs that do not exist.... No such controlled 
relationship between education and jobs exists in democratic countries, (p. 4) 

The Maine Facilitator Report on Current National Diffusion Network Activities reported 
in 1983 that "ECRI [Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction] Consortium Winds Down." 
Excerpt follows: 

After five years of operation, the Maine Mastery Learning Consortium will conclude formal 
operation on August 1. The Consortium, which at times had a membership of as many as 
thirty school districts, was formed in 1978 to provide the services of an ECRI trainer to Maine 
teachers using that mastery learning program. Primary support for the Consortium came 
from Title IV-C, in 1978-1980. From 1980-1982 it operated with federal Title II (Basic Skills) 
funds, and in the past year with local school district funds. The Consortium is ending at a 
time when many schools are just beginning to explore the impUcations of recent teacher 
effectiveness research. The critical teacher behaviors found to correlate directly with high 
levels of achievement — specifying learning objectives, setting high standards for mastery, 
modeling, practicing, eliciting responses from all students, reinforcing correct responses, 
and time on task — are all key components of the ECRI program that are now being used in 
a routine way by hundreds of Maine teachers because of the Consortium's services. 

Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) published Effective ScHOOLing 

Practices: A Research Synthesis — Goal-Based Education Program in the mid-1980s. [Goal-based 
education = outcomes-based education] NWREL is a federally funded laboratory whose role 
has always been to develop goals for American education. An excerpt from Effective Schooling 
Practices follows: 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1983 199 

Incentives and Rewards for Students Are Used to Promote Excellence: 

1. Systems are set up in the classroom for frequent and consistent rewards to students for 
academic achievement and excellent behavior; they are appropriate to the developmental 
level of students; excellence is defined by objective standards, not by peer comparison. 

2. All students know about the rewards and what they need to do to get them. Rewards are 
chosen because they appeal to students. 

3. Rewards are related to specific achievements; some may be presented pubhcly; some 
should be immediately presented, while others delayed to teach persistence. 

4. Parents are told about student successes and requested to help students keep working 
toward excellence. Brophy [1980); Brophy (1981); Emmer (1981); Evertson (1981); Hunter 
(1977); Rosswork (1977); Rutter (1979); Walker (1976). 

[Ed. Note: An example of the pervasiveness of Skinnerian operant conditioning, with its 
rewards/reinforcement system, is found in the Effective School Research on "school climate." 
The definition of "positive/effective school climate" has varied; one definition being "psycho- 
logically facilitative environment" — Skinner to the core. The Charles F. Kettering Foundation 
Ltd. [Dayton, Ohio) School Climate Profile, based on Eugene Howard's Colorado Model, con- 
tains a mark-off sheet with blocks in which data are arranged by "Almost Never, Occasion- 
ally, Frequently, and Almost Always" to score behavior. Under "Program Determinants" from 
"Definitions of Climate Terms" in Howard's Colorado Model, we find this wording: 


Practices are identified whereby staff members recognize individual differences among pupils. 
Everyone is not expected to learn the same things in the same way or in the same length 
of time. Rewards are sufficiently available so that all pupils, with effort, may expect to be 
positively and frequently recognized by the school. 

Researcher and writer K.M. Heaton, in her revised edition of an article entitled "Pre- 
conditioning for Acceptance of Change" explained very clearly in 1983 how radical change in 
our republican form of government has been brought about at the local level through the use 
of psychopolitics.'^ The following are excerpts from Mrs. Heaton's article: 

Variants of these control strategies have been, and are being, used on every front in this 
war. A case in point: In the early seventies, a textbook was developed by a think tank in 
Berkeley, with the authority of the Governor's [Ronald Reagan] office, and coordinated by 
the Council on Intergovernmental Relations, which provided an elementary course in the use 
of psychopolitics "to provide the operant mechanism to change events in local government" 
(a direct quote). Named as the essential elements for planned change were: 

• development of a climate for change; 

• a crisis of major importance; 

• a catastrophe having a physical effect on community; 

• mounting cost of government, and/or major services; 

• and/or collapse of government's ability to deal with these. 


The Politics of Change [TPOC) then proceeded to suggest how to create these elements. 
TPOC offers prima facie evidence of a deliberate, calculated scheme to disinform, mislead, 
manage and control the destiny of local government in California and its citizens, without 
regard for legal, moral or ethical considerations. 


During January and February of 1984, this writer — with the help of grassroots activists 
and several officials in the U.S. Department of Education — organized witnesses and testimony 
to be presented at the U.S. Department of Education "Hatch Amendment" hearings held in 
seven cities: Seattle, Washington; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Kansas City, Missouri; Phoenix, 
Arizona; Concord, New Hampshire; Orlando, Florida; and Washington, D.C. These hearings 
were held "pursuant to the notice of proposed rulemaking to implement Sec. 439 of the General 
Education Provisions Act [The Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment]." 

This Amendment is usually referred to as the "Hatch [Sen. Orrin] Amendment," although 
the senator who originated it and was most involved in the initial important wording was the 
late Senator Edward Zorinsky [D.-Neb). As the amendment went through the Congressional 
committee process, Zorinsky's most important wording was weakened or deleted. 

The weakened wording which attempted to address long-standing problems experienced 
by parents and good educators follows: 

Protection of Pupil Rights, 20 U.S. Code Sec. 1232h, Inspection by parents or guardians of 
instructional material.... 

(a) All instructional material, including teachers' manuals, films, tapes, or other supple- 
mentary instructional materials which will be used in connection with any research or experi- 
mentation program or project shall be available for inspection by the parents or guardians of 
the children engaged in such program or project. For the purpose of this section "research or 
experimentation program or project" means any program or project in any applicable program 
designed to explore or... develop new or unproven teaching methods or techniques.... 

Psychiatric or psychological examination, testing or treatment:... 

(b] No student shall be required, as part of any applicable program, to submit to psychiatric 
examination, testing or treatment, or psychological examination, testing or treatment, in 
which the primary purpose is to reveal information concerning political affiliations; mental 
and psychological problems potentially embarrassing to the student or his family; sexual 
behavior and attitudes; illegal, anti-social, self-incriminating and demeaning behavior; critical 
appraisals of other individuals with whom respondents have close family relationships; legally 
recognized privileged and analogous relationships, such as those of lawyers, physicians, and 
ministers; or income (other than that required by law to determine eligibility for participation 
in a program or for receiving financial assistance under such program); without the prior 
consent of the student [if the student is an adult or emancipated minor] , or in the case of 
an unemancipated minor, without the prior written consent of the parent. 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1984 201 

At the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association held in New 

Orleans, Louisiana in April of 1984, Brian Rowan, Ph.D. in sociology, presented a paper entitled 
"Shamanistic Rituals in Effective Schools." The work on this "curious" paper was supported 
by the National Institute of Education, U.S. Department of Education (Contract #400-83-003] . 
Rowan should be noted as one of the principal investigators involved in the infamous 1984 
grant to Utah [See later 1984 entry for Utah grant) to implement William Spady's Outcome- 
Based Education program, the purpose of which was to "put OBE into all the schools of the 

The "curious" nature of this paper is derived from Dr. Rowan's implied criticism of the very 
Effective Schools Research with which he is so closely associated. The importance of Rowan's 
paper lies in Rowan's professional credentials and willingness to bring to the debate table a 
discussion of the legitimacy of claims of "effectiveness" made by those associated with the 
Effective Schools movement [William Spady, et al.), including promoting outcome-based edu- 
cation, mastery learning and direct instruction — all of which are required by Effective Schools 
Research. This presentation helps one to better understand the dismal academic results to be 
found in schools using Effective Schools Research; i.e., most often urban schools attended by 
underprivileged and minority children. 

The following quotes are taken from "Shamanistic Rituals in Effective Schools" which 
can be found in its entirety in Appendix XXVI of this book: 

We begin with one of the most common shamanistic rituals in the effective schools 
movement, the glowing literature review. . . . 

. . .Lacking a systematic understanding of the scientific pros and cons of effective schools 
research, naive individuals are left only with the powerful and appealing rhetoric of the 
reviewers.... The experienced shaman knows to avoid the scrutiny of scholars, for this can 
raise objections to the "scientific" basis of ritual claims and divert attention away from the 
appealing rhetoric. Instead, the shaman cultivates the practitioner who needs a simple and 
appealing formula. 

Thus, any experienced shaman can find "effective" schools.... 

The ritual is particularly suited to appUcation in urban or low performing school sys- 
tems where successful instructional outcomes among disadvantaged students are highly 
uncertain but where mobilized publics demand immediate demonstrations of success. The 
uncertainties faced by practitioners in this situation can easily be alleviated by what scholars 
have begun to call curriculum alignment [teach to the test] .... 

Thus, the art of measurement can be used as an aid to shamanism, especially in urban 
schools plagued by the uncertainties of student performance. Student variability in perfor- 
mance can be reduced, and relative performance increased, not by changing instructional 
objectives or practices, but simply by changing tests and testing procedures. 

The Office of Educational Research and Improvement of the U.S. Department of Edu- 
cation in 1984 approved a grant from the Secretary's Discretionary Fund in the amount of 
$134,459 [Grant No. 122BH40196) to Vanderbih University to implement Vanderbih's proposal 
entitled "National Network for Educational Excellence." This project covered a period from 
October 1984-October 1985 to use a computer-based network of fifty superintendents to col- 
lect and exchange information about "effective" practices and to encourage national dialogue 
about increasing school "effectiveness," so as to promote educational excehence. [Quotation 


marks have been added around the words "effective" and "effectiveness" to alert the reader 
to the fact that this grant was another effort to implement "Effective Schools Research" based 
on Skinnerian psychology. Rowan's remarks in the entry prior to this one cast an interesting 
light on this information.) At the time this grant was made, Chester Finn was professor of 
education and public policy at Vanderbilt University. Finn would shortly thereafter be named 
assistant secretary to the Office of Educational Research and Improvement under Secretary 
of Education William Bennett who, in 1985, provided over $4 million to implement Effective 
School Research nationwide. 

A Letter to President Ronald Reagan was written by Willard W. Garvey, EXECutive 
director of the National Center for Privatization, dated April 6, 1984.^^ An excerpt follows: 

Privatization is now an idea whose time has come.... The knowledge, communication and 
computer industry can make political representatives obsolete. Privatization might well be 
the theme for the 200th anniversary of the Constitution. Privatization is essential for national 

The following notation was printed on the letterhead of the above-mentioned letter: 

The National Center for Privatization is supported by the following groups and individuals: 
Heritage and Reason Foundations; Pacific and Manhattan Institutes; VOLUNTEER; National 
Center for Citizen Involvement; International Executive Service Corps; United Way with its 
Services Identification System; National Legal Center for the Public; churches; labor unions, 
Peter Drucker and Milton Friedman. 

The Spring 1984 issue (Vol. 7, No.4) of Education Update from the Association for Su- 
pervision and Curriculum Development carried the following statements: 

One comprehensive study concludes that counseling can have marked deleterious effects 
on problem students. Joan McCord, a Drexel University sociologist, undertook a 30-year fol- 
low up study of a classic, highly respected study on juvenile delinquency — "The Cambridge 
Somerville Youth Study." In the original study [first report in 1948) an experimental group of 
253 high-risk problem boys were given extensive counseling. A control group matched as to 
behavior, history, and family background received no counseling. In 1975 Professor McCord 
contacted the original participants and compared the circumstances of the experimental and 
control subjects. The experimental subjects were, among other things, found more likely to 
commit criminal acts, be alcoholics, suffer from mental illness, die younger, and have less 
prestigious jobs than the control group. 

[Ed. Note: The results of this study match the negative results discussed in the May 1977 is- 
sue of The School Counselor, American Personnel and Guidance Association's Special Issue 
on Death, which said, "Death education will play as important a part in changing attitudes 
toward death as sex education played in changing attitudes toward sex information and wider 
acceptance of various sexual practices." In other words, counsehng, sex ed and death ed have 
negative effects, if, as one would hope and expect, the purpose of such programs is to help 
young people live happy and stable lives. This is particularly disturbing in hght of increased 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1984 203 

student violence which has taken place in the nation recently.] 

Stephen Broady of Tarkio, Missouri presented testimony in 1984 at the U.S. DEpartment 
of Education's Region VII hearing on "Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to further implement 
Section 439 of the General Education Provisions Act, 34 CFR, Parts 75, 76, and 98, 20 U.S.C.A. 
Section 2132(h] 20 U.S.C. 1231e-3(a](l], 1232h [Hatch Amendment)." Broady's statement 
exposes the controversial nature of the two leading mastery learning programs — Exemplary 
Center for Reading Instruction [ECRI) and Project INSTRUCT — both of which use Skinnerian 
operant conditioning and both of which submitted claims of effectiveness which have been 
questioned by persons involved in implementing and evaluating the programs. The third pro- 
gram, DISTAR [Direct Instruction for Systematic Teaching and Remediation), which is similar 
to ECRI, is the highly recommended "scientific, research-based" phonics program so popular 
with conservatives in the late 1990s. The following are some excerpts from Stephen Broady's 

I am a farmer currently engaged in the operation of over one thousand acres of prime farm 
ground. I became interested in education after my wife and I observed emotional change 
in our daughter while she was attending a rural public school using an "approved" federal 
educational project. . . "Project INSTRUCT". . . approved for funding in the amount of $710,000 
and for nationwide use by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel on May 14, 1975 (JDRP 

Although Project INSTRUCT is only one of over 300 "approved" educational projects. 
Project INSTRUCT and the educational project upon which it is based, the Exemplary Cen- 
ter for Reading Instruction [ECRI) , are the most widely used mastery learning educational 
projects in the United States. 

...These mastery learning systems use a type of psychological manipulation based on 
the Skinnerian ideology of rewards and punishments, and individual feelings are irrelevant.... 
More commonly referred to as "behavior modification," the Skinnerian ideology which is 
used in the teaching techniques of these mastery learning systems, breaks down the process 
of learning into small bits of information and actually codes a type of behavior that is desired 
into the learning process itself. 

The real objective of these mastery learning systems with their behavior modification, 
is a deliberate attempt to make children conform to an artificial environment which is more 
suited to the thinking of the school than to the needs of the children. 

These federally funded mastery learning systems require the use on young children of 
a highly structured curriculum, test and re-test with the use of criterion tests, stopwatches, 
direct eye contact, physical contact, and psychological manipulation until the so-called 
"mastery" of the subject is achieved. These ideas and practices form a complex philosophy 
in which the "authoritarian" concept predominates. 

In the early part of 1983, I obtained the evaluation report of Project INSTRUCT from 
the superintendent's office of the Lincoln Public Schools. At that time I was unaware the 
so-called behavior modification based on Skinner's rewards and punishments was used on 
my daughter. 

The evaluation results clearly referred to behavioral objectives which were. . . established 
for: [a) students; [b) parents; [c) administrators; [d) media speciahsts; [e) project staff; (f) 
teachers; [g) paraprofessionals and volunteers, and (h) prospective teachers. 

The wholesale use of behavior modification is part of Skinnerian psychology. As it was 
outlined in the evaluation. Project INSTRUCT includes rewards and punishments, not only 


for school children, but for anyone who comes in contact with the school system itself. 

The Evaluation of Project INSTRUCT, Executive Summary, written by Carl Spencer, 
project director for Lincoln Public Schools, also explains that: 

Project INSTRUCT grew from beliefs that to reduce reading failure reading programs 
must (1) be diagnostic and prescriptive so that failure does not begin to occur, (2) be im- 
plemented by regular teachers in regular classrooms, (3) provide direct rather than indirect 
teaching, (4] correlate instruction in all language skills, particularly reading, spelling and 

The intent and emphasis in 1970 was on behavioral indices and concrete ways of showing 
accountability; and the data would suggest that the reading of the students themselves may 
not have increased, but the impact of Project INSTRUCT in the Lincoln, Nebraska Pubhsh 
Schools seems to be very extensive and influential. 

[Ed. Note: Project INSTRUCT accomplished its major objective — it developed and installed 
a less than successful reading program in Lincoln, Nebraska using a model which could be 
transported to other districts. It also had considerable impact upon the district as a whole, 
on schools outside of Lincoln and even on the Nebraska State Department of Education. In 
assessing this impact as a whole. Dr. Ronald Brandt, assistant superintendent for instruction, 
has said of this project, "Project INSTRUCT made a lasting contribution to instruction in the 
Lincoln Schools by helping us improve our planning capabilities and by furthering the concepts 
of focused instruction and mastery learning. " 

It should be noted that Dr. Ronald Brandt went on to become the executive editor of the 
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development's [ASCD) publication Educational 
Leadership. ASCD could be considered the most influential education organization in the 
world, outside of UNESCO.] 

David W. Hornbeck, chairman of the board of trustees of the Carnegie FouNDAtion 

for the Advancement of Teaching and Maryland's state school superintendent, oversaw the 
implementation of Project BASIC in 1984. Project BASIC was based on the very controversial 
Management by Objectives [MBO/PPBS) that is thoroughly discussed in this book. 

One of the more controversial graduation requirements in Project BASIC was "the worthy 
use of leisure time," which was later given the more acceptable and politically correct label of 
"arts and recreation" — another semantic deception at work. However, Hornbeck's penultimate 
controversial recommendation — one which would reverberate from coast to coast, resulting 
in heated debate at local school board meetings — was his recommendation to the Maryland 
State Board of Education that community service become a mandatory graduation requirement. 
Many objections were raised on the grounds that that recommendation constituted involuntary 
servitude, thus making it unconstitutional. 

[Ed. Note: In this writer's opinion, David Hornbeck is a soft-hearted, highly paid "should-have- 
been" Presbyterian minister do-gooder who approaches his job with missionary fervor rooted 
in theologian Reinhold Niebuhr's idea that a good Christian must strive to correct any unjust 
status quo. However, his mission seems to be to help implement a socialist world government, 
increasingly referred to as "The New World Disorder, " as was the goal of the do-gooder Federal 
Council of Churches in 1942, working toward all being equally poor, miserable and illiterate. 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1984 205 

Should the eUtist power brokers, for whatever reason, feel they need the expertise of the 
Hornbecks of this world, please spare those least able to protect themselves — the minorities 
and disadvantaged — from the change agents' experimentation.] 

An article entitled "Industrial Policy Urged for GOP" was published in The Washington 
Post on May 14, 1984. Excerpts follow: 

SAN FRANCISCO [UPI] — A conservative study group founded by supporters of President 
Reagan is about to issue a report that advocates Republicans shed some of their deep-rooted 
antipathy to a planned economy. 

An industrial policy accepted by both political parties and by business and labor is 
essential to revitalize America's dwindling clout in the world economy, according to the 
study's editor. Professor Chalmers Johnson of the University of California. 

"The Industrial Policy Debate" is to be issued today by the Institute for Contemporary 
Studies, a think-tank founded by presidential counselor Edwin Meese, Secretary of Defense 
Caspar Weinberger and other Reagan supporters. 

"What we are really trying to pose is a serious debate that has become stupidly politi- 
cized by both parties," Johnson said. "We are trying to get the question of an industrial policy 
for the United States to be taken seriously by people who don't really beUeve in it — above 
all Repubhcans. 

"Americans must come to grips with economic policy or go the way of England. We 
have probably got a decade before it becomes irreversible. " 

In the United States, he said, "The whole topic we are trying to address is so caught 
up with politics and the particular positions of industries that it is very hard to disentangle 
what we mean by economic poUcy " 

While the Democrats are "planning to throw money at the northern Midwest 'rust' 
belt" to get votes, Johnson said many Repubhcans "are painting themselves into a corner by 
attacking the very concept of industrial policy — arguing that it violates the sacred principles 
of private enterprise and free trade. " 

He cited as a vahd and successful national economic policy "the kind of government- 
business relationship" that has made Japan a leading economic force in the world. "A gov- 
ernment-business relationship is needed in a competitive capitalist economy," he said. 

"Reaganomics without an accompanying industrial policy to guide it, has been costly," 
Johnson said. 

U.S. Department of Education Press Release for June 14, 1984 follows: 

Secretary of Education T.H. Bell today announced planned missions and geographic regions for 
a nationwide network of educational research laboratories and centers in preparation for the 
largest discretionary grant competition ever conducted by the U.S. Department of Education. 
Centers will be selected to construct research on improving: writing; learning; teacher quality 
and effectiveness; teacher education; testing, evaluation and standards; effective elementary 
schools; effective secondary schools; education and employment; postsecondary education 
management and governance; postsecondary teaching and learning; and state and local policy 
development and leadership in education. For the first time in almost two decades, all parts 
of the United States will receive full services from the research laboratories. 


[Ed. Note: All of the above increase in federal control came from an office [NIE] in the U.S. De- 
partment of Education which President Reagan had promised to abolish. Note the emphasis on 
funding for OBE/ "effective schools," which use Skinnerian operant conditioning methods.] 

In 1984 Jacqueline Lawrence gave testimony before the Subcommittee on EoucAtion, Arts 
and Humanities of the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources which held hear- 
ings on Senate Joint Resolution 138, a bill establishing a commission on teacher education. 
Excerpts from Mrs. Lawrence's testimony follow: 

My name is Jacqueline Lawrence. I am a parent from Montgomery County, Maryland.... 

Prior to the 1960s, American public schools placed major emphasis on the intellectual 
development of our children, on their mastery of basic skills such as reading, writing and 
mathematics. Competency in physics, biology, chemistry, and chronological factual history 
was required. Cognitive learning and scholarly objectivity were stressed as the basic approach 
to education at all levels. As a result, our nation produced a large, well-educated middle 
class— our greatest strength. 

[Ed. Note: Mrs. Lawrence's comments regarding the "major emphasis on intellectual devel- 
opment prior to the 1960s" remind the writer of a scholarly ancient history textbook used in 
a high school history course at the Rockland, Maine District High School as late as the early 
1970s. [It took awhile for the change agents to penetrate a fishing community on the coast of 
Maine!) The textbook written by Professor James Breasted, an Egyptologist and Semitic scholar, 
is a fascinating and extremely well written history of Ancient Greece, Egypt, etc., with few 
black and white photographs, quizzes at the end of each chapter, and text written for college 
level students. That was only 25 years ago! It would be virtually impossible to find a textbook 
of that scholarly level in public high schools or in most colleges today. This writer has noth- 
ing but a feeling of tremendous sadness pondering the vapid education landscape Americans 
seem so willing to accept for their offspring. It is my constant hope that American apathy in 
this regard is due to their not knowing what has happened, and that once they know, they 
will — all of them — collectively and individually attempt to reverse this situation.] 

Mrs. Lawrence continued: 

It is public knowledge that since the 1960s academic standards have declined. Why? 
Quite simply, over the past 20 years our schools have not placed emphasis on academic 
achievement. There has instead been a shift toward psychological development and social 
adjustment of students in the affective domain, that is, their feelings, attitudes, and opin- 

The shift began in 1965 with the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education 
Act (ESEA].... Since 1965, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to educational the- 
orists and curriculum developers to alter the course of public education. The blueprint for 
the process of educational reform may be found in a series of guides known as Pacesetters 
in Innovation.... From this has come a nationwide information network of ERIC clearing- 
houses (Educational Resource Information Centers) and the National Diffusion Network of 
laboratories for the dissemination of federally funded classroom materials and curriculum. 

With the new programs came a retraining of the teachers. A prime example: in 1969 
the Office of Education began financing model teacher education programs known as the Be- 
havioral Science Teacher Education Program [BSTEP-OE 5803) to introduce to the classroom 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1984 207 

methods employed by the behavioral scientists, the sociometrist, and the psychiatrist. 

Such methods are the most coercive and manipulative known to man today. They were 
originally developed and used for treating mentally disturbed in mental institutions and the 
criminally insane in prisons. The techniques are role-playing, psychodrama, sociodrama, 
simulation games, guided fantasy, diary-keeping, situation attitude scale tests, encounter 
groups, magic circle, and behavior modification such as isolation, time-out boxes and cof- 
fins, as well as operant conditioning. These are techniques to influence by clinical, hospital 
procedures the thinking processes of children in a compulsory classroom setting. 

In addition to training teachers, a special cadre of sensitive manipulators, known as 
change agents, were trained to facilitate the process of change and to identify forces which 
resisted change. 

The change agent serves as a catalyst for teacher and citizen awareness and attempts 
to gain support for educational change. 

Dr. John Goodlad's Report to the President's Commission on School Finance, Issue ff9, 
"Strategies for Change," dated October 1971, explains that the change agent is the decision- 
maker. He decides which changes a school will make. The report states that five to fifteen 
percent of the people in a given community are open to change. They are the Early Majority 
and can be counted on to be supportive. A second group, 60 to 90 percent, are the Resist- 
ers; they need special attention and careful strategies. Also there are Leaders, formal and 
informal, and their support is critical for effecting change. 

In a diagram from the report... you will note that the change agent creates the Early 
Majority and influences the Leaders, and then gets both of these groups to act in concert 
with him to level a triple attack on the Resisters. 

Goodlad's report to the President expressed concern about the willingness of the people 
to change: "People cannot be forced to change until they are psychologically ready."... 

...Even if we assume for the sake of argument that change agents are gifted with in- 
finite knowledge and wisdom, their methods are in confhct with the political principles of 
democracy. Their changes in curriculum and methods and goals of education have not come 
as a result of democratic discussion and decision. 

In this vein, it is interesting to note that the Maryland State Teachers Association has 
lobbied against proposed state legislation for parental access to classroom materials because 
teachers "would be ineffective as change agents."... 

...Moreover, education is now termed psycho-social, psycho-medical, humanistic, af- 
fective and/or diagnostic and prescriptive. Educators diagnose the child's emotional, intel- 
lectual, perceptual and conceptual development levels. Dr. Benjamin Bloom explains that 
what educators are classifying is the intended behavior of students, or as he puts it, "the 
ways in which individuals are to act, think, or feel as a result of participating in some unit 
of instruction. " 

In order to bring about desired attitudinal changes in students, teachers must first know 
where a child is in his or her attitudes and opinions. Various tactics and techniques are used 
in classrooms to make a child reveal himself to his teacher and peers. The examples I use 
below are nationally used and have received federal funding: 

• Magic circle, talk-in, contact or group discussions: The teacher gathers the children 
into a circle where they are encouraged to discuss personal feelings about one another, 
their parents, and home life. Family size, advantages, disadvantages, comparison of 
toys, vacations, and clothing may be discussed. Family conflicts, worries and fears 
are often revealed. 

• Inside-Out: A nationally-used elementary social studies program encourages students 
to discuss their feelings before, during and after their parents' divorce; their personal 


reactions to the death of a friend, pet or relative; what your friends think of you; 
what adults think of you and what you think of yourself. 
• Logbooks: These are workbooks used in conjunction with many language arts 
textbooks. They are vehicles for children to reveal their reactions to short stories, 
often dealing with emotions and moral dilemmas. There are no right answers, only 
personal responses. Sometimes the logbooks guide the child into a response. For 

Even if your family is a happy one, you're bound to feel sad... or even lonely. 
When might a person be lonely even if he is part of a family? Loneliness is listen- 
ing to your parents arguing. Loneliness is when you come home and there's no 
one there. Lonehness is.... 

Perhaps the most frequently used strategies for self-revelation are the diary and role-playing. 
These techniques were introduced into American pubhc schools by an Estonian teacher, 
Hilda Taba, and a Romanian psychiatrist, Jacob Moreno. 

[Ed. Note: In 1957 a California State Senate Investigative Committee exposed the work of Hilda 
Taba, Jacob Moreno and others. In spite of this exposure, these people continued to receive tax 
dollars and access to schools nationwide. Hilda Taba's program has remained in use by key 
change agents from 1960 to 1999. Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil's Models of Teaching mentions 
her work as well as that of many other sociologists, behavioral psychologists, etc. As a school 
board director in 1976, the writer found materials related to the above-described programs 
and many others described by Mrs. Lawrence in a box given to her by a home economics 
teacher. Needless to say, the writer was shocked to find that behavior modification was being 
introduced into the curriculum under the innocent-sounding "home economics" label.] 

The U.S. Office of Education gave grants to Taba to develop an elementary social studies 
program to improve the social adjustment and personality development of children. She had 
worked in reform schools and mental institutions with Moreno and found that role-playing 
and diaries were successful tools to learn where a child stood in his behefs, attitudes, and 
social interactions. 

The diary has been used for years in Russia and China for self-revelation, self-eval- 
uation, and self-criticism. More recently the personal diary was found in Guyana throughout 
the Jim Jones compound. 

Montgomery County, Maryland, requires its students to keep a diary from kindergarten 
through grade nine. Diaries are an important psychological instrument. They provide a precise 
record and personality profile of the child, his family members, neighbors and peers — in- 
formation needed by the teacher or therapist to alter a student's behavior or attitude. It is 
important that the writing be free-style and spontaneous, coming directly from the emotional 
feeling area of the child. Diaries are not corrected for form, grammar or spelling.... 

A teacher manual for values education suggests 15 kinds of diaries for use in the class- 
room; some examples are a budget diary, religion diary, hostility and anger diary, low points 
diary, affectionate and tender feelings diary, and a time diary. . . . 

In the psycho-social approach to education, the child is taught concepts through the 
use of psychotherapy. For example, to better understand the social problem of prejudice and 
to teach children through experiential learning, blond children in a fifth grade (age 10) were 
asked to sit in the back of the room for one week, totally isolated, not permitted to participate 
in the classwork. For a one-and-a-half hour period each day, brown-haired students were 
instructed to pick on, insult, make fun of or taunt the blonds. Needless to say, taunting 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1984 209 

spilled over onto the playground with some of the blonds being told, "You can't play with 
us." At the end of the week, blonds were given candy bars as a reward for their suffering, 
but the browns, who in bullying were obeying the teacher's instructions, were given noth- 
ing. How does a child react to being punished or deprived for carrying out his assignment? 
How much learning went on in that classroom for five days? Some children enjoyed taunting 
and bullying. Was the week spent on such "experiential learning" quality time? What about 
the seven and one-half hours spent in taunting? Would this time have been better spent on 
academic learning?... 

Educators use the even more volatile psycho-drama for attitudinal change. One example 
is the concept that we must prune away defective persons in order to improve the quality 
of life for the remainder of the group. This drama involves murder. Many variations are 
found. I first came across this psychodrama theme in a federally funded home economics 
curriculum guide... containing the exercise "Whom Will You Choose?" It goes as follows: 
11 people are in a bomb shelter with provisions sufficient to last 11 persons two weeks or 
six persons a month. The group is told that five persons must be killed. They are instructed 
to accept the situation as fact, that is, to concern themselves with life/death choices, not 
with attacking the logic or probability of the situation. A profile is given of each person in 
the shelter. Problem people, such as the athlete who eats too much, the religious type with 
"hang-ups," the pregnant or ill are generally killed. Survivors tend to be those trained in 
medicine, engineers, and pacifiers. 

[Ed. Note: Jacqueline and Malcolm Lawrence had just returned from their Foreign Service 
assignment in Europe and were appalled to encounter what had happened to American edu- 
cation in their absence. The Lawrences organized "Parents Who Care" and began to confront 
the school district with what they had discovered. Due to the broad publicity generated by 
the group's assertions and activities, Edward Hunter, former intelligence service operative and 
author of two books on his coined word "brainwashing" as practiced pre- and post- World War 
IV^— Brainwashing and Brainwashing in Red China: The Men Who Defied 7t— approached the 
Lawrences with a request to examine the curriculum materials about which they had become 
concerned. Hunter took the materials for a period of time and upon returning them, informed 
Jackie and Malcolm that they were indeed examples of methods and techniques used in Russian 
and Chinese brainwashing. [The Maryland State School Board also made a statement regarding 
the fact that Maryland's teachers were not trained to use "psychoanalytical techniques in the 
classroom.") The psycho-social technique for confronting prejudice [isolation of the blonds] 
should be especially disturbing in light of increased concern over schoolyard taunting and 
increased school violence at the close of this century.] 

"E.C.S. AT 20: The Compact's Potential Is Still to Be Realized" by Thomas Toch was an 

article from Education Week [October 24, 1984) which covered the early history of the Educa- 
tion Commission of the States. The excerpts warrant repeating: 

"Some degree of order needs to be brought out of this chaos," wrote James B. Conant, 
the President of Harvard University, in 1964 in reference to education policymaking in this 
nation. "We cannot have a national educational poUcy," he added in his book Shaping 
Educational Policy, "but we might be able to evolve a nationwide policy." The solution, 
Mr. Conant concluded, was a "new venture in cooperative federalism," a compact among 
the states to create an organization to focus national attention on the pressing education 
issues of the day. The following spring, the Carnegie Corporation and the Ford Foundation 


awarded a grant to Terry Sanford, who had recently left the governorship of North Carolina, 
to transform the Conant idea into reality. John W. Gardner was Carnegie's president at the 
time. A preliminary draft of the compact was completed by July and endorsed by represen- 
tatives from all 50 states and the territories in September. Within five months, 10 states had 
ratified the agreement, giving it legal status. Out of the compact was born the Education 
Commission of the States [ECS).... 

"We invented a little device to get the compact approved quickly," Mr. Sanford, now 
the president of Duke University, said recently. "We didn't need money from the legisla- 
tures, we had plenty of foundation funding, so we agreed that the governors could ratify it 
by executive order."... 

But since the estabhshment under Governor James B. Hunt [also of North Carolina] of 
the Commission's Task Force on Education for Economic Growth two years ago, ECS's role 
has begun to change. The task force's report Action for Excellence joined A Nation at Risk 
and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching's High School as principal 
voices in the chorus of reform. It gained Gov. Hunt and several other "education governors" 
who were linked to ECS wide national pubhcity, and, in making a series of specific reform 
recommendations, thrust ECS into the policy-making arena. 

[Ed. Note: The multi-million dollar contract to operate the National Assessment of Educational 
Progress, awarded to the ECS in 1969, was transferred to Educational Testing Service [ETS) in 
1983. This move was significant due to Carnegie's deep involvement in establishing, funding, 
and directing ECS's and ETS's activities. Essentially, this move gave Carnegie Corporation and 
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching extensive control over the direction and 
content of American education as a whole and individual state policy making in paticular with 
regard to education. Dennis Cuddy, Ph.D. — rightly, it seems — refers to the U.S. Department of 
Education as the "Carnegie Department of Education."] 

The presidentially appointed National Council for Educational Research (NCER) issued 
two "Policies on Missions for Educational Research and Development Centers," dated June 
14 and October 25, 1984, shortly after regional hearings had been held regarding the need for 
regulations to implement the Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment [PPRA) . The following 
are excerpts from NCER's two policy statements: 

JUNE 14, 1984. In the past two decades, federally funded research and curriculum projects 
have frequently provoked considerable controversy. This is primarily a result of deeply di- 
vergent philosophical views on the nature and purpose of pubhc education in this country. 
During this period, the views of the general public were, for the most part, excluded from 
serious consideration as educational research came to be viewed as the observation and 
measurement of the education process using the largely quantitative techniques of modern 
social science [Skinnerian behaviorism] . 

OCTOBER 25, 1984. Insofar as it represents a broad spectrum of interests, including parents 
who have a serious stake in the outcomes of federally funded educational research, the 
Council affirms that the fundamental philosophical foundation for such research should be 
the unambiguous recognition and respect for the dignity and value of each human person. 

For the past fifteen years the U.S. Department of Education has ignored the testimony 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1984 211 

taken at the regional hearings, the views spelled out in the above-mentioned policies, as well 
as the requirements of the PPRA. The two policy statements represent a strong position taken 
by the National Council, which oversaw the research activities of the former National Institute 
of Education prior to its being incorporated into the Office of Educational Research and Im- 
provement [OERI) . The Council had quite obviously read the important testimony regarding 
Skinnerian mastery learning/direct instruction which was given at the regional hearings on the 
PPRA. The Council took a stand on the most important question facing us today in education: 
Are we, as free Americans, going to continue to accept the succinctly expressed definition of 
educational research included in the last sentence of the June 14 policy, a definition which 
is undeniably behaviorist and part of the behavioral psychologists' vocabulary — "observa- 
tion and measurement of the educational process using the largely quantitative techniques of 
modern social science"? Or do we agree with the Council that the fundamental philosophical 
foundation for such research should be the "unambiguous recognition and respect for the 
dignity and value of each human person"? 

[Ed. Note: As a complete counterpoint to the strong pohcy position taken by the council, the 
following information should be carefully considered. Professor Robert Glaser, professor of 
psychology and education and co-director of the Learning Research and Development Center 
of the University of Pittsburgh, was for all intents and purposes put in charge of the Com- 
mission on Reading in 1983. It was Glaser who appointed members to the Commission on 
Reading, thereby wielding considerable influence on the recommendations resulting from that 
Commission's report. Becoming a Nation of Readers, for which Glaser wrote the foreward and 
which was published under the auspices of the National Academy of Education's Commission 
on Education and Public Policy with sponsorship from the National Institute of Education. That 
report was probably the most important study which set the stage for the Reading Excellence 
Act of 1998 [REA), setting in motion numerous activities which resulted in a determination 
that only proposals which were based on "scientific research" would be accepted for funding 
under the REA. In the foreward to Becoming a Nation of Readers, Glaser said: 

In teaching, as in other professions, well-researched methods and tools are essential. This 
report makes clear the key role of teachers' professional knowledge. Research on instructional 
pacing and grouping and on adaptation to children's accomplishments has contributed to 
new ideas that can help all children master the basics and then attain levels of literacy far 
beyond the basic competencies. The reading teacher's repertoire must draw upon the deep- 
ening knowledge of child development, of the nature of the art and elegance of children's 
literature, and of the psychology of learning. . . . The report indicates why changes in teacher 
training, internship experiences, continuing, and sabbatical periods are necessary if teachers 
are to learn and refine their skills for their complex task. 

Professor Glaser's credentials are uniquely important, placing him in a position of promi- 
nence regarding what method of instruction will be used in American classrooms — one based 
on the worldview that man is a human being, created in the image of God, with conscience, 
soul, intellect, creativity, free will, or one based on the new psychology of learning ["scientific," 
evolutionist, "research-based") — the worldview that man is an animal whose behavior can be 
manipulated by creating the necessary environment to bring about predictable, predetermined, 
neurologically conditioned responses. [The reader should refer to Appendix III, "Excerpts from 
Programmed Learning: Evolving Principles and Industrial Applications," which is a report of 


a 1960 seminar of businessmen and social scientists to discuss programmed learning and its 
application to business, at which professors B.F. Skinner, Arthur A. Lumsdaine and Robert 
Glaser were the speakers and discussion leaders. Robert Glaser was also a research advisor to 
the American Institute for Research at that time. Several pages of this report of the seminar 
are devoted to Glaser's "Principles of Programming.") 

According to the following quote from an official Mission, Texas, school memorandum 
to concerned parents. Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction [ECRI), the fraternal twin of 
DISTAR [Direct Instruction for Systematic Teaching and Remediation), led the pack as far as 
Robert Glaser's National Commission on Reading was concerned: 

In 1986 ECRI was evaluated as playing a primary role in the United States becoming a nation 
of readers. The Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement (sponsored by the U.S. 
Office of Educational and Improvement) published Implementing the Recommendations of 
Becoming a Nation of Readers. This document makes a line-by-line comparison of 31 reading 
programs, including ECRI. ECRI received the highest score of all 31 programs in meeting the 
specific recommendations of the National Commission on Reading. 

Siegfried Engelmann's DISTAR [Reading Mastery) and ECRI are both based on the very 
sick philosophical world view that considers man nothing but an animal — an "organism" [in 
Skinner's words) — responsive to the manipulation of stimulus-response-stimulus immediate 
reinforcement or rewards to bring about predetermined, predictable behaviors. Skinner's quote 
about making a "pigeon a high achiever by reinforcing it on a proper schedule" is repeated 
often in this book to impress on the reader the horrifying aspect of animal training masquer- 
ading as education in these programs. 

The National Research Council's Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, com- 
piled by Catherine E. Snow, M. Susan Burns, and Peg Griffin, Eds. [National Academy Press: 
Washington, D.C., 1998) acknowledged G. Reid Lyon, Ph.D., chief of the Learning Disabilities, 
Cognitive, and Social Development Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Hu- 
man Development of the National Institutes of Health [U.S. Department of Health and Human 
Services) who supports behaviorist reading programs like ECRI and DISTAR [Reading Mastery) 
as well as instruction based on so-called "medical and scientific research. " Other individuals 
mentioned in Preventing Reading Difficulties who were involved in the promotion of DISTAR 
include Edward Kame'enui, Department of Special Education of the University of Oregon and 
Marilyn Jager Adams. These two individuals also served on the Committee on the Prevention 
of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, and Adams is mentioned in Becoming a Nation of 
Readers. [See 1998 Herzer critique of Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children.) 

What does ah of this teh the reader? Perhaps the same thing that is suggested to this 
writer: that the Reading Excellence Act will provide the funding and technical assistance to 
implement across the nation not just reading programs, but all curricula — including workforce 
training — in the mode of DISTAR and ECRI, which are based on "scientific, medical research." 
It is difficult to come to any other conclusion. 

In hght of this information, the Reading Excellence Act of 1998 should be repealed. It is 
an unconstitutional curriculum mandate in violation of the General Education Provisions Act 
of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. Call your congressmen and senators 
and ask that they support legislation to repeal this Act.] 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1984 213 

In 1984 Schooling and Technology, Vol. 3, Planning for the Future: A CoLLABORAtive 

Model, An Interpretive Report on Creative Partnerships in Technology — An Open Forum by 
Dustin H. Heuston, World Institute for Computer-Assisted Teaching [WICAT) was published 
[Southeastern Regional Council for Educational Improvement: Research Triangle Park, North 
Carolina, 1984) under a grant from the U.S. Office of Education, HEW, National Institute of 
Education. An excerpt from "Discussion: Developing the Potential of an Amazing Tool" in 
Schooling and Technology follows: 

We've been absolutely staggered by realizing that the computer has the capability to act as 
if it were ten of the top psychologists working with one student.... You've seen the tip of 
the iceberg. Won't it be wonderful when the child in the smallest county in the most distant 
area or in the most confused urban setting can have the equivalent of the finest school in 
the world on that terminal and no one can get between that child and the curriculum? We 
have great moments coming in the history of education. 

[Ed. Note: The comment regarding the computer's role as a "top psychologist" is as disturbing 
as is the idea of "no one getting between the child and the curriculum. " These ideas lay to 
rest the publicly stated purpose of the words "parent-school partnerships" which represent a 
superb example of semantic deception.] 

How TO Measure Attitudes by Marlene E. Henderson, Lynn Lyons Morris and Carol Taylor 
Fitz-Gibbon, Center for the Study of Evaluation of the University of California, Los Angeles 
[Sage Pubhcations: Thousand Oaks, Cal., 1984) was pubhshed. Funded by the National Insti- 
tute of Education, the table of contents fohows: 

An Introduction to the Measurement of Attitudes and Attitude Change 

Selecting from among Alternative Approaches to Collecting Attitude Information 

Self Report and Reports of Others 

Interviews, Surveys and Polls 

Logs, Journals, Diaries and Reports 

Observation Procedures, Sociometric Procedures, Various Names for the Attitude 

You Want to Measure 

Reference Books that List, Describe, or Evaluate Existing Measures 

Validity and Reliability of Attitude Instruments 

Vahdity: Is the Instrument an Appropriate One to Measure? What You Want to 

Names and Addresses of Publishers of Attitude Measures 


N.Y., 1984). Professor Tom's book provides an extremely valuable contribution to literature 
on behavioral professional development for teachers and research on "effective teaching." 
Excerpts follow: 

A.S. Barr... himself, as already noted, increasingly came to believe that his original com- 


mitment to the behavioral basis of good teaching was naive. While he retained to the very 
end his lifelong interest in studying effective teaching, he gradually accepted the view that 
effective teaching could not be reduced to specific behaviors or behavioral patterns. In one 
of Barr's last papers, he made clear his belief that teaching success did not have a solely 
behavioral basis: "Acts are not good or bad, effective or ineffective, appropriate or inappro- 
priate in general but in relation to the needs, purposes and conditions that give rise to them" 
(Barr, 1958, p. 696]. In an unpublished memo, written to identify a research agenda for his 
retirement years, Barr [1960] admonished himself to strike out in a new direction: "Can be- 
haviors be considered in isolation or out of context? I think not. The tabulation of behaviors 
out of context may be misleading. I beheve this is important. Study this carefully."... 

Performance-Based Teacher Education 

A fundamental irony in the history of research on effective teaching is that its half century 
of barren results was rewarded in the 1970s by making this research a key component of the 
reform movement known as performance-based teacher education [PBTE].... Unfortunately, 
we know little more than Barr did fifty years ago about which teaching behaviors consistently 
produce student learning. Medley, though sympathetic to PBTE, is quite candid on this topic: 
"The proportion of the content of the teacher education curriculum that has been empirically 
shown to relate to teacher effectiveness is so small that if all of what is taught to students in 
preservice programs was eliminated except what research has been validated there would 
be nothing left but a few units in methods of teaching.... After a careful review of relevant 
research. Heath and Nielson conclude that the conception, design, and methodology of these 
studies preclude their use as an empirical basis for PBTE (1974]. The authors go one step 
further and summarize other reviews of the connection between teacher characteristics and 
student learning; they find that the reviewers of this research generally conclude that "an 
educationally significant relationship simply has not been demonstrated." 

For What Were They Searching? 

The problems associated with the four teacher effectiveness strategies are so severe that the 
last part of the chapter addresses the question of whether the teacher effectiveness tradition 
can be saved, a question whose answer is unclear. 

Is There A One Best Way? 

Unlike earlier critics who came largely from outside the teacher effectiveness tradition and 
who argued that this tradition was an overly narrow approach to the study of teaching, many 
of the current doubters are well-known members of the empirical research estabhshment. 
McKeachie, for example, notes that he no longer believes in the educational relevance of 
the principles of learning about which he used to lecture teachers. He now beheves that 
these principles apply most clearly to the learning of animals in highly controlled artificial 
situations, and that meaningful educational learning is both "more robust and more complex" 
than the situations to which the classic principles apply. . . . 

The main body of this chapter examines four strategies for approaching the study of 
teacher effectiveness: discovering the so-called laws of learning; identifying effective teach- 
ing behaviors; uncovering aptitude-treatment interactions, and specifying models of effective 
instruction such as direct instruction. Careful attention is given to the specific difficulties 
experienced by the practitioners of each research strategy. The results from these four be- 
haviorally oriented research strategies are at best inconclusive.... The last section of the 
chapter examines the question of whether the teaching effectiveness model can be saved. 
Here I suggest that the various research strategies involve trade-offs and that these trade-offs 
make it difficult to have an instructional theory that is both accurate and applicable to a 
wide variety of situations. In addition, those instructional models that attempt to transcend 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1984 215 

the trade-offs between accuracy and [applicability] generally have tended to be composed 
of low-level generalizations that lack conceptual sophistication, such as direct instruction, 
academic learning time, and mastery learning, [p. 30-45) 

Grant application from Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and DEVELopment 
to the U.S. Department of Education for "Excellence in Instructional Delivery Systems: Research 
and Dissemination of Exemplary Outcome-Based Programs" was approved by T.H. Bell in 1984. 
William Spady, director of the Far West Laboratory, carried out this project — which came to 
be known as the infamous "Utah Grant." The following cover letter from Utah Superintendent 
of Public Instruction Leland Burningham to Secretary of Education T.H. Bell, dated July 27, 
1984, is reproduced in its entirety: 

Dear Secretary Bell: 

I am forwarding this letter to accompany the proposal which you recommended Bill 
Spady and I prepare in connection with Outcome-Based Education. 

This proposal centers around the detailed process by which we will work together to 
implement Outcome-Based Education using research verified programs. This will make it 
possible to put outcome-based education in place, not only in Utah but in all schools of the 
nation. For those who desire, we will stand ready for regional and national dissemination of 
the Outcome-Based Education program. 

We are beginning to see positive, preliminary results from some of the isolated schools 
in Utah which have implemented Outcome-Based Education. These positive indicators are 
really exciting! 

We sincerely urge your support for funding the proposal as presented. 

Warmest regards, 

G. Leland Burningham 
State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction 

Attached to the grant application was Spady's "Summary of Professional Experience" 
which included "Senior Research Consultant to the Washington, D.C. schools" during 1977- 
1978 — the same time the D.C. schools implemented mastery learning. 

In a Washington Post article dated August 1, 1977, entitled "Competency Tests Set in 26 
Schools," Thomas Sticht — who was later named to U.S. Secretary of Labor Elizabeth Dole's 
Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills [SCANS) — was also mentioned as an 
associate director at the National Institute of Education [NIE) at the time mastery learning 
was implemented in the D.C. schools. The Post article quoted Sticht extensively, verifying that 
he and Spady were both deeply involved in the implementation of the new mastery learning 
curriculum. Later, in 1987, The Washington Post again paraphrased Sticht as follows: 

Many companies have moved operations to places with cheap, relatively poorly educated 
labor. What may be crucial, they say, is the dependability of a labor force and how well it 
can be managed and trained, not its general educational level, although a small cadre of 
highly educated creative people is essential to innovation and growth. Ending discrimina- 


tion and changing values are probably more important than reading in moving low income 
families into the middle class. 

[Ed. Note: What an extraordinary comment from someone supposedly involved in helping 
inner city students learn the basic skills! Nine years later, in an article in the March 5, 1996 
issue of the Washington Times, the extent of academic damage caused by the Mastery Learn- 
ing programs initiated by Spady and Sticht in 1977 was revealed: 

In the verbal portion of the 1995 Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) D.C. public school stu- 
dents scored 342 out of a possible 800—86 points below the national average. On the math 
portion of the SAT, District public school students scored 375 out of a possible 800 — 107 
points below the national average. 

In 1999 the Washington, D.C. schools are using the same mastery learning/direct instruc- 
tion method which caused the problem to solve the problem! In addition, the same Washington 
Times article stated that present Secretary of Education Richard Riley's home state of South 
Carolina, which probably has been more deeply involved in Effective Schools Research than 
any other state with the notable exception of Mississippi, had the next lowest scores.] 

Important: The "Excellence in Instructional Delivery Systems" grant [the "Utah Grant"] 
evaluation report, entitled Models of Instructional Organization: A Casebook on Mastery Learn- 
ing and Outcomes-Based Education and compiled by project director Robert Burns [Far West 
Laboratory for Educational Research and Development: San Francisco, April 1987), stated in 
its "Conclusion" that: 

The four models of instructional organization outlined in this casebook are difficult programs 
to implement. The practices of the ten schools described in the case studies are indeed com- 
mendable. Yet we do not offer these ten case studies as "exemplary schools" deserving of 
emulation. Rather, they describe educators who have attempted to go beyond current cur- 
ricular, instructional or organizational arrangements found in the majority of schools today. 
They have accepted the challenge of translating a difficult set of ideas into actual practice. 
And while they may not have always been completely successful, their experiences have 
provided us with ideas about how to begin moving closer to the ideal of successful learning 
for all students. 

[Ed. Note: The above wording is similar to wording in the evaluation of Project INSTRUCT, 
another model mastery learning program [1975) . Neither mastery learning project had positive 
"academic" results. One can only conclude that academic achievement was not the intent. 
The documented results were changes in "curricular, instructional and organizational arrange- 
ments" in the schools involved so that they could become performance-based, necessary for 
school-to-work training. 

Lack of positive results indicated in the evaluation of the mastery learning/outcome- 
based education experiments in schools — including the much-touted Johnson City, New York's 
Outcomes-Driven Developmental Model — did not deter the educators/sociologists from imple- 
menting outcome-based education/mastery learning in "all schools of the nation." 

In assembling this research on mastery learning/outcome-based education/direct instruc- 
tion programs and their evaluations, it appears that academic achievement has not been the 
desired object or the result of the use of these "What Works" methods and curricular thrusts. 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1984 217 

There are no longitudinal studies or long-term results indicating that the newly trumpeted "sci- 
entific, research-based" criteria for program development is valid criteria. The lack of evidence 
should serve as a clear warning to parents and good educators to steer clear of any programs 
or program development based on any of the above-mentioned models, or on the Skinnerian 
method called for by Effective Schools Research. (See Appendix XXVI.)] 

David Hornbeck, superintendent of Maryland's public schools, in testimony BEfore the 
Maryland State Board of Education in 1984 attempted to "mandate community service at 
state-approved places." During Hornbeck's testimony he quoted the late Ernest Boyer, then- 
president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, as saying, "In the end 
the goal of service in the schools is to teach values— to help all students understand that to 
be fully human one must serve. " 

The July 1984 edition of the Effective School Report carried an article entitled "Effective 
Schools for Results" by Dr. Robert E. Corrigan and Dr. George W. Bailey. Excerpts follow: 

Over the past thirty years there have been three primary programs related to the de- 
sign and implementation of effective schools and successful learning results. Each of these 
research efforts focused on different aspects or variables in the following areas: behavioral 
change and the appUcation of learning theory to produce successful learning results; the 
identification of sociological factors operating in effective schools; teaching strategies to effect 
learning, and the combination of these variables and practices in a systematic approach to 
achieve learning and management results.... The following professionals and groups have 
initiated successful educational programs which can work together as a common system to 
deliver predictable success for every learner — the ultimate criterion of an effective school 
program: Wilbur Brookover and Ron Edmonds of the Effective Schools Research Movement; 
B.F. Skinner, Norman Crowder, Robert and Betty 0. Corrigan, 1950-1984, Mastery Learning 
Practices; Madeline Hunter, 1962-1984, Mastery Teaching Practices; R.E. Corringan, B.O. 
Corrigan, Ward Corrigan and Roger A. Kaufman, 1960-1984, A Systematic Approach for Ef- 
fectiveness [SAFE) for district-wide installation of Effective Schools.... 

Skinner proposed that it is feasible to deliver predictable learning mastery results when 
teachers performed the following programmed actions to design and implement lesson plans 
or curricula. These design and teaching steps describe the general process steps of learner- 
centered mastery learning instruction. 

[Ed. Note: Included in step 3 of the above-mentioned learner-centered mastery learning in- 
struction is: "Provide immediate feedback as to the correctness of learner responses, provide 
for immediate correction of errors, and control the progress of learning as students proceed in 
small steps along the tested learning path to master the learning objectives and criteria with 
predictable success."] 

The article continues: 

The ultimate benefits to be derived through the installation of this mastery of skills delivery 
system will be the predictable success of all future graduates to master relevant skills to enter 
and succeed in society. Graduation skill standards would be continually evaluated and, where 
necessary, will be revised based on new skill requirements established by industrial, civic. 


and academic leaders either (a) to get and hold jobs, [b) to advance to higher education, 
and/or (c) to be self-sufficient following graduation. 

[Ed. Note: How much clearer could the Corrigans be in describing the need for Skinnerian mas- 
tery learning/direct instruction in order to implement school-to-work? [See Appendix VI.)] 

Dr. Theodore Sizer's Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) was founded in 1984. Major 
Coalition principles are: 

• Focus on helping adolescents to learn to use their minds well.... 

• Less is more: Each student should master a limited number of essential skills areas 
of knowledge.... 

• School goals should apply to all students.... 

• Teaching and learning should be personalized; each teacher should have no more 
than 80 students.... 

• Scrap the time-honored feature of the American education system: graduation re- 
quirements based on the so-called Carnegie Units, or the "seat time" students spend 
in various subject areas.... 

• Students should be active workers [student-as-worker philosophy].... 

• Students should be able to demonstrate mastery of skills and knowledge. 

The Coalition of Essential Schools [CES) was established at Brown University. From 
twelve "charter" schools in four states, CES by 1993 grew to include more than 130 member 
schools in nearly thirty states. Along with the Education Commission of the States, the CES 
sponsors Re:Learning, a partnership with participating states to build support for essential 
school change at the state and district levels. 

Ten years later evaluation studies have found that gains weren't measurable. Even so, 
philanthropist Walter H. Annenberg pledged to donate $50 million to the Annenberg Institute 
for School Reform, run by Sizer and based at Brown University. 

It is important to mention that the majority, if not all, of the major education reform 
projects have failed to improve students's academic test scores. Notable examples are: Johnson 
City, New York — the Outcomes-Driven Development Model [ODDM) by John Champlin; Wil- 
liam Spady's Far West Laboratory Utah Grant, "Excellence in Instructional Delivery Systems: 
Research and Dissemination of Exemplary Outcomes-Based Programs"; and Marc Tucker's 
National Center on Education and the Economy [NCEE), which moved from Washington, 
D.C. to Rochester, New York in 1988 to "help" that city's much-heralded reform movement. 
The Rochester Democrat and Chronicle of March 14, 1993 in an article entitled "A City's Dream 
Unfulfilled" — after five years of Tucker's "help" — reported the following: 

Since Rochester's schools started reform, fewer graduates have received the more stringent 
Regents diploma. In 1986-87, 23.1% of graduates had Regents diplomas, and 17.5% grad- 
uated with them last year [1993]. 

John I. Goodlad clearly stated that how a student feels about school is more important 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1984 219 

than test scores in an article entitled "A Cooperative Effort Is Needed: Can Our Schools Get 
Better?" [originally published in Phi Delta Kappan, January, 1979 when Dr. Goodlad was dean 
of the Graduate School of Education at the University of CaUfornia, Los Angeles, and re-pub- 
lished in Education Digest on November 1, 1984.) Excerpts follow: 

It seems to my associates and me that how a student spends time in school and how he 
feels about what goes on there is of much greater significance than how he scores on a 
standardized achievement test. But I am not sure the American people are ready to put a 
criterion such as this ahead of marks and scores. And so it will be difficult for schools to get 
better and more difficult for them to appear so.... 

Adherence to norm-referenced [competitive] standardized test scores as the standard 
for judging student, teacher, and school performance has led to a stultifying approach to 

In a personal letter to Charlotte Iserbyt from Steven M. Hersey, executive Director of the 
Maine Association of Christian Schools dated November 17, 1984,^* Hersey enclosed portions 
of a testimony by Kevin Ryan, professor at Boston University, regarding Boston University, the 
country of Portugal and the World Bank. Professor Ryan was called to testify for the Maine 
State Department of Education in a legal hearing against the Maine Association of Christian 
Schools. The following excerpts from Ryan's testimony are important due to the disclosure by 
Ryan of his role in the development of a teacher-training faculty system — modeled after that 
of the United States — for Portugal immediately after the communist takeover of that country. 
One might ask why a communist country like Portugal should choose the American teacher 
education curriculum to accomphsh its political and philosophical goals. Portions of Ryan's 
testimony follow: 

A. I [Ryan] am a professor of Education [at Boston University] and I teach graduate 
courses and supervise dissertations. But I'm there primarily now to work on a proj- 
ect to help a Portuguese Minister of Education develop a teacher-training faculty 

Q. ...Could you describe what it is you're doing? 

A. Well, the Portuguese nation had a social revolution [communist takeover] in 1974, 
and at that time they decided that their educational system was very inadequate, that 
it was not democratic, that the mandatory compulsory age of education was only 
to the fourth grade, and they mandated a system of education not unlike the United 
States in terms of compulsory education up to grade 12 and an elementary through 
high school division. The country was very interested in this. They also wanted to 
be part of the European Economic Community. But, unfortunately, Portugal was a 
poor country, and the World Bank said to them, you will not be admitted into the 
European Economic Community until you get in place a modern school system. 
And they [the World Bank] have come through with a good deal of financial sup- 
port for that. 

An important part of that is the development of a teacher training infrastructure. 
Now, what that means is that Portugal, which has, as of right now, a very small and 
very sort of casual teacher education method, is establishing 12 regional teacher 
education institutions at the university level positions; and they looked to the rest 
of the world for help on this, and they put out a request for proposals.... Boston 


University... was chosen... to train the faculties of these 12 new institutions.... 

Q. Now when the proposal was first made... was it contemplated that Boston University 
might do all the training of Portuguese teachers themselves? 

A. Yes, I did. My feeling is that in this particular project the stakes are enormously 
high. The 120 people who are currently right now being selected for these roles in 
these 12 institutions are going to be there for 20 or 30 years; so that the course they 
have on teaching or supervision is going to set an intellectual and training agenda 
for them for a number of years. They are going to go on and train all these teachers 
with what they learned. 

Q. And do you have any responsibility with respect to the curriculum that will be used 
in the program to develop a teacher training instruction? 

A. WeU, the Portuguese did a lot of study on their own, and they looked at various 
curricula for teacher education.... I think one of the reasons they selected Boston 
University was because the curriculum that they wanted taught seems to be one hke 
an American teacher education curriculum. And we have their indication of what 
courses they want, and the sequence. And we — and this happened before I was 
there — we went with our course outlines and, in a sense, negotiated with them to a 
mutual satisfaction about what the content of what the various courses would be. 

Q. Do you belong to any professional associations? 

A. I am a member of the American Educational Research Association; I am a member 
of Phi Delta Kappa; I am a member of the Network of Educational Excellence; I was 
a member of the Master of Arts in Teaching Association — in fact, I was president, 
before it — before — I think it's defunct now. 

[Ed. Note: Of interest is the fact that Paulo Freire, the well-known radical Brazilian educator 
who wrote Pedagogy of the Oppressed, was also a consultant to the government of Portugal 
at the time of its revolution. (See August 19, 1986 entry for New York Times article.) As of 
1992 Professor Kevin Ryan is reported to be involved in and the director of the Center for the 
Advancement of Ethics and Character at Boston University.] 

An article entitled "Observing the Birth of the Hatch Amendment Regulations" by 

Bert I. Greene and Marvin Pasch was published in the December 1984 issue of Educational 
Leadership, monthly journal of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 
Excerpts from the article follow: 

However, from the day the Hatch Amendment was passed, the written consent requirement 
lay dormant, that is, until 1984. As Charlotte Iserbyt, an education activist and former De- 
partment of Education employee, [stated] in a memorandum to her conservative aUies dated 
10 January 1984: 

The only tool available to us to protect our children in the government schools is a federal 
law, the Hatch Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment, passed unanimously by the U.S. 
Senate in 1978, for which the Office of Education promised regulations in early 1979.... I 
know that many of you, for good reason, feel that the Hatch Amendment has been use- 
less. Of course it has been useless. Any statute which has no mechanism for enforcement 
is nothing more than a scrap of paper.... 

Iserbyt then turned her attention to the reason why regulations have not been promul- 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1985 221 

Although excellent regulations were drafted in 1982 by conservatives in the Office of the 
General Counsel (who have been subsequently fired by Secretary Bell), they have not seen 
the light of day since Bell doesn't like them and he also does not want to offend his educa- 
tionist friends by signing off on regulations that will disturb their modus operandi — their 
persistent efforts to change the values, attitudes and beliefs of students to conform with 
those necessary to bring about a sociahst/humanist one world government. 

As Iserbyt clearly saw, it is through regulations that responsibilities become clarified, 
procedures for grievance and redress estabUshed, and penalties for non-compliance stated. 
Therefore, the importance of regulations cannot be overstated.... Interestingly, Iserbyt had 
notification of the proposed regulations prior to 10 January as evidenced by an Urgent Alert 
she sent to her "Education Group Leader Activists." Her guidance... included suggestions 
related to the scope of the soon-to-be published regulations. She argued: 

It was the intent of Congress to cover all the mindbending techniques and materials used 
in our children's classrooms, in special education and guidance, not just the narrow and 
difficult to define areas of psychological and psychiatric testing or treatment. 

She provided a set of quotable commentaries for her contacts as they prepared oral or 
written testimony.... 

Some people who testified argued that the techniques being used in our schools can 
be hkened to those used in Russia, Red China, and Nazi Germany.... 

A potentially major educational change has occurred, and the education profession 
failed to block it. 

[Ed. Note: Anyone following or involved with the Anita Hoge/ Pennsylvania case will tell you 
that the U.S. Department of Education — under Secretaries of Education William Bennett and 
Lamar Alexander — pulled out all the stops, at every level, to thwart Hoge's efforts and those 
of other parents who tried to use this law. Such an assault on those who paid the bills — and 
provided the children ["resources") upon whom they experiment even today — was, and is, 


On March 6, 1985 Education Week published an article entitled "Half of Cmcago Students 
Drop Out, Study Finds: Problem Called Enormous Human Tragedy." [Return to 1968 Learning 
and Instruction entry for details of the Chicago Mastery Learning debacle.) 

Effective Schools Development in Education Act was introduced into Congress on March 
8, 1985. An excerpt from the Extension of Remarks in the House of Representatives by Hon. 
Augustus F. Hawkins of California follows: 

Mr. Hawkins: Mr. Speaker, there are public schools in this Nation which evidence continuous 
improvement and growth in the academic achievement levels of their students, for each day 
that these students are in the school.... Where are these public schools? They are in Jackson, 
MS; Spencerport, NY; Los Angeles, CA; New York City; Glendale, AZ; Richmond, VA; Pitts- 
burgh, PA; Hartford, CT; Portland,OR; and many other cities throughout the Nation. 

What they have in common is a determination to improve pupil performance, pupil 


behavior, and the effectiveness of teaching and learning in their schools. They are adherents 
and advocates of the late Professor Ron Edmonds's — of Michigan State University and Har- 
vard University — effective school principles, which emphasize the belief that while public 
schools reahstically can't control what happens in their surrounding communities, public 
schools can control what happens within their "four walls." 

[Ed. Note: This particular legislation, which originally called for a whopping $230 million 
over a three-year period, did not pass. However, similar effective schools legislation, H.R. 747, 
passed and provided $4.5 million over a three-year period during William Bennett's tenure as 
U.S. Secretary of Education. 

The above schools— especially Jackson, Mississippi, the home of the Effective School 
Report and one of the first inner city schools used as an effective schools [ML/DI) research 
experiment — which have been using mastery learning for a long period of time would provide 
an excellent list for Congress to use in an investigation of inner cities' norm-referenced test 

The Dallas Morning News of March 23, 1985 ran an article entitled "Teachers' Group 
to Develop New Curriculum" by Karel HoUoway of Boston. An excerpt follows: 

The National Education Association is beginning an 18-month program to develop a new 
school curriculum designed to assure that students master basic skills, NEA President Mary 
Futrell announced Friday. "The association first will survey scholars to determine what they 
believe constitutes 'mastery' in reading, writing, mathematics and social studies. Using cri- 
teria from the scholars and the findings of current education research studies, the association 
will develop experimental strategies to teach the mastery skills at five schools that will be 
selected from throughout the nation. The results of the programs tried at the five schools 
will determine the shape of the new curriculum," Mrs. Futrell said in a speech to the Edu- 
cation Writers Association. That curriculum then will be tested for three years at 24 schools 
nationwide.... The Mastery In Learning Project will be funded by $600,000 from the NEA 
and donations from other foundations. Nine education research institutes will participate 
in the project. 

Summit Christian Academy of Dallas, Texas included the above article in a promotional 
flyer on which it typed the following additional information regarding the use of mastery 

The purpose in sending you this article is to evidence that truly we did create "TOMORROW'S 
EDUCATION TODAY" five years ago at a cost of over four million dollars. We employed over 
250 dedicated Christian writers and editors to create the LIFEPAC curriculum. Each had an 
average of five years classroom teaching experience, and over 75% held Masters degrees or 
higher, and 40 held Doctorate degrees. Truly, there is no finer curriculum in the market place 
today. For comparison between our curriculum, A.C.E., A-Beka, Bob Jones and others, please 
write to: Summit Christian Academy, 13789 Noel Road, Suite 100, Dallas, Texas 75240. 

[Ed. Note: This article proves the extensive use by Christian educators of the same Skinnerian 
mastery learning used and recommended by the National Education Association. How can 
Christian educators, opposed to the teaching of evolution, support a teaching method based on 
Darwin's theory of evolution? Dr. Francis Schaeffer was right on target when he said: "Many of 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1985 223 

our secular schools have consistently taught these presuppositions [evolutionary theory) and 
unhappily many of our Christian lower schools and colleges have taught the crucial subjects 
no differently than the secular schools. "] 

Education Daily of April 5, 1985 published an item entitled "ItACHERS Influence Students' 
Values through Writing Assignments" which stated in part: 

Researchers attending the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association 
here said writing can be used to clarify students' values and even alter their views on con- 
troversial subjects. 

But teachers can also use writing to manipulate a student's viewpoint and attitude on 
controversial issues, said a researcher who has studied how writing changes attitudes. "You 
can generate attitude change by writing," said John Daly of the University of Texas. Daly 
said his research showed that writing an essay about an issue helps students clarify their 
own views. But when asked to write an essay arguing a position opposing their values, the 
students are lead to change their minds.... 

. . .And the greater the effort a student puts into a writing assignment, the greater the 
change in attitude, Daly concluded. 

Daly's finding disturbed some educators, who said they were concerned that teachers 
have the power to alter students' values. "It can be dangerous when we know that educa- 
tors have the power to influence kids' minds," said Barbara Mitchell of the University of 

The May 1985 Education Update from the Association for Supervision and CuRriculum 
Development contained a revealing article "Promising Theories Die Young" about the late 
Madehne Hunter, University of California at Los Angeles education professor and the nation's 
best known Mastery Teaching teacher trainer. Dr. Hunter was a psychologist who served more 
than twenty years as principal of the Experimental Laboratory Elementary School at UCLA. 
[John Goodlad also served at UCLA's lab school.) Hunter's views on Instructional Theory Into 
Practice [ITIP) and on dialectical thinking follow: 

Madeline Hunter, UCLA education professor and research interpreter, told a huge, doting 
audience that educational theorists and practitioners "badly need each other" and that it is 
high time to tap each other's strengths rather than zap each other's perceived flaws. Hunter 
said that she is particularly conscious of this schism because "I'm part of both but not re- 
ally one or the other." Hunter has been a school psychologist, principal, researcher, and, in 
ASCD immediate Past President Phil Robinson's words, "one of the most able... teachers of 
teachers." Hunter delivered three mandates for the next decade: 1. Unite educational theory 
and practice; 2. Recognize, integrate, and use all three kinds of knowledge; and 3. Move 
toward dialectical thinking. 

Under the article's subtitle, "Three Kinds of Knowledge," Hunter's presentation to the 
audience was covered as follows: 

When she was a school psychologist. Hunter said, she had an exchange with a teacher who 
had rebuked a student for making a silly remark: 


Hunter: What did the smart-aleck want? 

Teacher: Attention. 

Hunter: Have you ever heard of Pavlov? 

Teacher (amazed) : What do slobbering dogs have to do with it? 

In the same Education Update article, under subtitle "Toward Dialectical Thinking," 
Hunter's presentation reported: 

Hunter advised educators to move toward dialectical thinking, which means, she said, that 
with empathy, you "embrace the most convincing argument... against your own conclusion. 
Dialectical thinking will move us from right and wrong to better in this set of circumstances." 
Moving into this "thoughtful uncertainty," Hunter said, does not mean obligatory abandon- 
ment of one's own position, but she said, the advantage is that "where we take an opposing 
point of view and hold it in tension with our own point of view, each builds correction into 
the other." Hunter nudged educators to come out of "armed camps... where we're not col- 
laborating" so that "I understand why you think it's right for your students to line up while 
I think it's better for them to come in casually." And she concluded, "To respectfully address 
another person's point of view is a master, master step. Until we accomplish it in our own 
profession. . . I see very little hope for it in our community, in our cities, in our nation, and 
in the world." 

The validity of Hunter's claims of success for her ITIP mastery teaching program was 
questioned by Robert Slavin of Johns Hopkins University in his paper entitled "The Napa Eval- 
uation of Madeline Hunter's ITIP: Lessons Learned," published in Elementary School Journal 
(Vol. 87, No. 2: University of Chicago, 1986). Slavin says in part, "Although teachers in the 
program changed their behavior and students' engaged rates improved, program effects on 
student achievement were minimal." 

Robert Slavin followed up on his critique of Hunter's claims of success for her mastery 
teaching program with his report funded by the U.S. Department of Education entitled Mas- 
tery Learning Reconsidered, published by the Center for Research on Elementary and Middle 
Schools, Johns Hopkins University (Report No. 7, January 1987). An excerpt from the abstract 
of the report follows: 

Several recent reviews and meta-analyses have claimed extraordinarily positive effects of 
mastery learning on student achievement, and Bloom (1984a, b) has hypothesized that 
mastery-based treatments will soon be able to produce "two-sigma" (i.e., two standard 
deviation) increases in achievement. This article examines the literature on achievement 
effects of practical applications of group-based mastery learning in elementary and second- 
ary schools over periods of at least four weeks, using a review technique, "best evidence 
synthesis," which combines features of meta-analytic and traditional narrative reviews. The 
review found essentially no evidence to support the effectiveness of group-based mastery 
learning on standardized achievement measures. On experimenter-made measures, effects 
were generally positive but moderate in magnitude, with little evidence that effects main- 
tained over time. These results are discussed in light of the coverage vs. Mastery dilemma 
posed by group-based mastery learning. 

[Ed. Note: Slavin's critiques echo the negative results of mastery learning discussed else- 
where in this book. Unfortunately, ten years later Slavin received his mastery learning/direct 
instruction crown in 1999 when Slavin's program "Success for All," which also uses mastery 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1985 225 

learning/ direct instruction, was accepted as one of the nationally recognized programs for 
use in restructuring.] 

The Effective School Report's May 1985 issue contained an article entitled "Principal's 
Expectations as a Motivating Factor in Effective Schools." An excerpt follows: 

The principal expects specific behavior from particular teachers which should then translate 
into achievement by the students of these teachers; because of these varied expectations, 
the principal behaves differently toward different teachers; i.e., body language, verbal inter- 
actions and resource allocations. This treatment also influences the attitudes of the teacher 
toward the principal and their perception of the future utility of any increased effort toward 
student achievement. If this treatment is consistent over time, and if the teachers do not 
resist change, it will shape their behavior and through it the achievement of their students .... 
With time teachers' behavior, self-concepts of ability, perceptions of future utility, attitude 
toward the principal and students' achievement will conform more and more closely to the 
behavior originally expected of them. 

Education Daily of June 12, 1985 published "Sweeping Overhaul of Minnesota Education 
System Proposed." Excerpts follow: 

The Minnesota Business Partnership, an organization of 60 corporations, commissioned an 
education consulting firm to study the state education system and plan improvements. The 
result is the Minnesota Plan, the business community's proposals to radically restructure the 
state's education system. The plan was outlined Monday at a National Institute of Education 
seminar in Washington, D.C. by Paul Berman, President of BW Associates, which conducted 
the study. The proposal would make kindergarten through sixth grade the elementary level, 
set up grades seven through 10 as the common high schools, and create specialized programs 
for grades 11 and 12. Students would have to master a core program of communication, 
social studies, science and math until the 11th grade, and pass state competency exams at 
the end of the sixth and 10th grades. Moreover, the plan would ehminate state-mandated 
courses and allow districts and schools to determine course requirements. Under the plan, 
11th and 12th grade students could take courses at post secondary institutions, technical or 
vocational schools or even private corporations.... 

Despite the worries of business leaders in the partnership. . . most legislators don't feel 
a major restructuring is necessary. "Most of us feel the system is changing and responding 
to needs. But it is not in need of drastic change." But Berman counters that since "the best 
teachers are leaving at age 30 now," teacher improvement plans would help overburdened 
staff and increase student-teacher contact. Teaching teams composed of a lead teacher, 
teaching assistants and adjunct teachers would work with 120 students. This would allow 
for individual student learning programs and removal of student counselors.... "It's not a 
fantasy no matter how radical it is," Berman contends, adding that the public does not real- 
ize that "reforms we start today are not going to be in effect for 20 years. It takes time to 
modernize." (p. 6) 

[Ed. Note: In retrospect it seems, to this writer at least, that Minnesota was clearly out front 
in its early adoption of performance-based school-to-work agendas. [See Appendix X.)] 


North Carolina's Compentency-Based curriculum, "Basic Education Program," was 

introduced in 1985. A few of its more unusual "basic" competencies, involved students en- 
tertaining allegiance to a world constitution and a world government rather than to the U.S. 
Constitution. Excerpts follow: 

FIFTH GRADE: Develop a flag, seal, symbol, pledge and/or national anthem for a new 

country.... Design a postage stamp to be used worldwide. The stamp should denote what 

the world would need to make it a better place.... 

SIXTH GRADE: Draw national symbols for an imaginary nation.... 

SEVENTH GRADE: Understand the need for interdependence.... 

NINTH GRADE: Write a constitution for a perfect society. 

A National Education Association (NEA) press release for June 28- July 3, 1985 described 
in considerable detail the purpose of its Mastery In Learning project.'^ It was explained that 
Mastery Learning is 

a concept first proposed a generation ago by Harvard psychologist Jerome Bruner ... A growing 
body of research and educational reform proposals came from such respected educational 
analysts as Mortimer Adler [developer of the Paideia Proposal and long-time advocate of a 
one-world government, ed.], John Goodlad, Theodore Sizer, and Ernest Boyer who have all 
sought to translate Bruner's work into classroom reality. 

Also revealed in an NEA booklet on mastery learning is the fact that 

Mastery Learning is one of many instructional models. Others include Active Teaching, Direct 
Instruction, Student Team Learning, Socratic questioning, coaching, creative problem solving, 
Bruner's Concept Attainment Strategy, and Madeline Hunter's Target Teaching Approach. 
These models incorporate research on effective teaching, and all may be explored by the 
schools associated with the project. 

[Ed. Note: Jerome Bruner and B.F. Skinner were the developers of the highly controversial, 
federally funded curriculum M:ACOS [Man: A Course of Study].] 

Education Week of August 28, 1985 carried the article "Proponents of Mastery Learning 
Defend Method after Its Rejection by Chicago" which quoted Benjamin Bloom, often cited as 
"the father of Mastery Learning," as saying that some 50 million children around the globe 
are taught with a mastery learning approach. In addition. University of California Professor 
James H. Block is quoted as saying he "doesn't know of any major urban school system in the 
United States that has not adopted some kind of mastery learning program. " 

[Ed. Note: James Block's statement underscores the need for a Congressional investigation 
requiring the U.S. Department of Education to provide longitudinal/norm-referenced test scores 
for all "major urban school systems" that have used mastery learning/ direct instruction over 
the past thirty years. (See Appendix XXVI.)] 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1985 227 

"TOTAL Presentation Set for Educators" was the headline of an article in the 7>Zer 
[Texas] Morning Telegraph of October 31, 1985 [Sec. 3, p. 3). Excerpts follow: 

Texas Objectives for Total Academic Learning [TOTAL] will be revealed to Texas educators on 
Nov. 7 in Houston when four staff members of Region VII Education Service Center of Kilgore, 
make a presentation to the Texas Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 
(affihate of the national organization ASCD).... The foursome will describe TOTAL, share 
samples of productivity and give information on how to obtain the materials through their 
regional service centers.... Project TOTAL was born in Kilgore in January 1984 and matured 
during the reform-wrought summer after passage of House Bill 246 and its implementation 
of Chapter 75 by the Legislature.... 

Some 1500 teachers and 100 administrators in 75 districts of Region VII's Northeast 
Texas area were involved [in producing] the 5,000 pages of materials to aid school districts 
in complying with the law.... 

TOTAL provides foundation curriculum documents written in "teacher talk" encom- 
passing essential elements. It addresses all 13 subject areas of essential elements from kin- 
dergarten through 12th grade: English, language arts, mathematics, science, health, physical 
education, Texas and U.S. history, and computer literacy. These elements are developed into 
actual plans which teachers may use in helping students master the essential elements.... 

Objectives, activities and resources are suggested for each, and also suggested are means 
of evaluation to see how well students have mastered each objective.... 

"The big weakness I see is in the resource Hstings," she said. "We are trying to widen 
teachers' horizons where they haven't used much except textbooks and to give them added 
software that can be brought to their attention and should be available by fall 1986." 

[Ed. Note: The above article was selected to explain the process employed by the states to 
implement mastery learning/direct instruction in the early 1980s as a response to A Nation at 
Risk. The writer of this book wrote Ross Perot, who spearheaded the Texas education reform 
movement in the early 1980s, warning him of the intent behind reform and providing him 
with valuable documentation from the U.S. Department of Education. The writer received a 
return receipt for the materials, but no response.] 

Maine's State Department of Education 1985 Assessment of Educational Progress [MAEP] 
test item bank, based in part on National Assessment of Educational Progress [NAEP) test 
items, included the following correct answer as to why the Soviets occupied Eastern Europe 
after World War II: 

[Correct answer] 

Soviet occupation was primarily a result of the Soviet Union's desire for security along its 


[Ed. Note: One cannot help but wonder how the international community would have responded 
to the United States' occupation of Canada, Mexico, Cuba, the West Indies, Greenland, and 
Iceland in order to "secure its borders."] 

Maine Facilitator Center flyer regarding a teacher training seminar for "MoDels of 

Teaching" by Bruce Joyce et al. was distributed in 1985. Under the heading "Information Pro- 


cessing, One of Four Groups" was included: Direct Instruction: James Block, Benjamin Bloom, 
the late Madeline Hunter, and Ethna Reid — all prominent in development, implementation and 
promotion of Skinnerian mastery learning. An excerpt from the Maine Center's flyer regarding 
Direct Instruction follows: 

This model is a deductive approach to learning that presents the objective, models the skill 
and provides guides and independent practices. Direct Instruction requires multisensory 
lessons, constant monitoring by the teacher to insure understanding, and a wide range of 
review or practices. 

[Ed. Note: How fascinating that Bruce Joyce used the label "Direct Instruction" instead of mas- 
tery learning, which proves that the two labels are rightfully applied to the same method.] 

In 1985 THE U.S. Department of Education, through the Secretary's DiscRETioNary Fund 
under Secretary William Bennett, approved the promotion of and funding for development of 
a character education program by the Thomas Jefferson Research Center [TJRC) of Pasadena, 
California. The grant was for a "teacher training project demonstrating the viability of a dis- 
trict-wide educational program involving... the TJRC." Through the grant, the TJRC, founded 
in 1963, would apply its character education curriculum "across ah segments of the [Pasadena] 
district's grade levels... expanding the effort to parents and community, and... to other school 
districts, and to share... methods and approaches with other educators and institutions na- 
tionally. " Community service projects for elementary, middle, and high school students "are 
seen as extensions of classroom activity and essential elements in... the range of values being 
stressed." The TJRC's federally funded demonstration "character education" program included 
"Personal Responsibility SkiUs and Ethical Decision-Making." 

National dissemination was expected to be effected through regional and national work- 
shops, education conferences, computer conferences, and through TELE, "an electronic learn- 
ing exchange... a computerized network of educators... involved with exemplary programs 
and computer assisted instruction programs within California and... across the nation." The 
promotional literature for the TJRC's middle and high school Achievement Skills programs 
and the text of the teacher's manual for its middle school Achievement Skills program [1984] 
explicitly stated that "the basis for the programs lies in the motivational theories of [Abraham] 
Maslow. " 

In Religion, Values, and Peak Experiences [Ohio State University Press: Columbus, Ohio, 
1964) Maslow stated that "each person has his own private religion... which may be of the 
profoundest meaning to him personally and yet... of no meaning to anyone else... each person 
discovers, develops, and retains his own religion. " An examination of the TJRC's middle school 
Achievement Skills reveals not only the program's base in Maslow's psychological theories, but 
also the program's ties to consciousness-altering methods. Early in the semester-long program, 
students are told that "we are going to study some psychology. We are going to study our selves 
or our minds [emphasis in original]. Each of you is going to get a chance to look at yourself 
as if you were a psychologist." Repeatedly throughout the program, students are exposed to 
self-hypnosis, guided imagery, visualization techniques, and relaxation therapy— tools used 
in psychosynthesis [defined by Roberto Assagioh as the formation or reconstruction of a new 
personality) . In his book Psychosynthesis^'^ as mentioned earlier in this book Assagioli notes 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1985 229 

the possible dangers of the exploration of the unconscious. The first and foremost is the 
release of drives and emotions which were locked in the unconscious and which can flood 
the conscious ego before it is ready and prepared and competent to contain, control and 
utilize them. It is the situation of the "apprentice sorcerer. " 

...We think that cases of suicide or of the development of psychotic states can be due 
to the premature and uncontrolled release of explosive drives and emotions from the un- 

The middle school Achievement Skills program also utilizes what are psychotherapeutic 
values clarification techniques: role playing, open-ended questions, and moral dilemmas. 
These same values clarification methodologies form the basis of the K-6 "character education" 
component funded by the grant. Psychologists have warned educators about the dangers of 
unbridled use of role-playing techniques by untrained people, for the very reasons AssagioU 
cites as well as others. 

The K-6 materials were developed by the American Institute for Character Education 
[AICE) of San Antonio, Texas, and are marketed nationally. The Teacher's Handbook [1983) from 
AICE indicates that the program is another "how to learn instead of what to learn" program 
and admits to the use of values clarification, the promotion of self-disclosure and the creation 
of a classroom climate where "there are no right answers to any one problem." 

U.S. President Reagan and Soviet President Gorbachev signed an agreement in 1985 
calling for 

cooperation in the field of science and technology and additional agreements in other specific 
fields, including the humanities and social sciences; the facilitation of the exchange by ap- 
propriate organizations of educational and teaching materials, including textbooks, syllabi 
and curricula, materials on methodology, samples of teaching instruments and audiovisual 
aids, and the exchange of primary and secondary school textbooks and other teaching mate- 
rials.... The conducting of joint studies on textbooks between appropriate organizations in 
the United States and the Ministry of Education of the U.S.S.R. 

At the same time, the Carnegie Corporation signed agreements with the Soviet Academy of 
Sciences which resulted in "joint research on the application of computers in early elementary 
education, focusing especially on the teaching of higher level skills and complex subjects to 
younger children. " 

The U.S. -Soviet education agreements were discussed in an article entitled "U.S. and So- 
viets to Share Insights on Computers" by Fred M. Hechinger, education editor, in the December 
10, 1985 issue of the New York Times. The article states in part: 

A meeting of American and Soviet educational computer experts has produced an agreement to 
exchange specialists involved in the improvement of elementary and secondary education. 

The initial American-Soviet exchange is intended as a first step toward cooperation 
among education reformers from a number of countries, including Britain and Japan. One 
goal is to reduce the present emphasis on training computer programmers, and stress instead 
the computer's potential to restructure the education of young children, beginning in third 
grade or earlier. 

Several issues are hsted for joint investigation. They include computer-based methods 
to develop creative abilities of primary school pupils, creation and testing of software for 


use in primary school, and proposals for the restructuring of the curriculum and of teaching 
methods through the use of computers in the early grades. 

Additional issues include evaluation of the training of teachers in the use of comput- 
ers and elimination of teachers' fear of computers, and creation of Soviet-American pilot 
projects for joint experiments. 

[Ed. Note: On December 20, 1985, during a "Contact America" radio interview with U.S. 
Secretary of Education William Bennett, co-host Malcolm Lawrence asked Bennett if he was 
involved in the United States-Soviet education exchanges. Bennett responded, "No. I'm not 
in that loop." Pray tell, what "loop" was he in during his tenure as the top official dealing 
with American education? The writer was informed by the U.S. Department of State that both 
agreements were still in effect after the so-called break-up of the Soviet Union. [See Appendix 


The Fact Finder of Phoenix, Arizona on January 1, 1986 (Vol. 46, No. 4) carried an ar- 
ticle entitled "Shocking U.S. Agreements to Let Soviet and Red Chinese Educators Indoctrinate 
America's Children." [See Appendix XXIII.) Excerpts follow: 

We now have proof that agreements have been made with the Soviets for nearly 30 years 
to have their educators work with ours in planning curricula for America's school children. 
This is a shocking addition to what we have already learned about the many ways that the 
Soviets are carrying out their secret war for world domination. 

Early in October, we learned that two Communist educators are already here in Phoe- 
nix, teaching and conferring with educators at Central High School. Boris Bayev is a 41 -year 
old principal of a Soviet secondary school at Ulyanovsk, USSR. A teacher from Red China 
is also at Central High. 

Edwin Feulner, president of the Heritage Foundation (considered by some to be the fore- 
most "conservative" think tank in the nation), chaired the United States Information Agency's 
[USIA) Commission on Public Diplomacy in 1986. The annual report carried a cover letter from 
Feulner as chairman encouraging the acceptance of its recommendations. Under "Educational 
and Cultural Programs, Exchanges and International Visitors" the report states in part: 

The Commission urges USIA, the Department of State, and the relevant private sector orga- 
nizations to move quickly to develop specific programs for U.S. -Soviet exchanges pursuant to 
the General Exchanges accord, other exchange initiatives undertaken at the Geneva Summit, 
and the agreement by President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev to review these 
programs at their next meeting. 

[Ed. Note: The Heritage Foundation later established an office in Moscow, ostensibly to oversee 
Russia's "hoped-for" evolution from communism to free market economics.] 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1986 231 

National Academy of Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education (Cam- 
bridge, Massachussetts), sent out an informational letter in 1986 entitled "ACLS [American 
Council of Learned Societies] -USSR Ministry of Education Commission on Education" describing 
joint U.S. -Soviet education activities. An excerpt which details an extraordinary agenda for 
cooperation with "The Evil Empire" follows: 

Scholars from the American Council of Learned Societies and the Ministry of Education of 
the Soviet Union met in the United States in 1986 and agreed to establish a Commission on 
Education that will be responsible for joint scholarly relations in pedagogy and related fields 
between the United States and the Soviet Union. Some major joint U.S.- Soviet project themes 
are: Methods of Teaching and Learning School Science and Math Subjects Using Computers; 
Theory of Teaching and Learning; Psychological and Pedagogical Problems of Teaching in 
the Development of Pre-School and School- Age Children; and Problems of Teaching Children 
with Special Needs. 

The February 1986 issue of The Effective School Report carried the first of a twelve-part 
series entitled "Implementing Effective Schools: Commitment — The First Step." An accurate 
description of the Pavlovian/Skinnerian methods required by Effective Schools Research is 
found in this article. Excerpts follow: 

Effective schools research is conclusive beyond any doubt that all children can learn. Prac- 
tice now reveals that any school can be led, through a systematic process of training for 
behavioral change, to effectiveness. Neither research nor practice suggests that the process 
of becoming effective is easy... 

The task of leading a school from ineffectiveness to effectiveness is monumental; how- 
ever, it can be done. And the research proves that it can be done without wholesale changes 
of personnel. Ron Edmonds said that we must assume that the teacher and staff are at least 
as educable as the children they teach.... 

Change in an effective school must be dramatic if the school is to become effective. 
The mind-set of many if not most employees within the building must change. Effective 
school behaviors must be demonstrated by all. These behaviors are observable, measurable, 
and transferable; therefore, they can be learned. In-depth and highly structured training will 
precede improved outcomes. 

The trauma experienced by a school that sets a course of effectiveness will be sub- 
stantial, and wiU require the implementation of a rigid, highly structured, and sequenced 
program with ah research-based elements in place. 

The National Forum for Educational Awareness held a special ceremony and reception in 
the Russell Senate Caucus Building, Washington, D.C. on February 21, 1986 to honor Norman 
Dodd, research director for the Reece Committee during 1953-1954. Barbara Cueter, Charlotte 
Iserbyt and Elisabeth Russinoff planned the awards ceremony at which Senator Jesse Helms 
made the presentation of the "Americanism Award" to Mr. Dodd. Mrs. Rosalind Kress Haley, 
a close and long-time friend of Norman Dodd's, was responsible for the reception following 
the awards ceremony. Admirers of Norman Dodd from across the country arranged for the 
ceremony to be videotaped. Some excerpts of Senator Helms' videotaped comments follow: 


I've learned a little bit about this very fine gentleman who is here today and the more I 
have learned the more I am convinced that there can't be any other American who has done 
more to bring the attention of the American people to the real story of the onslaught against 
American civilization than that distinguished American, Mr. Norman Dodd. 

I think it was about 32 years ago. . . 1954 when Mr. Dodd served as the able director of 
research for the Reece Commission to investigate the tax-exempt foundations, and oh sir! how 
they needed to be investigated. Congressman Reece was so shocked by the anti-American 
activities of the major foundations and their academic allies that he felt obliged to estabhsh 
a special committee of Congress to investigate [these] activities... 

Mr. Norman Dodd, as research director of the Reece Committee, provided a great ser- 
vice to our nation by exposing the real designs of the tax-exempt foundations, such as, who 
else but the Rockefeller Foundation, and the bottom line of their activities was, and it still 
is, fundamentally to alter our cultural life so that sociahsm instead of freedom becomes the 
American way of life. That's what they're about. Oh, they have other pretexts, just as do such 
organizations today as the Council on Foreign Relations and the Trilateral Commission. 

We are sounding a call to arms to you again, sir, to get you to help us combat these 
people.... [F]rom what I have learned of Mr. Dodd's life, he has steadfastly adhered to the 
ideals of our Founding Fathers, as so few do. 

I hope that conservatives of today, particularly the younger ones, will go back to the 
hearing records of the Reece Committee and carefully review the massive amount of testimony 
and findings — over 1,000 pages. I think it is time to pick up where Congressman Reece and 
Norman Dodd left off 32 years ago and begin again with investigation of activities of the 
foundations. Without a doubt we are going to find the same patterns, the same designs, the 
same goals that were uncovered three decades ago, and those that were uncovered then were 
unsavory. Those which can be uncovered today will be the same. 

In any case, I am so delighted to be here — it's an honor to be here... on behalf of the 
National Forum for Educational Awareness, and Mr. Dodd, really and truly on behalf of the 
American people.... [I present this] beautiful plaque.... I am proud of you, sir, and God 
bless you! 

[Ed. Note: Tliere is no one in a more influential position, nationally or internationally, than 
Senator Jesse Helms, chairman of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, to "pick up 
where Congressman Reece and Norman Dodd left off 32 [now 45) years ago and begin again 
the investigation of activities of the foundations. " The reader is urged to contact his elected 
officials to request a resumption of this investigation.] 

Carol Barber, outcome-based education/mastery learning consultant from Houston, 

Texas wrote "Outcome-Based Education/Mastery Learning: What Is It? Why Do It? How Do 
You Do It?" which appeared in the Spring [Vol. 5, No. 3) 1986 issue of Outcomes, the quarterly 
journal of the Network for Outcome-Based Schools. The following are excerpts: 


As discussed by others in this issue, there is considerable overlap in many of the school reform 
movements sweeping the country today. Frequently, outcome-based education and mastery 
learning are used interchangeably or as synonymous phrases. While there are certainly many 
commonalities in the two movements, they also are very different. 

One way to differentiate OBE from ML from other effective school practices is to vi- 
sualize an umbrella and its various parts. The umbrella includes: 1) a canopy; 2) a center 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1986 233 

pole to support the canopy; and 3) a set of hinged ribs radiating from the center pole. The 
umbrella gives us a perfect analogy for comparing many of the school reform movements. 
Outcome-based education is represented by the canopy of the umbrella. The OBE ideas 
represent possible reform of the total school system.... When a district moves into OBE, it is 
ready to examine behef systems of staff, students, parents; placement of students; grading 
and reporting pohcies; curriculum issues; certification processes; instructional methods; etc., 
etc., etc. In other words, OBE means an approach to reform within the total [emphasis in 
the original] school system; i.e., the umbrella under which all practices of school operation 
will occur. 

The center pole supporting the umbrella represents the mastery learning ideas. Mastery 
learning supports the OBE movement in that it is the main vehicle upon which to begin the 
change process in the belief system, curriculum organization and instructional strategies. 
Mastery learning provides us with the support and processes needed to begin the total OBE 
reform in our schools. 

The set of hinged ribs radiating from the center pole can be viewed as any of the 
many effective school movements [emphasis in original] and/or strategies available to us. 
Strategies such as Dr. Hunter's Mastery Teaching, Hopkins' Student Team Learning, Johnson 
and Johnson's Cooperative Learning, Joyce's Teaching Models, Good's TESA, and many 
others, represent effective practices which are totally compatible and will certainly enhance 
an OBE/ML program. 

...Realistically, one could implement any one of the above-mentioned strategies without 
having ML in operation; indeed one can implement ML without having OBE. However, when 
OBE is implemented, ML must be applied. 

"Report to the Secretary of Education William Bennett, April, 1986. lliANSFORMing 

American Education: Reducing the Risk to the Nation" was issued by the National Task Force 
on Educational Technology. The memo was distributed at an Ohio State School Board caucus. 
An excerpt follows: 

For 1990-2000: The improvement and transformation of education to Mastery Learning 
wiU demand continuing support. The nation needs to recognize that the education of its 
citizens provides the basis for the economic, social and cultural health of American society. 
Enlightened national self-interest should justify the support of the well-planned educational 
transformation that the Task Force proposes. 

On May 5, 1986 The St. Louis Globe-Democrat ran an article entitled "School Officials 
Upset by New State Plan" which reported that local educators objected vociferously to a new 
state plan that required them to give standardized tests in seven core subjects to students in 
the third, sixth, eighth, and tenth grades. Excerpts from this article follow: 

Local educators are stepping up their criticism of what they claim is state interference in 
the way local schools teach children.... The tests are required by the Excellence in Education 
Act of 1985, a reform biU that educators have largely supported. But school officials claim 
the testing component will force them to change their curriculum so students learn material 
in the same order the tests are given [teach to the test] . They claim 70 to 80 percent of the 
curriculum in local schools could be determined by the new tests.... 


"We are not opposed to the concept of teaching children the fundamental facts that 
they ought to know. The issue is who controls the curriculum," said Kirkwood School District 
Superintendent Thomas Keating. Keating and other superintendents aired their complaints 
at a joint meeting last week of the Cooperating School Districts of the St. Louis Suburban 
Area and the Missouri School Boards Association.... 

. . .One of the harshest critics of the test plan is Ferguson-Florissant Superintendent Daniel 
B. Keck, who said the districts may just as well replace their school names with "Department 
of Elementary and Secondary Education, State of Missouri, Local Annex."... 

Keck, however, said the state has bypassed elected school board members and estab- 
lished a direct "pipehne" to local schools. He said administrators are accountable to whoever 
sets the curriculum.... "To whom am I as the chief executive officer of a school district re- 
sponsible: to you, or DESE?" Keck said. "In this particular system, there are no checks and 
balances. That is bad governance." He said the media will create pubhc pressure to excel 
on the new tests. 

Keck said the legislature has "inadvertently" transferred accountability for educational 
quality to itself. He predicted that if the test scores aren't satisfactory, the state will lower 
the standards "until the legislature looks good."... 

..."And the same number of kids will walk out the door functionally illiterate," he 

One of the test items (objectives) found in Missouri's Educational Objectives, Grade 12, 
resulting from passage of Missouri's Excellence in Education Act of 1985, follows: 

Given a description of an individual with a debased character, such as a child murderer or 
a person who has set fire to an inhabited building, students should reject suggestions for 
punishment which would detract from the dignity of the prisoner. 

In the May 15, 1986 issue of Education Daily an article related to student Assessment 
reported that "Secretary Bennett names study group to evaluate student assessment" and 
lists "Chairman Lamar Alexander, Governor of Tennessee and Chairman, National Governors 
Association, and Hillary Rodham Clinton, First Lady of Arkansas and partner in the Rose law 
firm" amongst members of the study group. 

An article entitled "Carnegie ItACHiNC Panel Charts 'New Framework' — Grants Total- 
ing $900,000 Made to Press Reforms" written by Lynn Olson appeared in the May 21, 1986 
issue of Education Week. The announced "New Framework" — amongst other things — carved 
in stone the methodology which teachers would be required to use in order to obtain board 
certification. Excerpts follow from this extremely important article: 

The Carnegie Corporation of New York announced here last week that it has awarded two 
major grants, totahng nearly $900,000, to forward the recommendations of the Carnegie Task 
Force on Teaching as a Profession. 

Last year, the corporation created the Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy, 
a multi-milHon dollar initiative designed to help chart U.S. education pohcy during the next 
10 years. The forum assembled the 14-member task force on teaching as one of its first ini- 
tiatives. The foundation awarded $817,000 to Stanford University for a 15-month research 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1986 235 

project to develop prototypes of the kinds of assessments the task force's proposed National 
Board for Professional Teaching Standards might use to certify teachers.... 

...According to David A. Hamburg, president of the corporation [psychiatrist and 
negotiator of the Carnegie-Soviet Education Agreements], the grants illustrate Carnegie's 
commitment to the task force's work.... 

The 15 -month Stanford study is the "opening gambit in a long and complex campaign 
to develop assessments for use by the national board," said Lee S. Shulman [deeply involved 
with the Chicago Mastery Learning debacle, ed.], principal investigator for the study and a 
professor of education at Stanford.... 

"Two major 'products' will come out of the Stanford study," said Mr. Shulman. First, it 
will create, field test, and critique several "prototype" assessments — most likely in the areas 
of elementary-school mathematics and secondary-school history. 

Second, it will develop a protocol for how to develop such assessments in the future.... 
As part of its work, the Stanford project will do the following: 

• Commission about 20 experts to write papers summarizing the knowledge and skills 
that the prototype assessments should measure. 

• Conduct "wisdom of practice" studies of outstanding teachers to determine through 
interviews and observations what it is that they know and can do.... 

• Bring together people from around the country who are doing state-of-the-art as- 
sessments in other fields, such as those for airplane pilots and foreign-service jobs, 
to determine what assessment techniques are appUcable to teaching. 

• Bring together experts in the fields to be tested — such as elementary-school math 
teachers, teacher educators, and mathematicians — to get their advice on what the 
assessments should measure and how. 

In addition, the project will have a steering committee representing key stakeholders 
in the creation of such assessments as well as experts in testing and in the subject areas to 
be tested. 

Members of the Task Force included: Lewis M. Branscomb, Chairman, Vice President 
and Chief Scientist of the International Business Machines Corporation; Alan K. Campbell, 
Executive Vice President and Vice Chairman of A.R.A. Services, Inc. of Philadelphia; Mary 
Hatwood Futrell, President of the National Education Association; John W. Gardner, former 
Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare and founder of Independent Sector; Fred M. 
Hechinger, President of the New York Times Company Foundation, Inc.; Bill Honig, CaU- 
fornia State Superintendent of Public Instruction; James B. Hunt, former Governor of North 
Carolina, former Chairman of the Education Commission of the States and a lawyer with 
the firm of Poyner and SpruiU; Vera Katz, Speaker of the Oregon House of Representatives; 
Governor Thomas H. Kean of New Jersey; Judith Lanier, Dean of the College of Education at 
Michigan State University; Arturo Madrid, President of the Tomas Rivera Center of Claremont 
(California) Graduate School; Shirley M. Malcolm, program head. Office of Opportunities 
in Science, American Association for the Advancement of Science; Ruth Randall, Commis- 
sioner of Education in Minnesota; Albert Shanker, President of the American Federation of 

An article in the May 21, 1986 issue of Education Week entitled "Researchers Leery of 
Federal Plans for Collaboration — Fear 'Cooperative' Link a Path to 'Intervention'" by James 
Hertling discussed possible federal control of education research. Some excerpts follow: 


The Education Department's decision to form a collaborative relationship with its new research 
and development center on reading has revived the debate over what control the government 
should have over the work of educational researchers receiving federal money. . . . 

...But the cooperative agreement outlined in the April 22 Federal Register announcing 
the competition for the new center on reading research and education mandates government 
involvement in all stages of the center's work: "developing the agenda, specifying anticipated 
outcomes, setting research priorities, altering research objectives on the basis of preliminary 
finding, and receiving final results." 

"There's nothing we have heard that makes a cooperative agreement acceptable," said 
Laurie Garduque, director of governmental and professional liaison at the American Educa- 
tional Research Association. 

[Ed. Note: The above excerpts are important due to their identification of Secretary William 
Bennett's U.S. Department of Education as the source of the Skinnerian "scientific research- 
based" reading instruction ultimately used as the criteria necessary for funding of proposals 
under the Reading Excellence Act of 1998.] 

"Carnegie Report on Education: 'Radical Blueprint for Change'" by Nancy GARland was 
published in the Bangor [Maine] Daily News, June 28-29, 1986. The article stated in part: 

The leader of the 600,000-member American Federation of Teachers, [Al] Shanker said many 
Asian and European countries are changing the way they educate their children to meet the 
rapidly changing needs of industry. American industries will lose ground if schools cannot 
produce employees with skills useful in those industries. 

Paulo Freire's influence on world education, including education in the United States, 
is revealed in an interesting article entitled "Radical Theorist Takes His Message to the World" 
published in The New York Times August 19, 1986. Some excerpts follow: 

Within days of the triumph of the Sandinista Revolution in July 1979, Nicaragua's new 
leaders had tracked down the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire at the university where he was 
lecturing in the United States and had issued him an invitation to come to Managua to help 
reorganize the country's education system and design its new literacy program. 

When Portugal underwent its revolution in 1974 its new Government made a similar 
offer to Mr. Freire, as did Chile's Institute for Agrarian Reform during the period just before 
the election of Salvador Allende Gossens there. "'^ 

Newly independent nations in Africa, ranging from Angola to Tanzania, have also 
sought the advice of the man regarded as perhaps the foremost literacy expert and radical 
educator in the world. 

"It's something that pleases me," Mr. Freire said recently as he passed through New 
York City, on his way to a series of workshops and seminars at American universities. "At 
times, I have been criticized by some philosophers of education, who place me in postures 
that they classify pejoratively as revolutionary...." 

Mr. Friere (pronounced FRAYree) first became widely known in this country with the 
publication Pedagogy of the Oppressed more than 15 years ago. He has argued that it is not 
education which shapes a society, but rather society which molds education to fit the ends 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1986 237 

and interests of those in control. In his view, education, particularly the process of learning 
to read and write, "can become an instrument of social transformation by making those at 
the bottom of society aware of their plight and the reasons for it." 

In practice, refined through literacy campaigns among peasants in the Brazilian Northeast 
beginning in the late 1950s and later on four continents, Mr. Freire and his many disciples 
have relied on words like "hunger" or "land," chosen for their relevance to the pupil's own 
political and social situation, to teach peasants and workers to read and write. The objective 
is to develop among them what Mr. Friere calls "a critical comprehension of reality. " 

...But Mr. Freire also argues that his distinct education has considerable relevance in 
the industrialized nations of the capitalist world. Mr. Freire's methods have been adapted in 
the United States by feminist, Hispanic and black groups that operate adult literacy programs 
or train teachers. Even some corporations, such as Consolidated Edison in New York, have 
at various times used his techniques in education programs for new workers with low levels 
of formal education. 

"I am not a technician of literacy, as many people apparently saw me in the beginning," 
he said. "I am an educator who thinks globally."... 

To some of his critics, including the Reagan Administration, Mr. Freire's emphasis on 
the practical has been taken to an absurd extreme in Nicaragua, where second graders count 
not apples or oranges but hand grenades and rifles to learn arithmetic. 

[Ed. Note: See the 1993 entry for the Michigan High School Proficiency Communications Arts 
Framework which deals with the constructivist philosophy behind whole language and carries 
out Friere's philosophy of social transformation through "critical thinking. "] 

The New York Tmes of August 31, 1986 carried an article entitled "Study Says 33 % of 

Young Adults Are Illiterate." Excerpt follows: 

Results from College Graduates: The most recent Federal study was conducted by two pri- 
vate groups, the Educational Testing Service and the National Assessment of Educational 
Progress, at a cost of $1.8 million. In testing basic skills at various levels, the study found 
that one in three young adults with a college degree from a two- or four-year school failed 
to answer this question correctly: If one purchased a sandwich for $1.90, a bowl of soup 
for 60 cents, and gave the cashier $3, how much change should he receive? The answer is 
50 cents, (p. 28) 

George Roche, president of Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, Michigan, and CHAiRman of the 

National Council on Educational Research, a presidentially appointed council overseeing the 
activities of the National Institute of Education, requested an investigation into the controversial 
Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory's [NWREL) Tri-County K-12 Course Goals Project 
which was initiated in 1971. Joan Gubbins, a former Indiana state senator and chairman of 
the council's Improvement and Practice Committee, researched the Goals Project, prepared, 
and submitted her report entitled "Goals and Objectives: Towards a National Curriculum?" to 
the Council on September 26, 1986. 

Although Senator Gubbins 's important report could have been used as a brief documenting 
the illegality of NWREL's role in development of the Course Goals, it evidently fell on deaf ears. 
Had the premise of this report — that the goals were based on humanistic no right/no wrong 


philosophy and the method was based on Skinnerian operant conditioning — been accepted 
by Secretary of Education William Bennett and his Assistant Secretary Chester Finn, Amer- 
ican parents and teachers might have seen a most welcome change in the course of American 
education, as well as an end to outcome-based education, its dumb-down values-changing 
curriculum, and global workforce training. 

However, William Bennett and Chester Finn were promoting outcome-based education 
and had no desire to pull the plug on their own agenda. In fact, four days after Senator Cub- 
bins presented her report to the council. Secretary William Bennett announced a $4.5 million 
grant to provide behaviorist effective school training for school districts across the nation. The 
October 1986 issue of The Effective School Report announced that 

Bennett awarded the money from his Secretary's Discretionary Fund for the commitment 
phase of the School Effectiveness Training Network [SET/Net], the largest Effective School 
training program ever undertaken. "I see this project as an indication of what school districts, 
large and small, can do together in improving schools," Bennett said in a Sept. 30 news 
conference. "This effort shows a real commitment to helping all children learn through the 
Effective School process, a process that is based on research and What Works." 

Secretary Bennett's reluctance to acknowledge the problems associated with NWREL's 
Coals Project as pointed out by Senator Cubbins is better understood when one reads the 
Project's definition of behavior modification: 

[Pjrocedures used in programs of behavior modification or behavioral management 
are based on principles derived from scientific research (e.g., stimulus-response- 
reinforcement) . 

"Scientific, research-based" teaching with roots in Skinnerian behavioral psychology is 
the common thread running through the fabric of aU Effective School Research; including that 
promoted by the U.S. Department of Education under Secretary Wilham Bennett's direction. 
Senator Cubbins 's fine paper could not be ahowed to cast a shadow on "a process that is based 
on research and What Works." 

Time for Results: Governors' Report on Education was presented to the 1986 National 
Covernors' Association annual meeting in Wichita, Kansas. Then-Covernor of Tennessee Lamar 
Alexander chaired the meeting and outlined a plan to restructure schools in America. There 
was a heavy emphasis on retraining of teachers in Skinnerian practices, merit pay/incentives/ 
rewards, etc. 

"The Cooperative Umbrella" is the title of a sheet from a packet of materials distributed 
at a Cooperative Education conference for teachers in Northwest Indiana in 1986. The sheet 
was copied from Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the Classroom, Rev. Ed. by D.W Johnson, 
R.T Johnson and Edith Johnson Holubec [Prentice-HaU: Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1986). An 
excerpt follows: 


The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1987 239 

Positive Interdependence 

Students must feel tiiat they need eacii other in order to complete the group's task, that they 
"sink or swim" together. Some ways to create this feeling are through establishing mutual 
goals (students must learn the material and make certain group members learn the material] , 
joint rewards [if all group members achieve above a certain percentage on the test, each will 
receive bonus points], shared materials and information (one paper for each group or each 
member receives only part of the information needed to do the assignment], and assigned 
roles (summarizer, encourager or participator, elaborator] . 


Charlottesville, Virginia's The Daily Progress carried Norman Dodd's obituary in its 

January 30, 1987 edition. The tribute read in part: 

Mr. Dodd's earlier suspicions of a political and economic conspiracy were confirmed. During 
his research for this committee [the Reece Committee] , the president of the Ford Foundation, 
H. Rowan Gaither, Jr. told him that some of the giant foundations, including Ford, were work- 
ing under directives from the White House to so alter life in America as to make possible a 
comfortable merger with the Soviet Union. 

North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA): Michigan Committee's Out- 
comes Accreditation was published in 1987. The brochure demonstrates clearly the shift from 
academic education to performance/outcome-based affective education focusing on changes 
in the behavior of the individual student over time. Excerpts from this important publication 

The NCA's Outcomes Accreditation model has generated considerable interest among Mich- 
igan educators. It is a process that follows many of the principles of the "Effective Schools 
Research" and results in schools focusing their activities on improving student success.... 

Outcomes Accreditation [OA] is a school-based accreditation and evaluation model that 
helps schools document the effectiveness of their programs. Schools are required to target 
their evaluation efforts by measuring changes in student behavior; i.e., outcomes. OA serves 
as an alternative to the NCA's traditional evaluation formats. OA was adopted for use by 
NCA member schools in April 1987. Rather than focusing on "inputs" or what the school 
contributes to the educational process, OA examines "student outcomes" or the influence 
the school has on the students it serves.... 

Schools identify no more than five areas in which they want to focus their improvement 
activities. Target goals are written for each area. Three of these target goals focus on cognitive 
or basic skill areas, and two goals address affective concerns or how students behave or feel 
about themselves. The goals are written in such a way that changes can be measured over 
time. Student outcomes are measured by comparing desired levels of student performance 
with present performance. . . . 

Examples of specific data sources include: criterion- and norm-referenced test results, 
anecdotal records, attitude inventories, teacher-made tests, student participation rates, writ- 
ing samples, and attendance and enrollment figures.... Next, faculty committees estabhsh 
the desired levels of student performance. Although external sources such as state-mandated 


goals, national averages or goals developed by textbook publishers might be helpful in 
formulating performance expectations, educators need to base desired performance levels 
on their knowledge of each child. The discrepancy that exists between current and desired 
student performance then serves as the focus of the school improvement plan. 

At the Second Annual National Outcome-Based Education Conference, held FEBRuary 

12-14, 1987 in Tempe, Arizona, a notebook was distributed which contained a flow chart 
describing how mastery learning works. The notebook contained materials generated by the 
following presenters: Part I, William Spady; Part II, Lawrence A. Rowe; Part III, Kathleen A. 
Fitzpatrick; and Part IV, Janet N. Barry. This writer has converted the flow chart which was 
in the notebook to written text in order to provide a graphic [rat maze) description of the 
behavior modification method behind mastery learning and direct instruction. The chart's 
description follows: 


At the top of a circle is the word "TASK," which has an arrow pointing towards LACK OF 
UNDERSTANDING, which has two parts: 1) change presentation and 2) use alternative ma- 
terial. 2) has two arrows: one towards TASK COMPLETION SUCCESS and the other towards 
DIFFICULTY. DIFFICULTY has two parts: 1) peer tutoring and 2) shorten assignments. 2) 
has two arrows: one towards TASK COMPLETION SUCCESS and the other towards FAILURE. 
FAILURE has two parts: l)change environment and 2) change curriculum. 2) has two arrows: 
one towards TASK COMPLETION/POSITIVE FEEDBACK, and the other towards NEGATIVE 
FEEDBACK. NEGATIVE FEEDBACK has two arrows: 1) use self-pacing, self-checking, and 2) 
group discussion of goals. 2] has two arrows: one towards ATTAINABLE GOAL/POSITIVE 
FEEDBACK, the other towards POOR SELF CONCEPT. POOR SELF CONCEPT has two ar- 
rows: 1) provide successes and 2) positive feedback. 2) has two arrows: one toward RAISED 
SELF ESTEEM and the other LOW MOTIVATION. LOW MOTIVATION has three arrows: 1) 
provide choices, 2) choose relevant materials, and 3) utilize interests. 3) has two arrows: 
PROBLEMS (Task Avoidance). BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS has three arrows: 1) provide choices, 
2) contracting, and 3) group goal setting. 3) has two arrows: one toward RECHANNELLED 
EQUATE SKILLS has two arrows: 1) prescriptive curriculum and 2) modified environment. 
2) has two arrows: one towards SKILLS ATTAINED/NEW TASK ATTEMPTED, and the other 
back to start, "TASK." 

Education Daily of May 21, 1987 covered the Carnegie Foundation for the Aovancement 
of Teaching's award of $817,000 to Lee Shulman of Stanford University, formerly involved in 
Chicago's Mastery Learning failure, for his forthcoming work on assessments for new teach- 

Kathy L. Collins, legal counsel for the Iowa Department of Education, wrote an article 
entitled "Children Are Not Chattel" for the American Humanist Association's journal Free 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1987 241 

Inquiry in the Fall of 1987 [Vol. 7, No. 4, p. 11) and stated that 

Christian parents who want the freedom to indoctrinate their children with religious edu- 
cation do not understand that the law that prevents them from legally teaching their kids 
prevents someone else from abusing them. . . . 

Certified teachers are state-mandated child-abuse reporters. When children are aUowed 
to be kept at home, there may be no outside contact, no help for the abused child. 

[Ed. Note: This portentous article was published just as the homeschooling movement in 
America began mushrooming. Parents responded to the failures of the latest fads in the class- 
rooms by pulling their children out of public schools to instruct them at home. Many educators 
viewed the rise of home education with alarm. Parental rights and constitutional religious 
freedoms posed a direct threat to the "it takes a village to raise a child" philosophy which was 
to become embedded in every state's education reform plan during the 1990s.] 

On November 2, 1987, a few short years before the Berlin Wall came down, and only 
two years after the signing of the U.S. -Soviet education agreements, Mikhail Gorbachev was 
reported by Novosti Press Agency Publishing House in Moscow to have said in his speech to 
the Soviet Central Committee, "We are moving toward a new world: the world of communism. 
We shall never turn off that road." Even so, after the Berlin Wall came down [1989) Gorbachev 
was a keynote speaker at a major Republican Party fundraiser. 

David W. Hornbeck of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of ItACHiNC and 

Maryland's state superintendent of instruction, whose credentials lie in theology rather than 
in education, presented his proposal for a new public education system for the nation in the 
November 17, 1987 issue of The Montgomery County [Maryland] Journal. The Journal car- 
ried an article entitled "State Education Chief Pushes Revolutionary Plan for the Nation" that, 
amongst other things, "would let students enroll in schools of their choice and even sue the 
state over low-quality education." Excerpts follow: 

"The model state law would create a situation in which it's the school's fault and not the 
kid's if the school is unsuccessful. If it's not a successful school, you can leave it. " The system 
would let a student cross district hues in search of better pubhc education.... 

Hornbeck's presentation Saturday at an AsheviUe, North Carolina meeting aroused 
just a few criticisms, which were mainly concerned with the proposal's wording, said Jay P. 
Goldman, spokesman for the school chief's council. "This follows years of massaging and 
reworking it," he said.... 

. . .The new rights proposals are directed toward all children, but special measures target 
those considered "at risk of educational failure." In the early years, low-income children 
would be identified as at risk; in later years, achievement would provide the definition.... 
"We're trying to take a step away from kid-bashing," Hornbeck said. "Society and the schools 
fail the kids."... 

...Hornbeck, who said he is waiting for the council vote before discussing the issue 
with Gov. William Donald Schaefer and Maryland legislative officials, said he expects local 
school officials across the country to resist the proposals. 

"If the council adopts this, you will have the superintendents of the United States say- 
ing we want to create new rights and routes that may well lead to the courts," Hornbeck 



...One of the plan's goals is to eliminate spending differentials from district to district, 
ranging about $2,000 per pupil from highest to lowest in Maryland. "That means $50,000 
more behind one classroom of 25 kids than another," Hornbeck said. 

[Ed. Note: Did we understand Mr. Goldman correctly? "This follows years of massaging and 
reworking"? Why does one need "years of massaging and reworking a proposal" which sup- 
posedly is in the best interests of the traditional American teacher and the children he or she 
teaches? Obviously, this proposal by Hornbeck was a radical one which would focus not on 
traditional education, but on producing or molding a "product," your child — who is now being 
referred to as "human capital" by Hornbeck — your child, whose workforce skills and politically 
correct attitudes, values and beliefs would entitle him to a Certificate in Mastery in order to 
be hired by and able to increase the profits of a corporation. 

References to "special measures target those considered 'at risk of educational failure'" 
are unsettling. If our children reject the "education" to which they are subjected, they will 
immediately be labeled "at risk," thus subjecting them to the behavior modification programs 
and operant conditioning techniques normally used for special education. 

When Hornbeck says, "Society and the schools fail the kids," are we to believe "It's 
the environment, stupid"? Everything that goes wrong in our great nation is now blamed on 
the "environment"; from people's choices to smoke or not to smoke, drink or not to drink, 
murder or not to murder, study or not to study. According to Skinnerian behaviorist think- 
ing, since humans are to be thought of as animals, not having free will and, therefore, not 
being responsible for their actions, they would be incapable of making complex decisions, of 
deciding "yes" or "no." We are on a slippery slope when we accept this "the environment is 
responsible" line of thinking. 

Hornbeck's proposal parallels the 1999 passage of "choice" legislation in Florida, under 
Governor Jeb Bush's direction. Delivery of failing grades to schools will be the trigger for fund- 
ing for moving students to schools of their "choice" — including private or religious schools.] 


On February 22, 1988 Clarence Thomas, chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity 
Commission [EEOC), who would shortly thereafter be appointed by President George Bush 
to the U.S. Supreme Court, signed off on an EEOC Pohcy Notice regarding protection from 
mandatory New Age training in the workplace. The Policy Notice explained: 

1. SUBJECT: PoUcy statement on "new age" training programs which confhct with 
employees' religious behefs. 

2. PURPOSE: This pohcy statement is intended to provide guidance in the handling of 
cases where an employee objects to participating in the training program because 
it utilizes techniques or exercises which conflict with the employee's rehgious be- 

3. EFFECTIVE DATE: Upon Receipt. 


5. ORIGINATOR: Title VII/EPA Division, Office of Legal Counsel. 

6. INSTRUCTIONS: This notice supplements the instructions in #628 of Vol. II of the 
CompHance Manual, Religious Accommodation, and should be inserted after p. 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1988 243 


[Ed. Note: This Policy Notice extends to all government employees who resist manipulative 
New Age training which is based on the behavioral techniques and behavior modification de- 
scribed in this book. Held captive in the classroom due to attendance laws, why haven't our 
children been provided the same protection from the mind-bending curricula and methods 
used on government employees in the workplace? Why are not American teachers provided 
this protection from the mind-bending, brain-numbing, in-service sessions which violate their 
constitutional rights? The Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment which passed the U.S. Senate 
unanimously in 1978, for which regulations were drafted and approved in 1984, has proven 
to be useless since the educational bureaucracy refuses to enforce it and has consistently 
stonewalled when parents have attempted to assert their rights under the law.] 

The Effective School Report's March, 1988 issue published "International CoNgress for 
Effective Schools Draws Participants from 13 Nations to London" which heralded Effective 
School Research as representing "the" chosen organizational and pedagogical vehicle for the 
operation of the world's schools. Excerpts follow: 

Representatives from thirteen countries came to London in January for the inaugural 
meeting of the International Congress for Effective Schools. In the United States, the Effective 
Schools Movement was begun to improve public schools for children from low income 
families. Thirty American states have used effective schools precepts as part of their reform 

Effective schools activities were reported from Australia, Canada, England, and Wales, 
Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, Scotland, Sweden, South Africa, 
and the United States. Dale Mann, a professor at Teachers College, Columbia University, and 
the founding chairman of the International Congress, said that the 130 registrants were using 
effective schools ideas in school improvement work that ran the gamut from early childhood 
education to high school reform. 

The Congress will meet next in January, 1989 in Rotterdam. A special section of the pro- 
gram will offer legislators an opportunity to share their perspectives on school improvement. 
The Rotterdam meetings will be organized by a team led by D.A.A. Peters [Projectleider, 
Project Onderwijs en Social Milieu, Burg, Van Walmsumeg 892, 3011 MZ Rotterdam, the 
Netherlands 010-4113266). i** 

[Ed. Note: By this time the reader is all too familiar with The Effective School Report and Ef- 
fective School Research, as well as its role in the dumbing down of public school children, 
particularly those from low income families. The international change agents "used" these 
children [experimented on them — starting with children in Jackson, Mississippi where The 
Effective School Report was originally located) prior to recommending that all children be 
subjected to the Skinnerian dumb down methods [OBE/ML/DI) . 

From this time on the reader will encounter entries in this book dealing with Effective 
Schools Research exchanges with Russia and China, thereby closing the circle on the imple- 
mentation of Effective Schools Research on a global basis. Also of importance is the reference 
to the inclusion of England and Wales, not only in the original National Assessment of Edu- 
cational Progress [NAEP) 1981 paper by Archie Lapointe and Willard Wirtz, but in the 1994 
National Issues in Education: Goals 2000 and School-to-Work entry which reveals that: 


In 1991 Lamar Alexander, working with Chester Finn and others who were familiar with the 
work of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in enacting a national curriculum in England 
and Wales, convinced Bush to endorse the idea of national standards for education. 

Of interest here is that the National Assessment of Educational Progress [NAEP) had been 
working on assessment for many years, dating back to 1980, with Clare Burstall of Wales, 
U.K. Also, one might ask why the United States would want to copy the English education 
system in light of the poor performance of its students on basic skills tests. The December 9, 
1988 issue of The Wall Street Journal carried an editorial entitled "And You Thought American 
Schools Were Bad! " in which Theodore Dalrymple, the pen name of British physician Anthony 
Daniels, said that: 

In eight years in medical practice in an English slum [in which lives, incidentally, a fifth of 
the population of the industrial English city where I work) I have met only one teenager of 
hundreds I have asked who knew when World War II was fought. The others thought it took 
place in the early 1900s or the 1970s, and lasted up to 30 years. 

Another recurrent theme, which will become evident throughout the rest of this book, will 
be the growing emphasis on what Utah's Superintendent Burningham referred to as "research- 
verified programs." This term will change subtly as Effective Schools programs are referred 
to as "scientific, research-based," implying that they are "acceptable and desirable"— or as 
Secretary of Education William Bennett explained, "What Works."] 

Dr. Sue E. Berryman, director of the Institute on Education and the Economy at Teach- 
ers College, Columbia University, New York, presented a paper entitled "Education and the 
Economy: A Diagnostic Review and Implications for the Federal Role" at a seminar on the 
federal role in education held at the Aspen Institute, Aspen, Colorado on July 31 -August 10, 
1988. Under acknowledgments one reads: 

This Seminar was sponsored by The Carnegie Corporation, The Ford Foundation, The 
Hewlitt Foundation, The Primerica Foundation, and the Rockefeller Brothers Foundation. 
This paper is based heavily on, and could not have been written without, research conducted 
under the auspices of The National Center on Education and Employment, funded by the 
Office of Research, Office of Educational Research and Improvement of the U.S. Department 
of Education. The paper also rehes on research funded by the National Assessment of Vo- 
cational Education. 

An excerpt from Dr. Berryman's resume, which was attached to her paper, follows: 

1973-1985 Behavioral Scientist, Behavioral Sciences Department, The RAND Corporation, 
Santa Monica, California, and Washington, D.C. 

Analyzed individuals' educational and employment choices and the nature and conse- 
quences of military, corporate, and federal human resource pohcies. 

The table of contents of Dr. Berryman's report is reproduced here: 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1988 245 








What Do Students Need to Learn? 

Who Should Learn? 

When Should They Learn? 

How Should These Skills Be Taught? 

Vocabulary and Accountability 




The Structure of Industries 

The Restructuring of American Companies 








Excerpts from the body of the paper follow: 


As the educational implications of the restructuring American economy become clearer, the 
incomplete — sometimes perverse — nature of current education reforms emerges. 

Those reforms targeted at improving students' academic skills are clearly appro- 
priate — up to a point, academic and work-related curricula should be the same. However, 
documented changes in the nature and structure of work and advances in cognitive science 
argue for a second wave of reform that involves fundamental changes in what we teach, to 
whom we teach it, when we teach it, and how we teach it. In other contexts I have talked 
about this second wave of reform as "shadows in the wings" for the simple reason that — to 
shift metaphors — this airplane is not yet ready to fly. The issues raised here pose formidable 
research, development, and evaluation challenges in areas such as curriculum (and associ- 
ated textbook or software materials], pedagogy, the preparation of teachers, concepts and 
measures of accountability, and school structure. 

What do industry studies imply about the core skills that students need to learn? Eco- 


nomic changes certainly imply the need for good academic skills. Perhaps the most profound 
educational implication of computers in the workplace is that they force a replacement of 
observational learning with learning acquired primarily through symbols, whether verbal or 
mathematical (e.g., Scribner and Cole, 1973; Bailey, 1988].... 

As the labor force becomes increasingly multicultural and job content changes rapidly 
and in confusing ways, communication problems also increase between workers, generating 
the need for interpersonal communication and confhct resolution skills.... 


The skills just described are generic in that, in general, they cut across industries and oc- 
cupations. Thus, everyone needs to learn them, not just some people. This does not mean 
that everyone needs to learn them in the same way. It does mean that for these skills, our 
educational objectives for everyone need to be roughly the same. 

The idea has been most problematic for higher order cognitive thinking. Like other 
industrialized nations, the United States has harbored two quite distinct educational tra- 
ditions — one concerned with elite education, the other with mass education. As Resnick 
[Lauren] (1987a) points out, these traditions conceived of schooling differently, had dif- 
ferent clienteles, and held different goals for their students. Thus, although " is not new 
to include thinking, problem solving, and reasoning in someone's curriculum, it is new to 
include it in everyone's curriculum."... 


Early. We usually think about preparing students for the labor market during high school. 
However, we are talking generic work-related skills here, not occupationally specific ones; 
for these high school is too late. It is implausible to think that high school sophomores 
educated in a passive learning regime for the first nine years of their schoohng can learn 
to self-regulate their learning in the tenth year. We can make analogous arguments about 
learning how to learn, about learning how to function effectively in teams, or about learning 
how to resolve conflicts. 

For example, as Resnick (1987a) notes, the most important single message of modern 
research on the nature of thinking is that the kinds of activities traditionally associated with 
thinking are not limited to advanced levels of development. 

These activities are an intimate part of even elementary learning.... In fact, the term "higher 
order" skills is probably itself fundamentally misleading, for it suggests that another set of 
skills, presumably called "lower order," needs to come first. This assumption... implicitly... 
justifies long years of drill on the "basics" before thinking and problem solving are de- 
manded.... Research suggests that failure to cultivate aspects of [higher order cognitive) 
thinking may be the source of major learning difficulties even in elementary school. 

This section relies heavily on pioneering work in cognitive psychology, cognitive sci- 
ence, and cognitive anthropology on non-school learning and its imphcations for how we 
structure formal learning. At the heart of this research is the presumption that intelligence 
and expertise are built out of interaction with the environment, not in isolation from it. This 
work imphcitly challenges our traditional distinctions between "head" and "hand," between 
"academic" and "vocational" education, between "education" and "training," and between 
school-based and work-based learning. 

Coming out of this stream of research is a much clearer sense of how school-based 
learning and non-school-based learning differ from each other. In a bravura synthesis of 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1988 247 

the work in this field, Lauren Resnick (1987b) dehneates four broad contrasts between in- 
school and out-of-school mental activity that raise profound questions about the utility and 
effectiveness of schooling for all non-school activity, including work of all types and for all 
learners, whether at-risk, or not-at-risk. They stimulate us to rethink — radically rethink — how 
we teach in school. 

The first contrast is between individual cognition in school versus shared cognition 
outside. Although group activities occur in school, students are ultimately judged on what 
they can do by themselves. Much of the core activity of the school — homework or in class 
exercises — is designed as individual work. For the most part, students fail or succeed at a 
task independently of what other students do (aside from grading on a curve) . By contrast, a 
great deal of activity outside of school is socially shared: work, personal life, and recreation 
take place in social systems in which what one person is able to do depends fundamentally 
on what others do and in which "successful" functioning depends upon the mesh of several 
individuals' mental and physical performance. This contrast argues for much more team 
and co-operative learning, the student being accountable for both individual and team per- 
formance, (p. 21) 

[Ed. Note: The above emphasis on group learning, group cooperation, etc., reminds me of a 
comment made by a lady in the audience when I was giving a speech on education restructuring 
with its emphasis on the need for cooperative learning and how cooperative learning is used 
in communist countries. She recounted an incident which occurred while visiting relatives in 
the Ukraine (part of the former Soviet Union) . A fire broke out in the house one evening and, 
instead of her relatives using their individual brains and ingenuity to put it out, (assuming 
individual responsibility), everyone sat on the couch and franticly stared at one another, not 
knowing how to deal with the situation.] 

The East Gibson County (Indiana) Group, known as "Jeannie's Group," opposed the use of 

Tactics for Thinking, developed by Robert Marzano in 1988.''' After long and heated discussions 
with the school system, the superintendent suddenly notified the group that he had arranged 
for a debate to be held in two days! Short notice, considering the fact that he carefully ne- 
glected to inform them until the day of the debate that they would be debating outside experts. 
And, experts they were — no less than Ronald Brandt of the Association for Supervision and 
Curriculum Development (ASCD) and Professor Ed Jenkins of Indiana University. A firsthand 
account of a portion of the debate follows: 

[Pat Burkhart, one of the East Gibson County Group debaters] "We would hke to do some 
demonstrations for you.... The first one is yoga (demonstrated).... The second exercise is self 
hypnosis. . . . These instructions. . . came from an article in The Readers' Digest (demonstrated) .... 
The third exercise is a semi-trance. This is the semi-trance in the Norman-Lindsay book Hu- 
man Information Processing referenced by Marzano in Tactics for Thinking, 'Unit 1 : Attention 
Control' (demonstrated) .... The fourth exercise is the Involuntary Attention-Orienting Reflex. 
These steps come from the book The Working Brain by Alexandr Luria [of Russia] which 
is also referenced in the Tactics for Thinking manual by Marzano (demonstrated) . The last 
exercise is Marzano's Attention Control in the Tactics manual. As a volunteer, we have an 
8-year-old child who understands the difference between acting and reality. We thought this 
appropriate — to use a child — since Marzano does. The difference is, our child knows what 
we are doing, but Marzano's victims don't. 

"Please tell us what is the difference? The thing that is really silly is that we are sup- 


posed to believe that this is higher order learning — that it is learning to learn.... This is 
learning to have your conscious mind sedated and using only your unconscious mind which 
processes everything indiscriminately.... There isn't much going on here besides a form of 

In conclusion, the opponents of Tactics for Thinking asked Joan Gubbins, former Indiana 
state senator and presidentially appointed member of the National Council for Educational 
Research, to read the following: 

If we turn to Marzano's conclusions at the end of his evaluation, he states, and I quote: 
"These findings can not be considered stable." Do you understand what all of this says? 
Marzano himself says his evaluation of this experimental program is unreliable.... Noth- 
ing is said about improvement of performance on standardized achievement tests by the 
students used in this field testing. However, in a program Marzano reported on in 1984 
[he admitted that] "a decrease in math and reading achievement was indicated on stan- 
dardized tests." 

The August 1988 issue of Education Update, published by the Association for Supervision 
and Curriculum Development [ASCD), carried an article entitled "Tactics for Thinking Attacked 
in Washington, Indiana" which said, in part: 

Tactics for Thinking, a framework for teaching thinking developed at the Midcontinent Re- 
gional Educational Laboratory (McREL] and pubhshed by ASCD in 1986, has recently been 
the target of critics who argue that it "brainwashes" children and advances a "New Age" 
agenda of one-world government. The problems first occurred in Battle Ground, Washington, 
and have surfaced in at least one other Washington community and in two Indiana towns. 

Tactics, according to ASCD Executive Editor Ron Brandt, "gives teachers a practical 
way to teach their students to think well. " The program teaches 22 skiUs divided into three 
categories: Learning-to-Learn Skills, Content Skills, and Reasoning Skills.... For example, a 
unit of the program on "attention control" describes how adult learners are able to disregard 
distractions and concentrate on a particular subject, which helps their performance. The 
Tactics Trainer's Manual suggests an exercise in which participants can be voluntarily con- 
trolled. Although the strategy may seem ordinary, critics of Tactics in East Gibson, Indiana, 
said it "is the same technique used by hypnotists, used in mind control, and in New Age 

...Marzano denied that Tactics is controversial or contains sensitive material, asking, 
"How can teaching kids to control their attention in class so they can learn more be con- 
troversial? " 

Paul Drotz, an assistant superintendent in the South Kitsap, Washington school district 
where Tactics was challenged, said that "the vocabulary used in the program left us pretty 
open to attacks. I could change 12 words and local critics would have a difficult time attacking 
it. " Judy Olson, a consultant hired by the Washington ASCD to train teachers in Tactics, said 
she advised trainees to call one unit "pay attention" rather than "attention control." Because 
of the controversy, however, the Washington ASCD will no longer provide Tactics training, 
although it wiU still build awareness of it, members of the group's governing board said. 

...Marzano said that development and field testing of Tactics was "typical," and that the 
screening process, which included review by eight nationally recognized experts in critical 
thinking, was more thorough than normal.... ASCD has sold more than 17,000 teacher's 
manuals, 3,600 trainer's guides and 550 videotapes since it began publishing the program. 
Marzano estimates that 20,000 teachers have been trained in the program. 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1988 249 

Brandt suggested that school districts involve board members, teachers, and the com- 
munity early on in deciding whether and how Tactics might be used in the system. ASCD 
will continue to closely monitor any instance in which the program is challenged. Anyone 
knowing of such incidents should write Brandt at ASCD headquarters, 1703 Beauregard St., 
Alexandria, VA 22311-1714. 

[Ed. Note: The Tactics program, or a similar critical thinking program using another title, could 
well be part of the curriculum in each of the 16,000 school districts in the nation, since it takes 
only one of those 20,000 teachers in each district to train other teachers. It was, however, not 
adopted in East Gibson County, Indiana.] 

The August 11, 1988 edition of Education Daily covered the National Citizens Alliance 
Press Conference held at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. Excerpts follow: 


A citizens group headed by a former Education Department official asked ED to stop pro- 
moting curriculum the group says controls students' minds. 

The National Citizens Alhance (NCA), a group of parents and teachers, alleged at a 
Washington, D.C. news conference yesterday that ED is promoting "mind-control" curricula 
that use hypnosis-like techniques to foster concentration. 

NCA wants to "get the federal government to stop pouring milHons of dollars" into the 
"development of mind-control programs currently sweeping through American schools," said 
Charlotte Iserbyt, who served as senior policy advisor in ED's Office of Educational Research 
and Improvement from 1981 to 1982 and is NCA's East Coast coordinator. Iserbyt called on 
Education Secretary William Bennett and other federal officials to: 

End federal funding and promotion of programs such as Tactics for Thinking, which is 
used in Indiana schools.^" NCA says the curriculum "employs hypnotic-like processes and 
altered states of consciousness techniques on children"; 

Cancel the education portion of the 1985 exchange agreement between the United States 
and the Soviet Union, which NCA says allows dissemination of "communist propaganda" 
through global teaching methods and the joint development of textbooks and computer 
software; and 

Force Pennsylvania to ask parental consent before using its Educational Quality As- 
sessment test, which NCA says uses "psychological and psychiatric testing" in violation of 
the federal Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment [Anita Hoge case against the Pennsylvania 
Department of Education] . 

NCA also criticized ED's National Assessment of Educational Progress for tracking 
student attitudes and behavior, saying that obtaining such information violates privacy rights 
and could lead to behavior modification nationwide. 

Secretary Bennett's spokesman Loye MiUer said he is not aware of the complaints to 
which NCA refers. An OERI spokesman declined to comment. — Christopher Grasso 


and Young Famihes was published by the W.T. Grant Foundation's Commission on Work, 
Family and Citizenship.-^ The November 23, 1988 issue of Education Week carried an item on 


the report which stated that service projects and community service were recommended as a 
requirement for graduation. An excerpt from the article follows: 

The report recommends that schools and communities "establish attractive service oppor- 
tunities" for young people and either include service projects as part of the curriculum or 
require a specified amount of community service as a requirement toward graduation. The 
report also encourages "partnerships between business and state and local governments that 
provide opportunities for job training." 


and Education," written by David Porteous, contract coordinator for the School of Social Work, 
University of Connecticut, West Hartford, Connecticut, was published in the 1988/1989 issue 
of T.H.E. Journal [technology journal). ^■^ Excerpts follow: 

Recently, educators from the United States, Canada, West Germany and the Netherlands 
met with counterparts from the Soviet Union and Bulgaria in an historic first — an invitational 
conference in the U.S.S.R. titled "Children, Computers, and Education." 

The word "informatics" is used in Russian to denote the principles underlying the 
operations of computer hardware and software. Informatics seems to encompass the elec- 
tronic and algorithmic systems of computers. Dr. Alexey Semenov of the Soviet Academy of 
Sciences said algorithmic thinking is embedded in the Soviet's educational system and fun- 
damental to their understanding of cognition. This fits with the Soviet schools' high regard 
for mathematics and physics.... 

Semenov's presentation on the history and present status of algorithmics in Soviet 
schools started with the fact that their schools have used programmed instruction since 
the 1960s.... As might be expected, LOGO is held in high esteem in the Soviet Union and 
Seymour Papert works with some Soviet schools.... 

There was hope among the leaders with whom we talked that computers will become 
seen and used in more diverse ways throughout the curriculum. Certainly the goals of 
Gorbachev's Perestroika include the restructuring of schools, along with other institutions 
and the economy, and a subsequent technological boost to the country. With the broad cur- 
riculum reforms and structural changes occurring in schools today and in the near future, 
the computer could expedite this process.... 


Most schools have one or more sponsors, such as factories, institutes, universities, which 
provide materials, professional assistance and a place for students in the upper forms to 
do practical work for three to four hours a week, including computer programming. School 
#344 has close ties with a university and a technical institute, for instance [same as USA 
School-to- Work proposals, ed.].... 

...The informatics curriculum, with objectives broader than computer use, is taught 
even when students do not have access to a computer.... 

We were told that this conference, from Leningrad to Moscow to Zvenigorod, had begun 
to open many minds as to what is possible with computers and children beyond the formal 
informatics curriculum. Professional respect and relationships have developed among partici- 
pants. We could not have heard better news for our efforts to achieve a major step towards 
a productive global discussion of how all children can benefit from an informed use of CAI 
[computer-assisted instruction/programmed learning] in the world's classrooms. 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1989 251 


In an article in the January 25, 1989 issue of Education Week Chester E. Finn, Jr., former 
head of the U.S. Department of Education's research branch, told business leaders in Wash- 
ington that he favored the development of a "national curriculum." 

RusHWORTH Kidder, president of the Institute for Global Ethics with offices in Camden, 

Maine, and London, England, wrote Reinventing the Future: Global Goals for the 21st Century, 
published by The Christian Science Publishing Society [MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 1989) 
which covered the dialogue between 35 notables from 12 nations gathered at "Wingspread" 
in Racine, Wisconsin in April of 1989. The Christian Science Monitor, the Johnson Foundation 
and the University of Maryland-Baltimore County sponsored the event. In his book Kidder 
stated that the conference included "everything that sounded like a reasonable goal for the 
year 2000," among which were the following: "Educate children in the context of one world; 
Develop educational curricula that reflect the realitites of global interdependence; Promote 
community service; Inculcate a healthy skepticism for authority; Reduce the share of GNP 
[Gross National Product) devoted to military spending; and Strengthen the role of the United 
Nations and other multilateral forums." 

In a July 5, 1994 letter from Mr. Kidder to Mr. David Zanotti, president of the Northeast 
Ohio Roundtable, Kidder described the work of his Institute for Global Ethics as follows: 

The Institute for Global Ethics is an independent, non-profit educational organization 
specifically dedicated to promoting the discussion of ethics in a global context. Taking a jour- 
nalistic rather than an academic approach, we see our task as responding to the ever-growing 
need for identifying and describing standards of ethical values throughout the world. We 
don't dictate what those values should be. Instead, we try to help discover what they actu- 
ally are — and to promote their discussion and application in ways that are non-threatening, 
inclusive, and confhct-resolving. 

The Institute has a national board of directors, an international advisory council, a 
network of nationwide and global connections, and a membership base of some 2,500 indi- 
viduals in the United States and around the world. Some of our activities [from which the 
writer has selected only a few] include: 

• Global Values Survey. We are currently carrying out a multi-country survey of values 
and ethics to help us understand the core values that unite various cultures as well 
as the different ways each culture defines an ethical decision. The pilot survey, car- 
ried out among samples of business leaders in Japan, India, and the United States, 
was completed in June. We're now laying plans to launch a full-scale survey of 
individuals in business, politics, medicine, journahsm, and other sectors of society 
in 12 nations. [The Institute was awarded a $450,000 grant from the W.K. Kellogg 
Foundation of Battle Creek, Michigan to accomplish this survey, ed.] 

• Education. The Institute works actively with several school districts and educational 
organizations in the United States on character education, seeking ways to help 
schools and communities find the core, shared values among their constituencies 
that can form a basis for discussions of ethical issues in the schools. We've produced 
an award-winning half-hour video, Personal Ethics and the Future of the World, de- 
signed for use in schools and with audiences of all ages. And we've also published 


a booklet, Character Education: Lessons from the Past, Models for the Future, by 
Professor James Leming of Southern Illinois University. 

• Seminars. We are currently working with several clients (including the J.M. Smucker 
Company, Lancaster Laboratories, Inc., and the Council on Foundations in Wash- 
ington, D.C.] to provide ethics training programs. We have trained more than 1,000 
executives and managers in day-long, intensive seminars, and developed a train- 
the-trainers program as weU. Our goal is to encourage what we call "ethical fit- 
ness" — which, like physical fitness, needs to be practiced, developed and applied. 

• Radio. Our newest venture is a one-hour Public Radio program titled "Let's Be Hon- 
est — Ethical Issues of the '90s." Featuring a three-person panel and a moderator, the 
program focuses on the moral and ethical aspects of a specific topic drawn from the 
week's news and encourages on-air telephone calls from hsteners. Pilot versions of 
the program, aired on Maine Public Radio, have been very well received, and plans 
are afoot to develop a version of the program for a national audience. 

[Ed. Note: Kidder's Global Ethics program is another example of the problem with character 
education as a whole: basing character, values and ethics on consensus decisions by a group 
instead of absolute, enduring principles.] 

Kent ItMPUs wrote "Education in the Future: 21st Century Schools Will Offer Learning 
for All Citizens" for The Muscatine [Iowa] Journal's April 22, 1989 issue. Excerpts follow: 

Schools in 21st Century Iowa will be hubs of their communit[ies], providing broad learning 
opportunities for all citizens, according to the director of the Iowa Department of Education. 
William Lepley says future schools will be centers for family and social services as well. 
"Society in the year 2010 has realized that the school is the single societal institution that can 
truly be an advocate, a resource, and a catalyst for children and families, as well as learners 
of all ages, " Lepley said. . . . Students' evaluation will improve. Instead of grades, students will 
be assessed not on the work they complete, but on the skills they master, he explained. 

Community service will be a graduation requirement. Also, educational opportunities 
are available for all citizens from preschool to adults. The school year won't be restricted 
to 180 days of 5-1/2 hours each, because flexible schedules and teacher contracts will per- 
mit year-round learning, he said. "Teachers in ideal schools are managers of the learning 
environment," Lepley said. "The teacher has been given the tools to be able to diagnose 
learning needs and to prescribe appropriate activities." Schools themselves will change too, 
Lepley noted. The ideal school houses social agencies such as health, job, and human service 
agencies, child care and serves as the community's senior citizen volunteer center, he said. 
And adults come to ideal schools — open round the clock — for educational opportunities 
ranging from childbirth and parenting classes to pre-retirement planning, he added. In the 
ideal community, Lepley said, the superintendent coordinates children and family services, 
in addition to education. 

[Ed. Note: Lepley used the term "hub" in this article and in a pamphlet distributed widely 
across Iowa to describe the school of the future which will encompass numerous social ser- 
vice agencies, health care, job training, child care, etc. This concept mirrored the Community 
Education plans promoted by the Mott Foundation of Michigan and incorporated into federal 
grantmaking under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1989 253 

A multitude of state reform plans in the early 1990s include diagrams of this same plan, 
exhibiting the school as the center [or "hub") of the community; significantly, some diagrams 
show churches, recreation and other private aspects of life encompassed within the "hub" 
concept. With the advent of school-to-work programs, the concept has been expanded to 
include "one-stop training centers" for workforce development and placement. Children who 
don't pass the proficiency assessments will be sent through these "centers" for services and 
remediation which will rely on operant conditioning methods to ensure "success". 

Substitute "government" for schools like this "hub" plan and what political/economic sys- 
tem do we have? Who exactly asked for — voted for? — this alien "education" system which places 
our citizens and communities under the control of the unelected school superintendent?] 

Barry Bear, a mildly retarded 11-year-old Indian boy living on a reservation and being 
taught at home by his mother, was declared a "child in need of assistance" [CINA) by a land- 
mark Iowa Supreme Court decision on May 17, 1989. Barry Bear was removed from his home 
when the court cited "his parents' failure to exercise a reasonable degree of care in supervising 
him" because he was not in school. His parents had been previously jailed for violating the 
state's compulsory attendance [truancy) law. This precipitated the filing of a CINA petition, 
leading ultimately to the legal challenge which resulted in the Iowa Supreme Court decision. 
According to "The Tama Story: Educational Tyranny in Iowa," an article by Samuel Blumen- 
feld,^^ the following occurred: 

[The State of Iowa] wanted to establish a legal precedent whereby home-schooled children 
could be removed from parents found guilty of violating the compulsory attendance law. 

The juvenile law states that a child in need of assistance is a child (1) whose parents 
physically abused or neglected the child, [2) a child who "has suffered or is imminently likely 
to suffer harmful effects as a result of the failure of the parent... to exercise a reasonable 
degree of care in supervising the child," or (3) a child who is in need of treatment for seri- 
ous mental illness or disorder. 

Definition two is the one the State decided could be effectively used to prosecute Barry 
Bear's parents. It is also vague enough, wide enough to include fundamentalist Christian 
home schoolers. After all, the State can always get humanistic psychiatrists, psychologists, 
guidance counselors, and other "experts" to testify that keeping a child out of public school 
can cause "harmful effects" by depriving the child of needed socialization.... 

...Barry was taken from his family and placed in foster care. 

[Ed. Note: This ominous decision was supposed to have created court case precedent in Iowa 
and around the country. A handful of heroic homeschoolers stopped these efforts; at the same 
time foihng a truancy bill in the Iowa legislature that would have allowed — even mandated — a 
homeschooled child to be removed from his parents and placed into foster care. The Barry 
Bear case provides a snapshot of the future, of the "penalties" that will be imposed on parents 
who fail to comply with various aspects of compulsory attendance and testing laws. The full 
weight of this "hammer" will be felt when school-to-work certification requirements and newly 
proposed "performance-based" national standards and assessments for "accountability" and 
"quality" are imposed on all children, including the homeschooled. It should be noted that 
no national organization assisted in the grassroots homeschoolers' resistance, on behalf of the 
Bear family, to these aggressive state actions.] 


The National Governors' Association (NGA) Education Summit was convened in 1989 by 
President George Bush at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia. The NGA un- 
veiled America 2000 — now known as Goals 2000 — and its six national education goals [which 
have now been increased to eight) . These goals have served to carve into stone controversial 
"education" practices thoroughly exposed in this book, and to lay the foundation for activating 
school-to-work initiatives. The goals are as follows: 

GOAL 1. By the year 2000, all children will start school ready to learn. 

GOAL 2. By the year 2000, the high school graduation rate will increase to at least 90 

GOAL 3. By the year 2000, all students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12 having demon- 
strated competency over challenging subject matter including English, mathematics, 
science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and ge- 
ography, and every school in America will ensure that all students learn to use their 
minds well, so they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, 
and productive employment in our Nation's modern economy. 

GOAL 4. By the year 2000, the Nation's teaching force will have access to programs 
for the continued improvement of their professional skills and the opportunity to 
acquire the knowledge and skills needed to instruct and prepare all American stu- 
dents for the next century. 

GOAL 5. By the year 2000, United States students will be first in the world in mathe- 
matics and science achievement. 

GOAL 6. By the year 2000, every adult American will be literate and will possess the 
knowledge and skills necessary to compete in a global economy and exercise the 
rights and responsibilities of citizenship. 

— Later Additions — 

GOAL 7. By the year 2000, every school in the United States will be free of drugs, 

violence and the unauthorized presence of firearms and alcohol and will offer a 

disciplined environment conducive to learning. 
GOAL 8. By the year 2000, every school will promote partnerships that will increase 

parental involvement and participation in promoting the social, emotional, and 

academic growth of children. 

[Ed. Note: In 1999, ten years later, the National Education Goals Panel recommended chang- 
ing the name Goals 2000 to America's Goals since the goals would not be reached by the year 
2000— thanks to intense opposition to Goals 2000 from teachers and parents, who considered 
it a corporate/federal takeover of the nation's schools.] 

The July 5, 1989 issue of The New York Times carried an article by Edward B. Fiske 
entitled "Lessons — in the quiet world of schools, a time bomb is set for 1993 on certifying 
teachers." An excerpt follows: 

The new national system will not replace those now in use. Rather, it will offer a new vol- 
untary credential to experienced teachers willing to undergo classroom observations and 
a battery of sophisticated new tests of their pedagogical expertise. The system is modeled 
on professional specialty boards in, say, medicine, through which doctors who are already 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1989 255 

licensed to practice obtain an additional prestigious credential. . . . For each of these credentials 
the task is to figure out "what teachers should know and be able to do." Then designers 
must devise ways of measuring teachers using new techniques like video simulations of 
classroom situations. All in all, it's a five-year, $50 million project for which the National 
Board [National/Carnegie Board for Professional Teaching Standards] is seeking Federal, 
corporation and foundation support.... The National Board has thus signaled that four years 
from now it intends to start issuing credentials based on the image of a teacher who would 
have a hard time functioning in most public schools today. The choice would seem to be 
either to back away from this image or put pressure on schools to change. . . . David Kearns, 
Chairman of the Xerox Corporation and a member of the board, believes schools should 
change. "Schools must find ways of driving decision-making down to the people who actu- 
ally do the teaching," he said. 

The Bangor [Maine] Daily News of July 18, 1989 carried an Associated Press item en- 
titled "Long-Awaited National Teaching Certificate Detailed" which described in a nutshell 
the so-called "voluntary" national teacher certification system first called for in 1986 by the 
Carnegie Forum on Education and Economy report, A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the 21st 
Century. Excerpts from the article follow: 

Teachers will be rigorously tested on their specialty, teaching techniques and knowledge of 
child development under a voluntary national certification system outlined Monday by an 
independent panel. 

With its new national credential, to be offered in 29 fields starting in 1993, the Na- 
tional Board for Professional Teaching Standards says it hopes to dispel the myth that "any 
modestly educated person with some instinct for nurturing has the requisite qualifications 
to teach." 

The private group said it hopes that the system will also lead to improved teacher 
training and, ultimately, to better-educated children. 

"The process will push the renewal of American education a big step closer to real- 
ity," former North Carohna Governor James Hunt, chairman of the 63 -member board, said 
Monday in releasing the guidelines. 

The nation's 2.3 milUon teachers will need a bachelor of arts degree and at least three 
years of experience to apply for certification, according to the blueprint. 

Board president, James A. Kelly, said professions such as medicine and law took 
decades to set standards for practitioners. He said the teacher standards board, formed in 
1987, will compress the process into five years "because we want to influence the quality 
of the enormous influx of new teachers needed during the 1990s.... The new credential is 
expected to help draw more and better people into teaching and help teachers move into 
new roles as mentors, curriculum specialists and other positions requiring expertise or extra 

The national board was proposed three years ago. Many were skeptical that its mix 
of teachers, government officials, business leaders and higher education representatives 
could succeed at what they said was a highly controversial task with uncertain potential to 
improve education. 

Albert Shanker, president of the American Federation of Teachers and a longtime backer 
of national teacher certification, said the criteria laid out Monday prove the skeptics wrong. 
"They said it couldn't be done, but we did it," Shanker said. "We can be proud that we have 
come so far. " 


[Ed. Note: If the statement "the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards [NBPTS] 
says it hopes to dispel the myth that 'any modestly educated person with some instinct for 
nurturing has the requisite quaUfications to teach'" is true, then a high percentage of very 
successful homeschooling mothers will be expected to close shop — even though their children 
are outperforming public education students, receiving scholarships, and being accepted in the 
nation's top universities and colleges! As for the NBPTS wanting to "influence the quality of 
the enormous influx of new teachers needed during the 1990s" the reader should refer to the 
1993 entry which provides the U.S. Department of Education's new definition of "quality."] 

An article entitled "The Decade of the Nineties" by Donald Thomas, executive director. 
Network for Effective Schools, was published in The Effective School Report for August 1989. 
Under the subtitle "Educational Implications" Thomas says: 

Operate schools on a year-round basis; train citizens and students in skills and processes of 
effective participation in government; develop public policy toward private education.... 

Desirable future conditions: The economy will be more of an equilibrium economy with 
less dependence upon money, and more dependence upon the production and exchange of 
goods and services. There will be an increased movement toward cooperation and responsi- 
bility for the well-being of others. The civil rights of aU individuals will be respected and 
taught in homes and schools; a value system wiU emerge that wiU give basic human val- 
ues — i.e., liberal arts, caring for others, etc. — their proper place. There wih be fewer single 
family dwellings. Industry will take more responsibility for education, particularly for job 

. . . [D] evelop curricula to involve students in anticipating and planning how to welcome 
newcomers; use community education to help citizens anticipate and prepare for newcomers; 
design and implement statewide parent education and education for responsible parenthood; 
institute widespread, effective public education programs on family life; ensure that human 
caring will become the focus of curriculum at all levels; develop courses in futuring with 
future centers in high schools; involve schools with water commissions, air quality commis- 
sions, city councils, county commissions, legislatures and governmental agencies, focusing 
on economics, ecology, environment and culture as an integral part of the learning; teach 
and practice a win-win philosophy in schools [Deming's TQM] in the place of the present 
win-lose philosophy.... 


Necessary Quality: Protecting each other from distractive forces.... These are qualities that 
can best be learned through practice and experience. Our schools must, therefore, give young 
people the opportunities for service to others, practice in public service, and adherence to 
personal responsibilities. The basic values of a good and free nation can be learned by young 
people when appropriate conditions exist as schools form partnerships with community 
agencies for public service projects to be a part of schooling; rewards are provided for en- 
couraging young people to perform community service; community service is recognized as 
a necessary learning option.... 

The year 2000 is very near. The sooner we begin the task of improving student achieve- 
ment and citizenship, the sooner we will achieve the national objective for adequately 
preparing our young people to hve in the 21st century; to be broadly hterate in a world 
community; to be highly skilled in an ever-changing work environment; to be human in a 
society of individuals striving for personal satisfaction and security. To achieve this goal we 
will need to think differently about schools, about children and about education. We, as a 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1989 257 

nation, must see education as a lifelong process, as occurring in the total community, and 
as being the responsibility of everyone.... Our national survival depends on it; the world 
expects it, and the children of the world require it. 

[Ed. Note: Leaving aside the focus on political correctness, one should be concerned over the 
total lack of emphasis on — or even mention of — academics. It would be a grave mistake to dis- 
miss this article as the totalitarian ravings of a lesser-known change agent spoken to his closest 
change-agent associates. Dr. Thomas, a close friend of the late former Secretary of Education 
T.H. Bell and present Secretary Richard Riley, is one of the most important change agents in the 
world. He has been responsible for controversial restructuring in several states and has been 
involved in exchanges with the former Soviet Union and Eastern European nations which are 
implementing Effective School Research. Again, it was he who recommended a $50.00 fine for 
parents who refused to volunteer in schools — both in South Carolina and in Utah.] 

"Appropriate Education in the Primary Grades: A Position Statement of the NAtional 
Association for the Education of Young Children" (NAEYC) was published and distributed in 
1989.^* Excerpts follow: 



Appropriate Practice . The curriculum is integrated so that children's learning in all traditional 
subject areas occurs primarily through projects and learning centers that teachers plan and 
that reflect children's interests and suggestions. Teachers guide children's involvement in 
projects and enrich the learning experience by extending children's ideas, responding to their 
questions, engaging them in conversation and challenging their thinking. 
Inappropriate Practice . Curriculum is divided into separate subjects and time is carefully 
allotted for each with primary emphasis given each day to reading and secondarily to math. 
Other subjects such as social studies, science, and health are covered if time permits. Art, 
music, and physical education are taught only once a week and only by teachers who are 
specialists in those areas. 

Appropriate Practice . The goal of the math program is to enable chidren to use math through 
exploration, discovery, and solving meaningful problems. Math activities are integrated with 
other relevant projects, such as science and social studies.... 

Inappropriate Practice . Math is taught as a separate subject at a scheduled time each day. A 
math textbook with accompanying workbooks, practice sheets, and board work is the focus 
of the math program. Teachers move sequentially through lessons as outlined in the teacher's 
edition of the text.... Timed tests on number facts are given and graded daily. Competition 
between children or groups of children.... is used to motivate children to learn math facts. 

Renewal of U. S.-Soviet Education/Cultural Agreements in 1989 called for PLAcing 

statues of Soviet cultural figures on United States territory. 

In 1989 THE Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development's (ASCD) Elementary 


Global Education Framework entitled "Elementary Education for the 21st Century: A Planning 
Framework Based on Outcomes" announced on its title page the following: 

The realities of the globally interconnected and culturally diverse world of the 21st century 
require an education for all students that will enable them to see themselves as — 


whose home is 


who are citizens of a 


in an increasingly 


and who 


to celebrate life on this Planet 


to meet the global challenges confronting Humankind 

Key global challenges at the outset of the 21st century are in the areas of improving and 
maintaining the quality of the ENVIRONMENT, improving and maintaining HEALTH AND 

This ASCD framework was used by the Eugene, Oregon School District 4J as a guide for de- 
velopment of their Education 2000 Elementary Integrated Curriculum K-5.^^ Excerpts from the 
"Guide" to be used by teachers involved in curriculum implementation follow: 

District 4J Mission 

Investing in Students 

Creating the Future 

Eugene's Elementary Program's Mission 

To Instill in Each child 

• a sense of self worth 

• a respect for the earth and all peoples 

• and a commitment to the pursuit of life-long learning.... 

One of the five priorities estabhshed in the District's future planning report in 1988-1989 
addressed the need to design an appropriate education for an information age.... Some of 
the skills and knowledge that students will need to acquire include: 

1. managing information and learning to learn (i.e., problem solving, critical thinking, 
applying knowledge, making decisions and judgments); 

2. understanding and participating in the arts; 

3. interpersonal and intrapersonal skills; 

4. global perspectives; and 

5. using appropriate technology... 

After careful consideration of the educational needs of students preparing for the 21st 
century, the writing committee defined its task as developing a more conceptual-based cur- 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1989 259 

riculum with essential skills at its core. A conceptual-based curriculum is structured around 
broad-based themes that allow for the integration of skills and subject matter rather than 
emphasizing disjointed, small, unrelated chunks of information. 

Curriculum Strands 

How is the content of the curriculum organized? 

In place of the eight traditional disciplines around which the former curriculum was orga- 
nized, the Education 2000 Curriculum is organized around three curriculum strands.. . . 1) The 
Human Family, 2] Our Planetary Home and Its Place in the Universe, and 3) Understanding 
and Fulfillment of the Individual. 

Core Skills 

What skills are included in the curriculum? Core essential skills include physical, social, and 

thinking skills incorporating language arts and mathematics. 

Major Themes and Concepts 

What major themes and concepts are included? The Education 2000 Curriculum includes six 

major themes: Communities, Change, Power, Interactions, Form and Systems. 

Characteristics of the Curriculum 

What are some of the characteristics of the new curriculum? First, it expands the traditional 
understanding of "basic skills" to include dimensions of thinking as well as language arts, 
mathematics, physical and social skill development. 

It shifts what is required from many individual bits of content to major themes and 
related concepts.... With the former curriculum, elementary students were expected to mas- 
ter 2,175 separate bits of information that included skills, concepts and content organized 
within eight discrete disciplines. The new K-5 Education 2000 Curriculum requires mastery 
of only six major themes, 60 concepts and 132 core skills organized within three curriculum 
strands. This revision greatly reduces the fragmented nature of the former curriculum and 
significantly decreases the number of specific requirements to approximately one-tenth of 
the original number. 

[Ed. Note: ASCD's involvement in this local school district's curriculum was a logical follow 
up to its involvement from the beginning in Robert Muller's World Core Curriculum, upon 
which District 4J's curriculum was based. According to an article entitled "Educator Proposes a 
Global Core Curriculum" by Susan Hooper which appeared in the November 27, 1985 issue of 
Education Week, Gordon Cawelti, executive director of ASCD, in an address to educators from 
twelve Western nations and Japan, urged them to press for the development of a world core 
curriculum based on knowledge that will ensure "peaceful and cooperative existence among 
the human species on this planet." Education Week explained, "Cawelti's world core curriculum 
would be based on... proposals put forth by Robert MuUer, Assistant Secretary General of the 
United Nations, in his recent book New Genesis: Shaping a Global Spirituality." 

Of additional significance is the fact that Willard Daggett's International Center for 
Leadership in Education discussed the Eugene District 4J in an article entitled "Cyber High 
School" in its March 1998 issue of Model Schools News. Regarding the Center's selection of 
Cyber High School, Eugene 4J School District, Eugene, Oregon as one of its model schools, 
the article states: 

For the first time in human history, teacher, learner, and learning material do not have to 


be in the same place at the same time. This concept has the potential of revolutionizing 
education, considering the fact that where students live has always been the single greatest 
factor influencing the quality of their education, albeit one often overlooked. The truth of 
the matter is that what street they lived on, what town they lived in, what state and country 
determined what classes they could take, the quality of teachers they could expect, and who 
their classmates would be. But all that is about to change.... Courses offered also include 
several inventive multidisciphnary subjects such as "Baseball: Its Impact on American So- 
ciety and World History through Film," not to mention the fact that all of the courses offer 
a global classroom and a multi-cultural perspective.] 

THE Autumn 1989 issue of The 2020 Newsletter published by IMTEC, a Norwegian edu- 
cation association,^'' revealed the fact that as they push forward with their own International 
Learning Cooperative, Europeans were embracing the American Tactics for Thinking program 
developed by the U.S. Department of Education's MidContinent Regional Laboratory [McREL) . 
Of interest is the fact that Shirley McCune [referenced several times in this book) was senior 
director of McREL at the time the activities described in The 2020 Newsletter were taking place. 
This newsletter illustrated clearly the extent of internationalization of not only curriculum, 
but instruction, assessment and administration. IMTEC reported: 

The IMTEC training program for school-based development consultants is going on at pres- 
ent in two countries: Germany... the Netherlands. We are also planning a renewed program 
in Norway. We are also in the planning stage of this program in the U.K. 

A section of IMTEC's newsletter entitled "Cooperation with McREL" made the following state- 

The Second "School- Year 2020" International Conference held in Colorado, October 1988, 
was a joint undertaking by McREL [the MidContinent Regional Educational Laboratory) and 

Our cooperation with McREL will continue. A Development Group represented by people 
from McREL and IMTEC is presently working on new programs building on McREL's Achiev- 
ing Excellence Program (A-i-) and IMTEC's IDP, the Institutional Development Program.... 

McREL's A -I- is a site- or school-based management system. It organizes and uses re- 
search-based knowledge to increase educational efficiency, effectiveness and excellence. . . . 
The A + management system also provides unique assessment tools for maintaining progress 
and redirecting energy. Pilot programs of A -i- will take place in the Netherlands, in the UK, 
and most likely Norway during 1989/90.... 


IMTEC is presently developing a new "Thinking skills" program, building upon development 
work in several countries. Central to our interest has been the "Tactics" program developed 
by McREL. 

[Ed. Note: The above relates to Effective School Research, QBE, ML, PPBS, etc.; what is being 
sold to Americans as "local control" or "localism" is in fact "global." In addition, the "Tactics" 
program is the same Tactics for Thinking discussed in the 1988 "Jeannie's Group" entry in 
this book.] 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1989 261 

Soviets in the Classroom: America's Latest Education Fad written by this writer in 

1989 [published four years after the fact by America's Future, Inc.), details the U.S. -Soviet and 
Carnegie-Soviet education agreements. [For full text of this pamphlet, see Appendix XXIII. J 
Two excerpts dealing with the specific agreements follow: 

The agreements call for "Cooperation in the field of science and technology and additional 
agreements in other specific fields, including the humanities and social sciences; the facih- 
tation of the exchange by appropriate organizations of educational and teaching materials, 
including textbooks, syllabi and curricula, materials on methodology, samples of teaching 
instruments and audiovisual aids. . . exchange of primary and secondary school textbooks and 
other teaching materials... the conducting of joint studies on textbooks between appropriate 
organizations in the United States and the Ministry of Education of the U.S.S.R."... 

2. The Carnegie Corporation's exchange agreement with the Soviet Academy of Sciences has 
resulted in "joint research on the application of computers in early elementary education, 
focusing especially on the teaching of higher level skiUs and complex subjects to younger 
children." ("Higher level skills" is often a euphemism for "critical thinking skills.") Carnegie's 
1988 one-year $250,000 grant is funding implementation of this program, coordinated on the 
American side by Michael Cole, director of the Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition 
at the University of California, San Diego. 

An article in the September 9, 1989 issue of The Washington Times entitled "China Says 
Educators Sowed Seeds of Unrest" placed blame on teachers for the student democracy protests 
which resulted in the Tiananmen Square massacre. Excerpts follow: 

Beuing (Agence France-Presse)— In a front-page editorial, the intellectual Guangming Daily 
said teachers had used their classrooms to spread "bourgeois liberalization," the standard 
code word for undesirable Western influences.... 

..."We must clearly understand that the teaching rostrum is provided by the people and 
the Communist Party and that it is sacred," the newspaper said. "The people's teachers have 
the right to spread Marxist theory, communist morality and knowledge of the Four Modern- 
izations," it added. "Teachers have no right to spread bourgeois liberal tendencies." 

Yesterday's editorial came as efforts by the authorities to put fresh emphasis on political 
education have been moving into high gear and just days before the 40th anniversary of 
Communist China on October 1. 

On Tuesday, 40 teachers at Beijing University, which had been a hotbed of student 
unrest, were forced to take up shovels and clear scrub from a campus playing field as part 
of the push for political re-education through manual labor . . . 

...The premier also defended a new government plan to send graduating students to 
farms and factories for a year, saying it was meant to "improve feelings toward laboring 

"We hold that young students should, first of all, work in 'grassroots' units to obtain 
practical experience, " Mr. Li said. 

Many students have privately said they dread and scorn the scheme. 

On September 10, 1989 The Washington Post ran an article entitled "China ORders Manual 


Labor for Students: Beijing Moves Again to Control Citizenry" which mirrored and elaborated 
on the above-excerpted article of September 9. The Post reported: 

The mandatory labor requirement is the latest in a series of measures taken by the government 
to punish, restrict and reeducate Chinese students, particularly those in the capital, since 
the democracy movement was crushed by the army in early June. 

...The newly announced measure is reminiscent of the approach taken by the Chinese 
government in the 1950s, when students worked for several hours a week either in factories 
or in workshops established on school premises.... In another development, students at two 
leading Beijing universities this week revealed that students will be required to take a test 
of their political reliability before being allowed to formally enroll. 

Kentucky Supreme Court ruled in Rose v. Council for Better Education, Inc. in 1989. 
The importance of the ruling in this case cannot be over emphasized since it called for a re- 
distribution of wealth [equalization) plan for Kentucky. The same plan was recommended by 
David Hornbeck for all the states in November of 1987. It was not long before Hornbeck and 
his fellow change agents, including Luvern Cunningham of Ohio State University and "site- 
based management/lessen elected school board influence" reputation, descended on Daniel 
Boone's country. The following excerpt detaihng the Kentucky story was taken from A Citizen's 
Handbook: The Kentucky Education Reform Act — Historical Background, Provisions, Timeline, 
Questions and Answers, Court Cases, Overview (Kentucky Legislative Research Commission: 
Frankfurt, Kentucky, September 1996): 

This decision apphes to the entire sweep of the system — ah its parts and parcels. This de- 
cision applies to all the statutes creating, implementing and financing the system and to all 
regulations, etc., pertaining thereto. This decision covers the creation of local school districts, 
school boards, and the Kentucky Department of Education to the Foundation Program and 
Power Equalization Program. It covers school construction and maintenance, teacher certi- 
fication — the whole gamut of the common school system in Kentucky... Since we have, by 
this decision, declared the system of common schools in Kentucky to be unconstitutional, 
Sechon 183 places an absolute duty on the General Assembly to re-create, re-estabhsh a new 
system of common schools in the Commonwealth. — Rose at 215, 216. 

In 1989 Shirley McCune, senior director of the U.S. Department of Education- funded 
MidContinent Regional Educational Laboratory [McREL), told the teachers in South Kitsap, 
Washington: "The school of the future must be far different than that of today to meet the 
changing needs of society." The following excerpts are taken from an article entitled "Schools 
of the Future" which was published in the Bremerton [Washington] Sun on October 14th: 

When you walk in the building, there's a row of offices. In one are drug counselors. One 
is for social security. Another, family and child psychologists. Yet another has a doctor and 
nurse who do well-child exams. 

In the cafeteria, senior citizens mingle with students having lunch. Oldsters and young- 
sters are sometimes paired for school projects, like oral history. 

There's a child-care center, and tied into it are classes for teenagers where they learn 

The "Effective" Eighties : c. 1989 263 

the importance of child-nurturing skills. 

In the gym, homemakers are taking exercise classes. After work, more men and women 
will show up for their fitness workout. 

These are "community learning centers, not just schools." "Schools are no longer in 
the schooling business" but rather in "human resource development," she said. 

Dr. McCune was in South Kitsap to talk about something everyone's hearing a lot about 
these days — "restructuring" schools. Her speech kicked off a full day of teacher training. 
Across the state, most teachers were taking part in local or state-sponsored training. 

In South Kitsap, workshop choices reflected the wave of the future Dr. McCune described. 
They dealt with topics such as celebrating differences in learning styles, using whole language 
approach, using cooperative learning, and integrating technology with curriculum. 


1 Practitioner's Implementation Handbook [series]; The Outcome-Based Curriculum, Second Ed., by Charlotte Danielson (Out- 
comes Associates: Princeton, NJ, 1992). 

2 See Appendix XXVI entitled "Shamanistic Rituals in Effective Schools" by Brian Rowan who says, among other eye-opening 
comments, "Thus, any experienced shaman can find 'effective' schools." 

3 Models of Instructional Organization: A Casebook of Mastery Learning and Outcome-Based Education, Robert Burns, Ed. (Far 
West Regional Laboratory for Educational Research and Development: San Francisco, April 1987]. 

4 Human Intelligence International Newsletter mailing address is: P.O. Box 1163, Birmingham, MI 48012. 

5 The Mott Foundation was one of the early initiators and heavy financial supporters of un-American community education 
and the unelected advisory council concept. Mott still retains its role as leader of this movement, which is now international 
and borrows much of its organizational structure from communist China. 

6 At the time he wrote the article, Glines was assistant to the director of the Office of Instructional Support and Bilingual Edu- 
cation of the State of California Department of Education, Sacramento, California. This article was adapted with permission 
from an article published in The California Journal on Teacher Education (Spring, 1980). 

7 Copies of the February issue of the Innisbrook Papers can be ordered from: Corporate Relations Department, Northern Telecom 
Limited, 33 City Centre Drive, Mississauga, Ontario L5A2A2. 

8 The reader should not dismiss this last comment by Oettinger as a flippant remark. For more information on "the new flower- 
ing of oral communication" read ComSpeak 2050, How Talking Computers Will Recreate an Oral Culture by Mid-21 st Century 
by William Crossman, 404-524-7438, e-mail: 

9 Information taken from Charlotte T Iserbyt's Back to Basics Reform Or. . . OBE Skinnerian International Curriculum (Charlotte 
Thomson Iserbyt: Bath, Maine, 1985). 

10 Center for Educational Research and Innovation: Rue Andre-Pascal, 75775, Paris, France. 

11 K.M. Heaton's article can be obtained by writing: Hart Publications, 1507 Lincoln Street, BeUingham, WA 98226. 

12 Private collection of the writer. 

13 Brainwashing (Capp Clark Publishing Co., Ltd.: Toronto, 1971) and Brainwashing in Red China: The Men Who Defied It 
(Vanguard Press, Inc.: New York, NY, 1973). 

14 Private collection of the writer. 

15 For more information on this project, write: Mastery in Learning Project, National Education Association, 1201 16th Street, 
NW, Washington, DC 20036. 

16 Roberto Assagioli, Psychosynthesis: A Manual of Principles and Techniques (Viking Press: New York, 1965). 

17 Like Paolo Friere, Kevin Ryan of Boston University was invited by and received a contract from the newly-estabhshed Portu- 
guese government, after its communist revolution in 1974, to train teachers so that Portugal could meet the European Com- 
munity admission requirements. Professor Ryan is prominent in the character and moral education movement in the U.S. in 
the 1990s. 

18 For more information on the Rotterdam meetings and/or the International Congress for Effective Schools, write: A.A. Peters 
or Professor Dale Mann, or Professor Terry Astuto at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, or call 

19 For more information regarding the next few entries dealing with the Tactics for Thinking curriculum or for information on 
Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS), contact Jeannie Georges who gave testimony at The National Citizens Alliance press 
conference and who has written extensively on the subject. Her address is: Route 1, Box 215, Lynnville, Indiana 47619, tel. 

20 Ibid. 

21 Single copies of the report. The Forgotten Half: Pathways to Success for America's Youth and Young Families, may be obtained 
free from: WiUiam T. Grant Foundation Commission on Work, Family and Citizenship, 100 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 
301, Washington, DC 20036-5541. 

22 This conference is another example of an activity associated with the U.S. -Soviet education agreements signed in 1985. This 
particular conference very Ukely took place as a consequence of the Carnegie Corporation's exchange agreement with the 


Soviet Academy of Sciences, resulting in "joint research on the application of computers in early elementary education, focus- 
ing especially on the teaching of higher level skills and complex subjects to younger children." 

23 The Blamenfeld Education Letter, April 1990 [Vol. V., No. 4]. 

24 A copy of this NAEYC pubhcation (#578) is available by sending $.50 to: NAEYC, 1509 16th St., NW, Washington, DC 20036, 
or by calling 202-232-8777. 

25 Oregon School District 4J, 200 N. Monroe, Eugene, OR 97402. Margaret Nichols was superintendent of schools for District 

26 IMTEC is located at: Dynekilgata 10, 0569, Oslo 5 Norway 




Lany quotes in this book point toward implementation of radical restructuring of 
the nation's schools in "The Noxious Nineties." The one entry this writer believes best illustrates this 
plan and how it would be implemented throughout the remainder of the 20th century and into the 
21st century is taken from Conclusions and Recommendations for the Social Studies (Charles Scribner's 
Sons: N.Y., 1934). This study was funded to the tune of $340,000 by the Carnegie Corporation of 
New York, quite a sum of money in 1934 dollars! Professor Harold Laski, the philosopher of British 
socialism, said of this report: "At bottom, and stripped of its carefully neutral phrases, the Report is an 
educational program for a Socialist America." An important and revealing excerpt from Conclusions 
and Recommendations follows: 

The Commission was also driven to this broader conception of its task by the obvious fact 
that American civilization, in common with Western civilization, is passing through one of 
the great critical ages of history, is modifying its traditional faith in economic individualism 
[free enterprise], and is embarking upon vast experiments in social planning and control 
which call for large-scale cooperation on the part of the people.... (pp. 1-2] 

...Cumulative evidence supports the conclusion that in the United States and in other 
countries the age of "laissez faire" in economy and government is closing and that a new 
age of collectivism is emerging, (p. 16) 

That a "new age of collectivism" has emerged and is being implemented right now under our 
very noses in "The Noxious Nineties," with little or no outrage from the public or our elected officials, 
can only be attributed to the "deliberate dumbing down" of Americans, who haven't been taught the 
difference between free enterprise and planned economies (socialism) ; between "group thinking" and 
individual freedom and responsibility. 



The late Norman Dodd in 1986 made an extremely pertinent and important observation regarding 
Americans' growing preference to "think and act collectively" and the resulting dangers. Mr. Dodd's 
comments were made upon his receipt of the National Citizens' Alliance Americanism Award presented 
by Senator Jesse Helms. This award recognized Dodd's courageous work as research director for the 
1953 Congressional investigation of the tax-exempt foundations. In Dodd's words: 

What is happening I can best explain by describing to you where you would end up 
if you could sponsor a resumption of the inquiry into the effect of foundation-type organiz- 
ations in this country. If that were to be done, you would come into possession of proof. . . 
exposing a fundamental truth which has never been put into words. 

I shall try to recite that truth to you and you can take it home and act on it as a premise. 
This truth is that whenever a people show by their actions that they prefer to think and act 
collectively, their dynasty becomes a reenactment of the story of the Fall, as told to us by 
God through Moses.... We are now in a position where we can see that it is that dynastic 
effect which you are experiencing today. 

We have a task and that task is to sponsor an inquiry which would pull out into the 
open the proofs which show that it is that dynasty that is being worked out by us as a people, 
unwittingly, in complete ignorance. . . . 

I wish I could help you... think about that truth because it has never been put into 
circulation. It now deserves to be, and it is persons like yourselves [dear readers] who can 
contribute to the circulation of that particular finding which the foundations, in their zeal, 
have actually made understandable. They [the foundations] have made a mistake.... The 
mistake they have made is now represented by their determination to cooperate with the 
Soviet Union educationally. 


Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS — U.S. Department of La- 
bor) was establislied in 1990 and concluded its work in May of 1992. SCANS was conceived 
by Roberts T. Jones, assistant secretary of tlie Employment and Training Administration [ETA), 
tlirougli his parentage of tlie seminal study Workforce 2000. He and tlien-Secretary of Labor 
Elizabetli Dole created the Commission and Arnold Packer served as executive director. SCANS 
was established by Secretary Dole to determine the skills that young people need to succeed in 
the world of work.^ The Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills published four 
reports "intended to define the know-how American students and workers need for workplace 
success... in communities across the United States." The reports are: 

1. Learning a Living: A Blueprint for High Performance — "why change is needed" 

2. What Work Requires of Schools — "defines the five competencies and three-part foun- 
dation that constitute the SCANS know-how" 

3. Skills and Tasks for Jobs — "a tracing of the relationship between the SCANS compe- 
tencies and skills and 50 common occupations" 

4. Teaching the SCANS Competencies — "unites six articles that give education and 
training practitioners practical suggestions for applying SCANS in classroom and 

The Noxious Nineties : c. 1990 267 

Learning a Living: A Blueprint for High Performance, the first report from SCANS, asserts 
that "The Commission's fundamental purpose is to encourage a high performance economy 
characterized by high-skill, high- wage employment. " The following controversial component 
of SCANS, which angered parents and ignited fires of protest across the nation, is found on 
page 65 of Learning a Living: 


Jane Smith Date of Report: 5/1/92 
19 Main Street Soc. Sec: 599-46-1234 

Anytown Date of Birth: 3/7/73 

Home Phone: 817-777-3333 Age; 19 

SCANS Personal Qualities Average Rating No. of Ratings 

Responsibility Excellent 10 

Self-Esteem Excellent 10 

Sociability Excellent 8 

Self-Management Excellent 7 

Integrity/Honesty Good 6 

Since when did the federal government assign itself the responsibility of grading citizens 
on "personal qualities"? Since our government began to consider citizens "human capital" or 
"resources"? Are citizens useful for anything besides potential workers? The above resume also 
included the number of points Jane earned toward her "Certificate of Initial Mastery" as well 
as a record of volunteer and work experience. The bureaucrat at the U.S. Labor Department 
who wrote this part of the report explained: 

Because this information would be extremely useful to employers in making hiring decisions 
and to colleges in evaluating applications, students would have a strong motivation to learn 
the SCANS foundation skills and workplace competencies, and employers and colleges would 
have a strong incentive to require them. 

Nine years later the hypothetical SCANS resume would become reality as exemplified by 
Ohio's Career Passport which is a collection of student records that showcase past performance. 
The Passport includes a resume, transcript, narrative identifying career goals and activities, as 
well as any diplomas, awards, certifications, hcenses and community involvement. 

The aforementioned information regarding this Career Passport is taken from a May 25, 
1999 letter from the Akron Regional Development Board to area employers which states that 
Ohio's companies can sign on as employers who "ask for the Career Passport." This letter 
continues as follows: 

By joining the more than 3000 businesses nationally that are requesting records, you 
help drive home the message that accountability, initiative, and motivation are traits that 
companies seek in job candidates. 

The Akron Regional Development Board, and The Greater Cleveland Growth Association, 
Cleveland Tomorrow, the Ohio Department of Education Career Educators, and Regions 8 and 
9 School-to-Work have teamed up with the National Aliance of Business (NAB] to encour- 
age employers to use school records as part of their hiring process. The national campaign 


called "Making Academics Count," will help students, parents and educators become more 
aware of the importance of requisite workplace skills. 

Help send the message to area students by completing the enclosed reply form and 
returning it via fax to 330-379-3164. We will count you as an organization that wants young 
people to realize the importance of education and work skills.... 

You can learn more about this initiative online at or On behalf of the Akron Regional Development Board and em- 
ployers across our region, we encourage you to promote higher achievement by endorsing 
the "Ask for the Career Passport" program. 

At this point it is important to recall the fact that one of the members appointed to the 
SCANS which originated this type of career passport was Thomas Sticht, Ph.D., infamous for 
the following quote which parents should ponder, especially if they feel that techademics are 
the answer to their children's upward mobility. Sticht's statement paraphrased in the August 
1, 1987 issue of The Washington Post bears repeating here: 

Ending discrimination and changing values are probably more important than reading 
in moving low income famihes into the middle class.... What may be crucial [companies 
say] is the dependability of the labor force and how well it can be managed and trained — not 
its general education level, although a small cadre of highly educated, creative people is 
essential to innovation and growth. 

In 1990 Arkansas Governor William Jefferson Clinton pushed through a major statewide 
reform measure. Act 236, which was a forerunner of Goals 2000. According to National Issues 
in Education: Goals 2000 and School-to-Work by John F. Jennings, Ed.^ [Phi Delta Kappan and 
The Institute for Educational Leadership: Washington, D.C., 1995): 

In the National Governors' Association he championed comprehensive statewide reform and 
was a key leader in the effort to develop the National Education Goals. In announcing his plat- 
form to "put people first" he made education a central part of the presidential campaign. 

The Washington Post published "Tying Professional Pay to Productivity" by ELizAbeth 
Spayd in its January 28, 1990 issue in which Ms. Spayd covered the use of behavior modification 
in the workplace in order to increase productivity. Some excerpts follow: 

"One CEO I know says to employees, 'If you tell me I can't measure what you're doing, 
I'm not sure I need you here,'" recalls Michael Emig, a compensation consultant with Wyatt 
Co. in Washington. "The fact is, any work that people are paid to do can be measured. The 
trick is to go in with an open mind."... To help ensure that productivity goals are met, the 
paychecks of top managers now reflect their ability to meet department goals, a compensation 
plan that eventually will spread throughout the hospital. According to Arthur Andersen & 
Co., which consulted Pekin Memorial on its plan, the keystone to implementing productivity 
bonuses is putting everything in measurable terms, considering such factors as accuracy, 
speed, cost, quality— even creativity.... Once the job has been quantified, the next step is to 
examine the processes by which work is done, dividing them into those that add value and 

The Noxious Nineties : c. 1 990 269 

those that don't. Those that don't should be ehminated. 

Studies show white-cohar workers on average spend 75 percent of their time doing 
non-value-added tasks, Skwarek said. But defining the waste and eliminating it are two 
different things. And for productivity to increase, proper employment of the compensation 
lever is critical. 

A bank teller might be rewarded for the number of customers processed in a week, but 
penalized for every customer who complains about service. In jobs where it's difficult to 
measure the output of a single worker [emphasis in original] , compensation might be linked 
to a group's ability to meet certain goals, an increasingly common approach. 

Whatever the approach, Wyatt's Emig encourages companies to think big — meaning 
bonuses as high as 25 percent of salary. 

"The basic idea is borrowed from B.F. Skinner, who taught us that behavior which 
is positively reinforced will be repeated," says Emig. "But it doesn't work if people don't 
consider the money worth striving for. " 

[Ed. Note: Is it politically incorrect to ask how the United States became the most productive 
nation in the world without using the above-outlined ridiculous Total Quality Management 
system based on Skinner's operant conditioning?] 

The National Center on Education and the Economy (NCEE) issued in 1990 a PRoposal 
to the New American Schools Development Corporation [NASDC) entitled "The National Al- 
liance for Restructuring Education: Schools and Systems for the 21st Century." The report was 
stamped "CONFIDENTIAL." On the cover page NCEE's partners in this venture are listed as 
follows: States of Arkansas, Kentucky, New York, Vermont, and Washington; Cities of Pitts- 
burgh, PA; Rochester, NY; San Diego, CA; and White Plains, NY; Apple Computer, Inc.; Center 
for the Study of Social Policy; Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce; Harvard 
Project on Effective Services; Learning Research and Development Center at the University of 
Pittsburgh; National Alliance of Business; National Board for Professional Teaching Standards; 
New Standards Project; Public Agenda Foundation; and Xerox Corporation. 

[Ed. Note: In Appendix XII of this book NCEE's proposal is heavily excerpted. The last few 
pages of excerpted materials which relate to "staff development" could have been written by 
the late Madeline Hunter, master teacher trainer who has translated "theory into practice" in 
her "Instructional Theory Into Practice: ITIP."^ These excerpted materials prove that NCEE's 
National Alliance for Restructtiring Education, in conjunction with the University of Pittsburgh's 
Learning Research and Development Center and the National Board for Professional Teaching 
Standards, has selected "the method" — Skinnerian operant conditioning — to train teachers so 
that, as robots, they will all teach exactly the same way.] 

World Conference on Education for All, sponsored by the World Bank, United Nations 
Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and others, was held March 
5-9, 1990 in Jomtien, Thailand. "Outcomes" were approved at this conference, and the Edu- 
cation for All Forum Secretariat advertised the "World Declaration on Education for AH" and 
"Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs" as the agenda for discussion at the 
World Conference.* Important and significant institutional membership in the Education for 
All Coalition included: American Association of School Administrators [AASA); Association 


for Supervision and Curriculum Development; International Reading Association [which was 
the prime mover behind the dumb-down Whole Language reading instruction, ed.]; and the 
National Education Association. 

Other statements on the conference promotional flyer included: 

The 1990 World Conference on Education for All represented an important milestone in edu- 
cation development. Convened by the executive heads of the United Nations Development 
Program (UNDP), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO] and the World Bank, the conference 
called on all nations to take effective action to meet the basi